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Programs and Activities 


Programs and Activities 

The Smithsonian Year 1977, Statement by the Secretary, including 

the Financial Report of the Smithsonian Institution, is available 

from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing 

Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

With Secretary Ripley at the throttle, Olomana was installed in the National Museum 
of History and Technology on May 19, 1977. Olomana hauled sugarcane for sixty- 
two seasons in Hawaii, and is typical of small steam locomotives used by industrial 
railways from circa 1870 to 1940. 


Programs and Activities 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1977 

Smithsonian Institution Press • City of Washington * 1978 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 67-7980 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402 (paper cover) Stock Number: 047-000-00348-2 

The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson of Eng- 
land, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of 
America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge among men." After receiving the property and ac- 
cepting the trust, Congress incorporated the Institution in an "es- 
tablishment," whose statutory members are the President, the Vice 
President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive depart- 
ments, and vested responsibility for administering the trust in the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents. 


Jimmy Carter, President of the United States 

Walter F. Mondale, Vice President of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States 

Cyrus R. Vance, Secretary of State 

W. Michael Blumenthal, Secretary of the Treasury 

Harold Brown, Secretary of Defense 

Griffin B. Bell, Attorney General 

Cecil D. Andrus, Secretary of the Interior 

Bob S. Bergland, Secretary of Agriculture 

Juanita M. Kreps, Secretary of Commerce 

F. Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor 

Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

Patricia Roberts Harris, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

Brock Adams, Secretary of Transportation 

James R. Schlesinger, Secretary of Energy 

Board of Regents and Secretary • September 30, 1977 



Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor 

Walter F. Mondale, Vice President of the United States 

Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Senate 

Barry Goldwater, Member of the Senate 

Claiborne Pell, Member of the Senate 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of Representatives 

Elford A. Cederberg, Member of the House of Representatives 

Corinne C. Boggs, Member of the House of Representatives 

J. Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of the District of Columbia 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Connecticut 

James E. Webb, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board of Regents) 

William A. M. Burden 

Caryl P. Haskins 

James E. Webb (Chairman) 

the secretary S. Dillon Ripley 

Dorothy Rosenberg, Executive Assistant to the Secretary 

John F. Jameson, Assistant Secretary for Administration 

Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary for History and Art 

David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Science 

Paul N. Perrot, Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 

Julian T. Euell, Assistant Secretary for Public Service 

T. Ames Wheeler, Treasurer 

Peter G. Powers, General Counsel 

Richard L. Ault, Director, Support Activities 

James McK. Symington, Director, Membership and Developmen* 

Lawrence E. Taylor, Coordinator, Public Information 


Smithsonian Year • 1977 





16 Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 
24 Fort Pierce Bureau 

27 National Air and Space Museum 

39 National Museum of Man, Center for the Study of Man 

45 National Museum of Natural History 

57 National Zoological Park 

64 Office of International Programs 

65 Radiation Biology Laboratory 

73 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

87 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 


97 Archives of American Art 

100 Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Decorative Arts 

102 Freer Gallery of Art 

106 Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

113 Joseph Henry Papers 

114 National Collection of Fine Arts 

120 National Museum of History and Technology 

133 National Portrait Gallery 

137 Office of Academic Studies 

138 Office of American and Folklife Studies 


143 Conservation Analytical Laboratory 

141 National Museum Act Program 

148 Office of Exhibits Central 

149 Office of Horticulture 



page 150 Office of Museum Programs 

153 Office of the Registrar 

154 Smithsonian Institution Archives 

155 Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

159 Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 


166 Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
169 Division of Performing Arts 

173 Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

175 Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

179 Office of Telecommunications 

180 Smithsonian Institution Press 

181 Smithsonian Magazine 

183 Smithsonian Resident Associates 

186 Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 










Smithsonian Year • 7977 

The following is a representative selection of Smithsonian events during 
the year. No attempt has been made to make it a complete compilation 
of all Smithsonian activities. 


October 1 

October 3 

October 6 

publication": Inaugural edition of The Wilson Quarterly 
published by the VVoodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars. 

science: Volcano monitoring stations, initiated by Nation- 
al Museum of Natural History scientist Dr. Richard Fiske, 
established on the Lesser Antillean Islands of Martinique, 
St. Vincent, and Montserrat, similar to those established 
earlier on the flanks of Guadeloupe's threatening La- 
Soufriere Volcano. 

new department: National Portrait Gallery established a 
Department of Photographs, made possible through 
change in charter redefining portraiture for the purpose 
of acquisitions. 

exhibition: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service exhibition (Bicentennial) "Belgian Gunmaking 
and American History" began tour at Smithsonian Insti- 
tution's National Museum of History and Technology. 

concert series: First of five Blues Concerts, at the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, presented by the Di- 
vision of Performing Arts. 

opening: The Archives of American Art established its 
Midwest Regional Office at the Detroit Institute of Arts, 
with remarks by the Mayor of Detroit. 

lecture series: First of eight lectures in a series titled 
"New Windows on the Universe" presented by the Na- 
tional Air and Space Museum and the Harvard-Smith- 
sonian Center for Astrophysics. 

October 7 opening : Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Decora- 

tive Arts reopened to the public in New York City fea- 
turing inaugural exhibition "MAN transFORMS, Aspects 
of Design." 

award: First International Award for Distinguished Con- 
tributions to Natural History presented to George Gay- 
lord Simpson, paleontologist and evolutionary theorist, 
for his contributions as researcher, teacher, and philoso- 

October 10 concert series: First of five Jazz Heritage concerts pre- 
sented by the Division of Performing Arts at the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

October 14 exhibition: "Hans Hofmann," the first large survey of this 
American artist's work since his death in 1966, opened at 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

October 15 exhibition : "The American Presidency in Political Car- 
toons" opened at the National Portrait Gallery. 

October 18 award: The Edward W. Browning Achievement Award 
for Conserving the Environment presented to Dr. Joel W. 
Hedgpeth, Professor Emeritus, Oregon State University, 
for his lifetime contributions in research and education 
in the field of marine biology. 

permanent installation: National Collection of Fine Arts 
opened the John Gellatly Gallery, with one hundred Euro- 
pean and Asiatic art objects, part of a collection of paint- 
ings and art objects donated to the Smithsonian in 1929. 

October 19 exhibition: "Americas: The Decorative Arts in Latin 
America in the Era of the Revolution," a major Bicenten- 
nial exhibition, opened at the Renwick Gallery. 

October 20 acquisition: Bush dog, one of many animals acquired by 
purchase or loan by the National Zoo, was received on 
loan from zoo at Frankfurt, Germany. 

October 23 milestone : One hundred and fifty years ago, James Smith- 
son wrote his will leading to the creation of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

October 24 concert series : First of six American Popular Song pro- 
grams presented by the Division of Performing Arts at 
the National Museum of Natural History. 

visit: Soviet space scientists visited the Center for Astro- 
physics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as part of a nation- 
wide tour to further Russian-American space efforts. 

October 27 award : Arts and Industries Building received Historic 

2 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

October 30 

November 1 

November 6 

November 7 

November 8 

November 11 

November 15 

November 19 

November 23 

Preservation Award from the Washington Metropolitan 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 

exhibition: "Robert Rauschenberg," featuring 150 works, 
opened at the National Collection of Fine Arts, later trav- 
eling to the Museum of Modern Art in New York, the 
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Albright-Knox 
Art Gallery, and The Art Institute of Chicago. 

concert series: Theatre Chamber Players, in residence at 
the Smithsonian, performed in the first of their five- 
concert series. 

concert series: First of three-concert series featuring 
"Music from Marlboro" presented by the Division of 
Performing Arts at the National Museum of Natural 

concert series: First of three programs in the Jazz Con- 
noisseur series presented by the Division of Performing 
Arts at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

concert series : The Smithsonian Chamber Players began 
a new series of fifteen concerts, presented by the Division 
of Performing Arts and the Division of Musical Instru- 
ments at the National Museum of History and Tech- 

exhibition: "Alfred Leslie," an exhibition of works by a 
major American realist painter, opened at the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

visit: Nine astronomers from the People's Republic of 
China visited the Smithsonian-Harvard Center for Astro- 
physics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as part of a month- 
long scientific exchange. 

exhibition: "Chac-Mool: A Bicentennial Loan from Mexi- 
co," an official showing of one of Mexico's national treas- 
ures, the Chac-Mool from Chichen-Itza (Maya-Toltec 
sculpture: 10th-12th centuries, a.d.), opened at the Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

exhibition: "Jacob Kainen: Prints, a Retrospective" opened 
at the National Collection of Fine Arts. 

exhibition: "The Art of Poetry: 1950-1975" opened at the 
National Collection of Fine Arts as part of a citywide 
poetry and visual arts celebration. 

exhibition: "Treasures of Cyprus" opened at the National 
Museum of Natural History. The Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service circulated the exhibit as part 
of the International Salute to the States Bicentennial 

Chronology I 3 

December 1 special event: The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum be- 
gan a month-long series of Christmas-season activities, 
including a workshop on the African Kwanza festival, 
and marching bands. 

December 1-2 exhibitions: Two exhibitions opened as part of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia's celebration featuring poetry and the 
visual arts in the community: "A Touch of the Poet: 
Portraits from the Permanent Collection," National Por- 
trait Gallery; and "E. E. Cummings: The Poet as Artist," 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

December 2 

December 4 

December 8 

December 9 


December 15 

exhibition: "Peter Plagens: Works on Paper," a West 
Coast artist's first one-man show in a major museum, 
opened at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

film: Smithsonian-produced film Celebrating a Century 
had its premiere showing for museum visitors, beginning 
a regular feature at the Arts and Industries Building and 
the Museum of History and Technology. It was telecast 
nationally May 11-15 via Public Broadcasting Service. It 
also won a CINE Golden Eagle Award. 

opening: The Naturalist Center, with reference books and 
equipment for research and study by serious amateur 
naturalists, opened as the final phase of the West Court 
project at the National Museum of Natural History. 

special event: "A Hirshhorn Holiday: An Adventure in 
Art and Illusion," four hours of free entertainment and 
performances for children, sponsored by the Women's 
Committee of the Smithsonian Associates, was presented 
at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gardens. 

doubleday lecture: John Updike spoke on "The Written 
Word" as part of the lecture series presented at the Na- 
tional Museum of History and Technology. 

exhibition: "Not a Model Boy" opened at the National 
Portrait Gallery marking the one hundredth anniversary 
of the publication of Mark Twain's The Adventures of 
Tom Sawyer. 

national associates program : Program for regional mem- 
bers of Smithsonian Associates presented in Peoria, Illi- 
nois, co-sponsored by the Lakeview Center for the Arts 
and Sciences, featured exhibitions, workshops, lectures, 
and performing arts events. 

exhibition: "The Object as Poet" opened at the Renwick 
Gallery, examining the relationship of poetry to the poetic 
image in objects made by artists/craftsmen. 

4 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

December 15 

December 16 

December 22 

December 28 

exhibition: "Edward Munch: The Major Graphics — A Bi- 
centennial Exhibition from Norway" opened at the George 
Washington University and was circulated by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service in the In- 
ternational Salute to the States program. 

exhibition: "Person to Person," a multi-media exhibit 
marking the one-hundredth anniversary of the telephone, 
opened at the National Museum of History and Tech- 

exhibition: "John White Alexander (1856-1915)," the 
first comprehensive exhibit of Alexander's work in sixty 
years, opened at the National Collection of Fine Arts. 

acquisition: Nineteen Winslow Homer letters, some illus- 
trated with sketches, acquired by the Archives of Ameri- 
can Art. 


January 10 exhibitions: "First Ladies Jewelry and Accessories and 
Presidential Inaugural Medals" opened at the National 
Museum of History and Technology, in tribute to the 
Presidential Inaugural. 

appointment: United States Senator Barry Goldwater, of 
Arizona, appointed a Regent of the Smithsonian Institu- 

acquisition: Pioneer 10 spacecraft displayed in the Mile- 
stones of Flight Gallery of the National Air and Space 


January 11 opening: The Silver Hill Museum, with several buildings 
of displays and the restoration facility of the National Air 
and Space Museum, opened for public tours at Silver Hill, 

January 12 special event: President-Elect Jimmy Carter held a foreign 
affairs briefing in the Smithsonian Institution Building. 

January 15 exhibition: "The President's Medal 1789-1977" opened at 
the National Portrait Gallery, exhibiting the medals of 
Presidents from George Washington to Jimmy Carter, and 
reviewing the origins and development of this form of 
American portraiture. 

reinstallation: Hall of Presidents reopened by the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery including newly acquired portraits 
of John Adams and Zachary Taylor. 

January 18-22 concert series : Eighty-five free concerts held in seven 
museums, under the direction of the Division of Perform- 

Chronology I 5 

January 26 

January 29 

January 29- 
February 6 

ing Arts, in tribute to the inaugurations of President 
Carter and Vice President Mondale. 

January 20 appointment: Walter F. Mondale became ex-officio mem- 
ber of the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution on his 
inauguration as Vice President. 

January 24 exhibition: "Artists and Writers in America: Some Rela- 
tionships" opened at the National Portrait Gallery by the 
Archives of American Art. 

appointment: United States Senator Claiborne Pell, of 
Rhode Island, appointed a Regent of the Smithsonian 

doubleday lecture: United States Congressman John 
Brademas of Indiana spoke at the National Museum of 
History and Technology on "Education in the Real 

exhibition: "Locks from Iran: Pre-Islamic to the Twen- 
tieth Century," produced and circulated by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, opened at 
the National Museum of Natural History. 

national associates program: Program for regional mem- 
bers of Smithsonian Associates held in Milwaukee in co- 
sponsorship with the Milwaukee Art Center, the Mil- 
waukee Public Museum, and Friends of the Museum, Inc., 
assisted by the Performing Arts Center, included exhibi- 
tions, workshops, lectures, and performing arts events. 

February 2 symposium: "20th Century Canadian Culture: A Sympo- 

sium," an eleven-week series of lectures, panel discus- 
sions, and films on Canadian arts and humanities, opened 
at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden with the 
evening keynote address, "Canadian Culture Today," by 
Dr. Northrop Frye, and introductory remarks by Mrs. 
Walter Mondale and Mrs. Pierre Trudeau. 

opening: Education- Administration Building opened at the 
National Zoo as part of the Zoo's master plan for mod- 

February 3 exhibition: "14 Canadians: A Critic's Choice" opened at 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in con- 
junction with "20th Century Canadian Culture" sym- 

February 6-20 national associates program : A program of exhibitions, 
lectures, workshops, and performing arts events held for 
Smithsonian Associates in Detroit, Michigan, co-spon- 
sored by the Cranbrook Education Community, Detroit 
Historical Museum and Detroit Historical Society, and 
the Detroit Institute of Arts. 

6 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

February 10 acquisition: A rare 1880 self-portrait by Mary Cassatt 
acquired by the National Portrait Gallery; one of only two 
painted by the American artist, who was a major figure 
in the French Impressionist movement. 

February 11 exhibition: "Daniel Chester French: An American Sculp- 
tor" opened at the National Collection of Fine Arts, the 
first major retrospective of French's work. 

February 16 films: Opening of thirteen-film series, produced by Wan- 
go Weng and presented by the China Institute in Ameri- 
ca, entitled China: The Enduring Heritage at the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

February 21 visit: United States Senator John Glenn, of Ohio, was 
the honored guest at a National Air and Space Museum 
luncheon to observe the fifteenth anniversary of the first 
American orbital flight. As an astronaut, Senator Glenn 
was the pilot of Friendship 7 which made the flight. 

February 28- scientific workshop: One hundred scientists and science- 
March 3 related professionals attended conference on Watershed 
Research in Eastern North America, sponsored by the 
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Sciences and 
the National Science Foundation and held at the Bay 
Center. Sixty scientific papers presented at the workshop 
have been published in one volume. 

March 1 award: America as Art, a book by Joshua C. Taylor, Di- 

rector, National Collection of Fine Arts, was chosen as one 
of five finalists in the history category for the twenty- 
eighth annual National Book Awards given by the Amer- 
ican Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. (See April 

March 1-11 national associates program: A regional program for 
Smithsonian Associates held in Seattle, Washington, in 
co-sponsorship with the Pacific Science Center, the Seattle 
Art Museum, the Seattle Historical Society, and the Mu- 
seum of History and Industry, and assisted by the Depart- 
ment of Music, University of Washington, featured per- 
forming arts events, exhibitions, workshops, and lectures. 

March 3 exhibition: "Royal Pavillion at Brighton" opened at the 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Decorative Arts, 
New York City. 

March 4 appointment: United States Congresswoman Corinne C. 

(Lindy) Boggs of Louisiana appointed a Regent of the 
Smithsonian Institution, the first woman to hold this 

March 6 exhibition: "The Anacostia Story" opened at the Anacos- 

tia Neighborhood Museum, with focus on the area's his- 
tory from 1608 to 1930. 

Chronology I 7 

March 9-17 national associates program: A program for Smithson- 
ian Associates held in Portland, Oregon, in co-sponsor- 
ship with the Oregon Historical Society and the Portland 
Art Museum. 

March 16 doubled ay lecture: Charles Eames, artisan and designer, 

spoke at the National Museum of History and Technology 
on "Education Outside the Educational Establishment." 

March 17 exhibition: "Rails of the World: Paintings by J. Fenwick 

Lansdowne" opened at the National Museum of Natural 
History. The exhibit was circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

March 18 exhibition: "Paint on Wood: Decorated American Furni- 

ture Since the 17th Century" opened at the Renwick 

March 25 exhibition: "Acquisitions: 1974-1977" presented the 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden's more than 
one hundred thirty works acquired through gift and pur- 
chase since the Museum opened in October 1974. 

March 26 special event: Annual Kite Festival and Competition, 

sponsored by the Smithsonian Resident Associates and 
under the direction of Paul Garber, National Air and 
Space Museum, was held on the Mall. 

April 2 visit: First Lady Rosalynn Carter and daughter Amy 

visited the National Zoological Park. 

April 3 spring celebration: First of more than eighty musical 

events presented over a fifteen-day period on the grounds 
of the National Museum of History and Technology. 

April 5 meeting: Assistant Secretary David Challinor met with 

President Anwar el-Sadat in Washington to discuss 
Smithsonian projects in Egypt. 

April 7 exhibitions : "Oriental Calligraphy," a major showing of 

calligraphy from China, Japan, and the Near East, and 
Biblical manuscripts from the 3rd to 17th centuries, 
opened at the Freer Gallery of Art. 

April 11-21 national associates program: A program for regional 
members of Smithsonian Associates held in Denver, Colo- 
rado, in co-sponsorship with the Denver Art Museum, 
the Denver Public Library, and the State Historical So- 
ciety of Colorado. 

April 12 milestone: Tenth anniversary of the Carousel on the Mall. 

April 20 doubleday lecture : James M. Hester, Rector of the United 

Nations University, spoke at the National Museum of 

8 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

History and Technology on "Education for a Changed 
April 20-27 national associates program : A regional program for 
Smithsonian Associates held in Minneapolis-St. Paul, 
Minnesota, in co-sponsorship with the Minnesota His- 
torical Society, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, the 
Science Museum in Minnesota, and the Walker Art 
Center, and with the assistance of the Department of 
Music, University of Minnesota. 

April 30 exhibition: "America as Art," a major Bicentennial exhi- 

bition, opened at the National Collection of Fine Arts. 

May 1 native American training program: Dr. George Abrams, 

member of the Seneca Nation and Director of the Seneca 
Museum, arrived as the first participant in the training 
program organized by the Office of Museum Programs 
for the study of techniques and methods of museology. 

May 19 visit: His Holiness, the Sixteenth Gyalwa Karmapa, head 

of the Tibetan Buddism sect Kagyu, toured the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

May 20 symposium: "The Life and Accomplishments of Charles 

A. Lindbergh" presented by the National Air and Space 
Museum in observance of the fiftieth anniversary of Lind- 
bergh's solo flight across the Atlantic. 

exhibition: "Painting and Sculpture in California: The 
Modern Era" opened at the National Collection of Fine 
Arts with 270 works created from 1900 to 1976 by 199 
May 21 exhibition: "American Crafts in the White House" opened 

at the Renwick Gallery. 

May 24 exhibition : "The Thomas Eakins Collection of the Hirsh- 

horn Museum and Sculpture Garden," the first extensive 
showing of one of the largest Eakins collections in the 
United States, opened at the Hirshhorn Museum. 

symposium: "Thomas Eakins: A Symposium," a day-long 
series of lectures by four leading Eakins scholars, pre- 
sented in the Hirshhorn Museum auditorium. 

May 25 annual lecture : Dr. Robert H. Dyson Jr., President of 

the Archeological Institute of America spoke on "Twenty 
Years Digging in Iran," presented by the Smithsonian 
Institution and the Archeological Institute of America. 

music institute: The Division of Performing Arts opened 
a nine-day "Institute on Criticism in Jazz." 

May 27 exhibition: "25th National Exhibition of Prints," opened 

at the National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Chronology I 9 


June 9 

June 10 

June 14 

June 16 

June 23 

June 24 
June 29 

accreditation: The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
offered an accredited course designed for teachers, in con- 
junction with the Advisory and Learning Exchange. 

film: Faces of Freedom, a 30-minute film presenting an 
overview of American history as told through portraiture, 
produced by Charles Guggenheim Productions for the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery with Charlton Heston as narrator, 
premiered at the National Portrait Gallery. 

exhibition: "Recent Works in Metal by Albert Paley," 
including the hand-wrought gates he designed and fabri- 
cated for the Renwick Gallery museum shop, and "Iron, 
Solid Wrought/USA" opened at the Renwick Gallery. 

sixth international symposium: "Kin and Communities: 
The Peopling of America," a four-day program produced 
by the Smithsonian Office of Seminars and Symposia, 
opened at the Kennedy Center, with ceremonies that in- 
cluded First Lady Rosalynn Carter, anthropologist Mar- 
garet Mead, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, author Alex 
Haley, wife of the District of Columbia's mayor Mrs. Wal- 
ter Washington, and Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Rip- 
ley. Related film programs and exhibitions were scheduled 
in the National Museum of History and Technology and 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

award: United States Senator Hubert H. Humphrey of 
Minnesota was awarded the Smithsonian Institution's Jo- 
seph Henry Medal at the opening ceremonies of "Kin and 
Communities" symposium. 

exhibition: "The Photography of Leland Rice" opened at 
the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, the mu- 
seum's first exhibition of contemporary photography. 

visit: Her Royal Highness Princess Anne and Captain 
Mark Phillips of Great Britain toured the National Mu- 
seum of History and Technology and the Silver Jubilee 
exhibition, which commemorated the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the reign of Great Britain's Queen Elizabeth II. 

exhibition: "Photographing the Frontier," the first half of 
a showing of photographs by the pioneers of the Ameri- 
can Frontier, opened at the National Museum of History 
and Technology. 

exhibition: "22 Polish Textile Artists" opened at the Ren- 
wick Gallery. 

sculpture dedication: On the west lawn of the National 
Air and Space Museum, Carlos A. Perez, President of 
Venezuela, dedicated Alejandro Otero's Delta Solar sculp- 
ture, his country's Bicentennial gift to the United States. 

10 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


July 4 

July 8 

July 9 

July 14 

July 20 

July 29 


August 4 

August 5 

science: Pleistocene lake site in Colorado, excavated by 
National Museum of Natural History archeologist Dr. 
Dennis Stanford, revealed proof that early man was in the 
New World hunting mammoths, camels, and other ice-age 
animals earlier than previously known. 

special event: Smithsonian Station of the Washington 
area's Metro subway system opened on the Mall at 12th 

special event: Three days of music, crafts, and dancing 
held on the terrace and grounds of the National Museum 
of History and Technology in celebration of the Fourth 
of July. 

milestone: National Air and Space Museum welcomed 
its 10 millionth visitor since its opening July 1, 1976. The 
record was set one week after nasm's first anniversary. 

exhibition : "Raices y Visiones — Roots and Visions," a bi- 
lingual show, opened at the National Collection of Fine 
Arts with paintings, prints, and sculpture by artists of 
the American Hispanic communities. 

exhibition: "Palaces for the People," an exhibit on a 
hundred years of resort and motel architecture in Ameri- 
ca, opened at the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and 
Decorative Arts, New York City. 

exhibition: "Summer Sculpture '77," the first outdoor 
contemporary sculpture show on loan to the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, was opened. 

exhibition: "Arthur Wesley Dow (1857-1922)" opened al 
the National Collection of Fine Arts; Dow was an influ- 
encial art educator around the turn of the century. 

science: Research team, led by National Museum of Natu- 
ral History archeologist Dr. William Fitzhugh to remote 
regions of Arctic Northern Labrador, made discoveries 
about the origins of Indian and Eskimo people and found 
the northernmost Indian burial structure known in eastern 
North America. 

art commission: Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gar- 
den announced major commission by the Institute of Scrap 
Iron and Steel, Inc., for the creation of a monumental out- 
door sculpture by American artist Mark Di Suvero. Instal- 
lation on plaza and dedication ceremonies planned for 
summer, 1978. 

exhibition: "Grass," a major show of natural grasses and 
their use as both functional and decorative objects of 
many cultures, opened at the Renwick Gallery. 

Chronology I 11 

August 7 

August 12 

August 20 

August 26 

August 27 

September 4 

September 9 

conference: Seventh International Conference on the 
History of Cartography began in the National Museum 
of History and Technology, co-sponsored by the Library 
of Congress. Rare maps, early surveying equipment, and 
documents from pre-Columbian times to the 19th century 
were featured in exhibits developed in conjunction with 
the meeting. 

satellite: HEAO-1, an X-ray satellite carrying an experi- 
ment developed jointly by the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, was the first in a series of three high-energy obser- 
vatories launched by the National Air and Space Museum 
to survey and map the X-ray sky. HEAO-1 subsequently 
identified a bright X-ray nova in the constellation Ophiu- 
chus and a rapid X-ray burster at the galactic center. 

exhibition: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service exhibition "North American Indian Baskets" be- 
gan tour at Houston Museum of Natural Science, Texas. 

exhibition: "We Were But a Handful," the story of the 
Woman's Party from Seneca Falls to the 19th amend- 
ment, opened at the National Portrait Gallery. 

exhibition: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service's exhibit "And Now a Message ... A Century of 
American Advertising 1830-1930" opened in three copies 
at McMaster University, Ontario, Canada; Saint Louis 
Public Library; and the Lincoln First National Bank in 
Rochester, New York. 

special event: The National Air and Space Museum's first 
annual Smithsonian Frisbee Festival held, with demonstra- 
tions and workshops, on the Mall. 

exhibition: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service exhibit "Folk Arts & Crafts" opened at Center for 
Southern Folklore in Memphis, Tennessee. 

September 15 milestone: Tenth Anniversary of the Anacostia Neighbor- 
hood Museum observed with an Open House. 

exhibitions: "Chinese Album Leaves and Fan Paintings" 
and "The Four Seasons in Japanese Art" opened at the 
Freer Gallery of Art. 

September 21 award : CINE Golden Eagle certificate awarded to Smith- 
sonian Institution-produced film, The Smithsonian Insti- 
tution with S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary. 

September 24 exhibition: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service exhibit from Hungary entitled "Hungarian Art 

12 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Nouveau" began tour at Ackland Memorial Art Center, 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

September 26 exhibition: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service exhibit "Images of Old Age in America" began 
its national tour at the Institute of Gerontology, Univer- 
sity of Michigan. 

September 30 exhibition: "Raphael Soyer: Drawings and Watercolors" 
opened at the National Collection of Fine Arts; in con- 
junction with the exhibition, Joshua C. Taylor, Director 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts, and Soyer held a 
dialogue about the artist's work. 

Chronology I 13 



■■■ -J:. ■, 

-**' h t 

Two scientists at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies measure 
soil moisture as part of an investigation of the hydrologic characteristics of indi- 
vidual drainage basins. 

Smithsonian Year -1977 

The bicentennial celebrations brought a greater awareness among 
the science bureaus of the need to redouble their efforts to serve the 
public. Attendance at the museums increased this past year over that 
of 1976 owing in large measure to the extreme popularity of the 
National Air and Space Museum. A great deal of energy has been 
expended this past year on visitor surveys in an attempt to deter- 
mine where we have been successful with the public and to point 
out areas of weakness. We are delighted with the initial results, 
which indicate a continued interest among the public in our pres- 
entations and an increased knowledge of scientific principles. 

With the hectic days of 1976 now behind us, the science units 
have intensified their research efforts. Among the exciting finds of 
the past year was confirmation of past theories linking periods of 
the sun's activity with climate. Studies at the Chesapeake Bay 
Center for Environmental Studies (cbces) have yielded preliminary 
findings which may link the use of herbicides to a decline in the 
ecologically and economically important sea grasses of Chesapeake 
Bay. Continued monitoring of experimental solar panels at the 
Radiation Biology Laboratory may have profound significance on 
the use of solar energy to heat and cool our homes in the future. 
Scientists at the National Museum of Natural History have made a 
significant finding in archeology which will redefine our thinking 
as to when man first inhabited North America. Studies on amphi- 
pods, small Crustacea, have assisted in determining tolerance levels 
to oil pollution. In the tropics, at the Smithsonian Tropical Re- 
search Institute, studies of wasp species have enabled us to deter- 
mine more clearly how these species relate and their role as carriers 
of disease. 


Our educational programs made great strides in fiscal year 1977 
by moving away from the more traditional role of letting exhibits 
tell the whole story. A Naturalist Center, established at the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, gave interested amateurs the 
opportunity to study specimens from the collection rather than 
just look at them through glass. Resource rooms were established at 
the Zoo to allow more active participation for visitors and school 
groups in the Zoo's programs by focusing in depth on certain exhib- 
its. The cbces continued its program of naturalist tours and is devel- 
oping innovative curriculum material for all ages of visitors. 

The past year did have its challenges and doubts. The ever- 
present problem of inadequate research support continued to ham- 
per the effectiveness of our efforts. Coupled with this concern was 
the constant challenge by some of the very nature of our scientific 
enterprises. All institutions are subject to this challenge from time 
to time, but our firm conviction is that we should move ahead 
permitting time to prove our efforts to be in the best interests of 
our nation. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

Activities at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Stud- 
ies (cbces) include ecological research and education programs. 
Principal themes in research include the comparative ecology of 
terrestrial communities with emphasis on the effects of past land 
use. Estuarine research is concerned with the response of biological 
populations to physical and chemical factors. The integration of 
these two programs is accomplished by an extensive program of 
monitoring and analysis of runoff from the Rhode River watershed 
through a system of permanent gauging stations. Education pro- 
grams include basic research on the design and implementation of 
outdoor-centered learning experiences, conduct of science-educa- 
tion field trips for school groups, and the development of public 
programs emphasizing the application of science to environmental 

16 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Upland Ecology 

The study of the Center's terrestrial communities was expanded 
with the addition to the staff of Dr. Dennis Whigham, a plant 
ecologist. He and his colleagues have established a system of per- 
manent quadrats as part of a long-term vegetation inventory 
which will be used to monitor population changes as well as meas- 
uring yearly production rates and long-term fluctuations in the 
standing stock of nutrients under various land-use conditions. In 
cooperation with Daniel Higman, Dr. Whigham is also studying how 
honeysuckle, sassafras, and broomstraw grass interact competitively 
in early stages of succession. Investigators at the Center have been 
joined by Dr. Beryl Simpson of the National Museum of Natural 
History and Mr. Paul Opler of the United States Fish and Wild- 
life Service in monitoring plant phenology in a recently abandoned 
field, a young forest, and a mature forest. These investigators are 
determining patterns of breeding systems, seed dispersal, and seed 
size within the three study sites. The work is designed to provide 
a comparison of these systems with desert and tropical ecosys- 
tems. Through a grant from the State of Maryland, Drs. Whigham 
and J. F. Lynch are investigating the configurations of forest 
patches that are necessary to maintain certain bird and plant com- 

Dr. Lynch and his colleagues are examining the effects of sec- 
ondary plant succession and land use on various animal communi- 
ties found in the Rhode River watershed. They are monitoring 
animal populations on a number of study sites, each of which has 
been selected to represent a different land use or successional 
stage ranging from active cornfields and pasture, through re- 
cently abandoned old fields, to middle and late successional decid- 
uous forest. Data on abundance and diversity have been gathered 
for birds, large mammals, small mammals, ants, litter arthropods, 
and understory arthropods. All of these groups have been studied 
in detail for at least one year and monitored regularly for more 
than two years. The study of the latter groups will continue for 
at least several additional years in order to document long-term 
fluctuations or directional trends in abundance. 

Science I 17 

A study of the community ecology of ants at the Center was 
begun in 1975. The goal is to document the spatial and temporal 
distribution of the approximately sixty ant species found at the 
Center and to assess the role of competition for food and nest sites 
in maintaining observed patterns of distribution and abundance. 
Ant occurrence has been assessed by means of quantitative sam- 
pling of understory vegetation and leaf litter, and by recording ant 
activity at standardized baiting stations. Ants are sampled on a 
monthly basis at twelve sites representing a maximal range of land 
use and successional maturity. The possible effects of interspecific 
competition for food are studied by documenting behavioral inter- 
actions at baits before and after experimental manipulation of 
species abundances. 

The range of land-use types intensely studied at the Center was 
increased with the addition of pasture and lawn sites. Dr. John 
Falk is studying the net primary productivity of grass systems 
under intensive and minimal management conditions. He is also 
examining the adaptive features of invertebrates on lawn systems 
subject to frequent mowing. 

Watershed Studies 

The Center's extensive watershed research and monitoring pro- 
gram was expanded during the year to include two stations in tidal 
waters which receive the drainage from moderate density residen- 
tial communities. In addition, several temporary stations were 
installed in the Patuxent River drainage basin in order to deter- 
mine the extent to which runoff data from the Rhode River water- 
shed can be applied to other drainage areas of the eastern coastal 
plain. To supplement this program, a network of twelve rain 
gauges was installed throughout the Rhode River watershed to 
permit the accurate characterization of variations in local rainfall 
and runoff patterns. 

Dr. Maria Faust has for the past three years been estimating 
the concentration of fecal bacteria and pathogens in runoff in re- 
lation to land use, season, and other factors. Her data indicates 
that fecal bacteria levels in runoff fluctuate seasonally and are 
highest in March, July, and August. Her findings suggest that ap- 
proximately 2,600 cubic meters of receiving water are required 
for every hectare of watershed area in order to assure that the 

18 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

concentrations of fecal bacteria do not exceed water quality stand- 
ards for shellfish harvesting. Dr. Faust also determined that over 
two-thirds of total fecal coliform discharge from the Rhode River 
watershed originated from pastures which represent less than 20 
percent of the total land area. Similar findings were made for fecal 

Dr. Tung Lin Wu has been analyzing the heavy metal constitu- 
ents of watershed runoff and rainwater. He estimates that the 
Rhode River receiving waters annually receive via land runoff 
approximately 49 tons of iron, IV2 tons of manganese and lesser 
quantities of zinc, chromium, cadmium, copper, and lead. In gen- 
eral, cultivated land appears to contribute the highest yield of 
metals in the fall season, while pasture contributes the greatest 
quantities in the summertime. 

The complete findings of the Center's Watershed Program 
through 1976 were reported at a conference on Watershed Re- 
search in Eastern North America sponsored by the Center and 
funded by the National Science Foundation. Some one hundred 
and twenty scientists and agency representatives attended the con- 
ference to discuss the results of major watershed studies in eastern 
United States including those on the Walker Branch in Tennessee, 
Lake Jackson Watershed in Florida, Coweeta and the Chowan 
River in North Carolina, the Mahantango Creek Watershed in 
Pennsylvania, and Rhode River in Maryland. Proceedings of the 
conference have been published. 

Estuarine Research 

Fish population work was aimed at evaluating the amount of pri- 
mary production from tidal marshes and mud flats which are 
utilized to support spawning and larval fish populations. This 
utilization of primary productivity can then be compared to other 
major pathways such as microbial breakdown with the marsh or 
the transport of organic matter into the estuary by tidal currents. 
Preliminary studies were initiated by Joseph Miklas on the spawn- 
ing movements of yellow and white perch in headwater streams and 
marshes. The spawning movements of both of these species were 
observed to be temperature dependent. Using mark and recapture 
methods, the population of each spawning stock was estimated and 
will be related to similar data to be collected in subsequent years. 

Science I 19 

A team of investigators at the Center, led by Drs. David Correll 
and Tung Lin Wu, has been investigating various environmental 
factors which may have influenced the virtual disappearance of 
sea grasses in the Chesapeake Bay. The dense beds of plants 
acted to stabilize bottom sediments and as wave filters to protect 
shorelines on the Bay. Thus, their decline has been speculatively 
linked to increased rates of shoreline erosion in recent years. Coin- 
ciding with this decline has been the increased use of agricultural 
herbicides in connection with the adoption of "no till" or mini- 
mum-till agricultural methods in the Chesapeake drainage. The 
preliminary findings of Drs. Correll and Wu suggest that concen- 
trations of some herbicides occur in Bay sediments at levels which 
might be toxic to sea grasses. This reconnaissance work is now 
being supplemented by bioassay experiments wherein four species 
of formerly abundant grasses are being tested for their response to 
herbicide concentrations similar to those found in surface waters 
and Bay-bottom sediments. 

Dr. Maria Faust has been examining the utilization of inorganic 
carbon and orthophosphate by phytoplankton and bacteria in an 
estuarine environment. By using radioactive carbon and phos- 
phorus combined with autoradiography, she has been able to dis- 
tinguish metabolically active and inactive microorganisms. Her 
findings suggest that only about 28 percent to 42 percent of the 
total phytoplankton in the estuary were metabolically active and 
that phytoplankton smaller than 20 microns in size were more 
active, as compared with larger species, than their total biomass 
would indicate. This suggests that smaller cells have an advantage 
in nutrient uptake because of larger surface-to-volume ratio. De- 
pending on the season of the year, between 63 percent and 85 
percent of bacteria in the estuary were metabolically active, and in 
November bacteria associated with the plankton were the most 
active fraction of the microorganisms. The high metabolic activi- 
ties of bacteria corresponded with the highest phosphorus uptake 
rates of phytoplankton at that time. This may indicate a close 
relationship between the metabolic activities of phytoplankton 
and those of bacteria in an estuarine environment. 


During fiscal year 1977, cbces increased its educational emphasis 

20 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

on research and curriculum development in outdoor-centered en- 
vironment education while maintaining a high level of activity in 
the areas of information transfer and public programs. 

Research in Environmental Education 

The addition of Dr. John Balling, an educational psychologist, to 
the staff in the fall of 1976, provided the cbces educational re- 
search program added depth and expertise. Several investigations 
were launched under his direction during this year. A follow-up 
study on the impact of novel settings on learners corroborated 
earlier findings that children learn better in surroundings that are 
familiar to them. Another study was conducted which identified 
a second major variable in the outdoor learning, the setting. This 
investigation varied the relevance of the learning setting to the 
subject matter being taught. The findings support the long-held 
belief of outdoor educators that certain subjects may be positively 
enhanced by being taught in a reinforcing setting. This work is 
expected to lead to the development of new approaches to the Cen- 
ter's public education programs. 

Investigations were begun in human ecology, focusing on the 
effects of environmental change on human behavior and attitudes. 
One study conducted by Drs. Balling and Falk measured, over a 
wide range of age groups, preference toward natural settings. Five 
natural biomes were evaluated including tropical rain forest, tem- 
perate deciduous forest, coniferous forest, savanna, and desert. 
Overall, the savanna was rated highest for both a residential setting 
and as a place to visit. 

Public Education Programs 

Initiated in 1975, the teacher-led tour program is designed to pro- 
vide children with outdoor experiences which reinforce or intro- 
duce science concepts. The Center worked closely with the local 
Anne Arundel County School System to develop the following 
teacher-led activities: "Micro-Trails, Macro-Trails" for the first 
grade; "Animal Adaptations: Insects and Spiders" for the second 
and third grades; "Community Comparison: Forest and Old Field" 
and "Estuary Chesapeake" for the fifth and sixth grades; and 
"Seeing the Trees for the Forest: A Census Activity" for the sev- 
enth and eighth grades. Each activity is outlined in a brochure that 

Science I 21 

includes background information for the teacher, objectives for 
the students, a step-by-step procedure section for the class and 
suggested follow-up activities. 

Another model concept in outdoor environmental education is 
the Center's Summer Ecology Program. The program emphasizes 
community-centered learning. The program, conducted in seven 
different locations instead of the Center's research facility, helps 
familiarize children with the human and natural ecology of their 
own communities. Four college students and four high school stu- 
dents, selected as part of the Smithsonian's Intern Program, im- 
plemented and evaluated education activities of their own design. 
At the end of the summer, the students conducted a workshop on 
the outdoor education activities developed for the Program. Envi- 
ronmental educators, science teachers, and other interested indi- 
viduals participated in this one-day workshop. 

Work/Learn Program 

The Work/ Learn Program in Environmental Studies, initiated in 
the fall of 1975, is a cooperative education program that provides 
college students with the opportunity to live and work in a re- 
search setting. Each participant receives a small stipend, plus liv- 
ing accommodations, and may arrange to receive academic credit 
for work completed at the Center. 

Seventeen students were selected to participate in the program 
during the first year. They worked with cbces professional staff 
on projects in estuarine and terrestrial ecology, land-use manage- 
ment, and environmental education. 

Information Transfer 

A major objective of the information transfer program is to dis- 
seminate the Center's scientific research findings to public groups 
that can use this information in making land-use and water- 
quality decisions. During 1976-1977, the cbces staff conducted 
several projects specifically aimed at disseminating the Center's 
watershed and estuarine research findings. 

Since 1974, scientists at the Center have been monitoring sur- 
face runoff from the Rhode River watershed for nutrients, bac- 
teria, and sediment. This research was expanded to include monitor- 
ing of heavy metals in 1975 and herbicides in 1976. Major objec- 

22 I Smithsonian Year 1977 

tives of the study are to determine the magnitude and kind of non- 
point source pollution resulting from rural land-use practices and 
the impact of this pollution on the Rhode River estuary. The re- 
sults of this research program have applicability to similar regions 
of the country. 

Using technical reports from this work, Marjorie Beane summa- 
rized and interpreted three years of cbces research findings in a pub- 
lication entitled Assessing Non-Point Source Pollution: A Detailed 
Study of a Rural Watershed in the Coastal Plain of Maryland. 
This report also included a description of state and national water- 
quality planning programs and made recommendations for man- 
agement practices to reduce non-point source pollution. It was 
widely distributed to water-quality planners, resource managers, 
public officials, and interested citizens throughout the eastern 
United States. Government agencies, citizen organizations, and 
other groups concerned with water quality have found the report 
especially useful because it summarizes a large amount of scientific 
data in a brief, concise, and understandable form. 

The Center also provided support in the form of staff time and 
expertise to citizen organizations throughout the Chesapeake Bay 
region. Support activities for these groups included organizing 
workshops and conferences, developing technical information on 
environmental issues, and helping achieve citizen participation in 
land and water-quality planning. 

cbces staff helped plan and organize a major conference on the 
Chesapeake Bay which was held in April 1977. The purpose of 
this conference was to assess the present and future status of the 
Bay over the next ten years. 

During the summer of 1977, the Center's information specialist 
Transfer: A Model Approach to the Chesapeake Region, describing 
completed a project report entitled Environmental Information 
the Center's efforts to develop a model program for disseminating 
environmental information from a research institution to the 
surrounding community. 

Over the past five years, cbces staff conducted studies to deter- 
mine major sources of environmental information for citizen or- 
ganizations, legislators, and resource managers in the Chesapeake 
Bay region; identified top priority issues among these groups; and 
investigated the extent of communication between these public 

Science I 23 

groups and the scientific community. The staff have also investi- 
gated existing information transfer programs and the involvement 
of citizens in the environmental decision-making process. On the 
basis of these studies, the Center developed different methods for 
disseminating scientific information to resource managers, public 
officials, and citizens. The Center's investigations, special projects, 
and recommendations for a model information transfer program 
are summarized in the project report. This five-year research pro- 
gram was funded by the Edward John Noble Foundation. 


Work was begun at the end of the year on the addition of a new 
laboratory wing to the existing Old Dominion Building. This facil- 
ity will provide laboratory space and services for chemical and 
microbiological experiments. Several other projects were under- 
taken during the year to upgrade and renovate existing structures. 

Fort Pierce Bureau 

This past year the Smithsonian's Fort Pierce Bureau stressed its 
program of research on life histories, reproduction, development, 
estuarine lagoon near the Atlantic Ocean, within easy access of the 
and larval biology of marine organisms of the Indian River Lagoon 
and offshore continental shelf. The locality of Fort Pierce, on an 
Gulf Stream with its long-distance larvae, and in a zoogeographic 
transitional zone where both tropical and temperate organisms 
are available for study, offers a variety of habitats and important 
advantages for studies of life histories and reproduction. 

In studies on reproduction, information is being accumulated on 
reproductive cycles, breeding seasons and spawning of local ani- 
mals, and such basic biological phenomena as the formation and 
maturation of sex cells and fertilization of eggs. Studies of devel- 
opment are furnishing information on comparative developmental 
patterns of local species which are useful in interpretations of phy- 
logenetic relationships, systematics, evolutionary history, and in 
the furtherance of understanding of the local ecosystems and adap- 
tability of species to environmental stresses. Work on larval biol- 

24 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

This scanning electron photomicrograph taken at the Fort Pierce Bureau shows the 
first larval stage of Menippe Nodifrons, the Cuban Stone Crab (75X), revealing a 
wealth of detail not easily visible under ordinary light microscopy. 

ogy is concentrating on problems of larval systematics, differen- 
tiation of embryonic and larval tissues and organs, structural trans- 
formations, settlement, and factors regulating these processes. Re- 
search during the past year emphasized work on sipunculan 
worms, ascidians, bryozoans, marine gastrotrichs, and crustaceans. 

Other activities included systematic and ecological research on 
specific groups of marine invertebrates such as decapod crusta- 
ceans and benthic foraminiferans. Representative specimens of 
importance to the National Collections were sent to the National 
Museum of Natural History. Programs for postdoctoral fellows and 
visiting scientists in life histories studies were implemented. The 
electron microscope facility, established over a year ago in collab- 
oration with the Harbor Branch Foundation, Inc., for the Life 
Histories Program, was expanded to include a scanning electron 
microscope as well as the transmission microscope. 

Continuing studies on life histories of marine worms of the 
phylum Sipuncula concentrated on reproductive biology of local 
species with the objectives of accumulating information on repro- 
ductive cycles, breeding seasons, and spawning; and on morphol- 
ogy, metamorphosis, and systematics of planktonic oceanic larvae. 

In studies of oceanic larvae, scanning electron microscopy was 
utilized in morphological characterizations of larvae and in an 
examination of metamorphic transformations. For studies of in- 
ternal anatomy, a technique was devised for viewing serial sections 
of larvae by scanning electron microscopy. In combination with 
transmission electron microscopy, the scanning microscope was 
used in an investigation of adhesive, sensory, and cuticular struc- 
tures of oceanic larvae. Observations on behavioral changes dur- 
ing settlement and metamorphosis of oceanic larvae revealed that 
an unidentified factor produced by adults will, when combined 
with the appropriate substratum, induce metamorphosis of larvae. 
This discovery was utilized to induce synchronous metamorphosis 
in large numbers of larvae for rearing and identification purposes 
and for studies of morphological changes during metamorphosis 
and early juvenile development. 

The Crustacean Biology Section continued previously estab- 
lished investigations on the ecology, larval development, and sys- 
tematics of decapod and stomatopod crustaceans from the fresh, 
lagoonal estuarine and marine waters of the Indian River area. 

26 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Numerically large and species-rich assemblages of decapod crus- 
taceans form a major component of lagoonal sea-grass beds, and 
continental shelf-edge oculinid coral reefs. Over 30 species and 
44,000 crustacean specimens indicated that the lagoonal drift 
algae, with its associated shrimps and crabs, comprises a com- 
munity as important, if not more so, as the crustacean communi- 
ties traditionally associated with just the sea-grass beds in the 
Indian River. 

Quantitative station samples collected by the submersible 
]ohnson-Sea-Link from oculinid shelf-edge reefs suggested that 
at least ten common decapod species live within the branches or 
are associated with the coral bases and are predominant members 
of this community. 

In life histories studies, the complete larval development of four 
species of crabs and two species of shrimp was obtained in the 

Systematic investigations on the baseline inventory collections 
of decapod and stomatopod crustaceans continued to yield both 
major and minor range extensions for about twenty members of 
the tropical decapod crustacean fauna. The Indian River Coastal 
Zone Reference Museum now contains approximately 12,000 lots 
and well over 20,000 identified specimens comprising about 1,200 
species. Data for these continue to be routinely added to the Sel- 
Gem computerized files for use by other investigative agencies. 

Studies on foraminifera of the area take several approaches in- 
cluding a general survey of the population in the Indian River and 
an examination of their role in the ecology of the estuary. Prelim- 
inary studies of offshore foraminifera are in progress. 

National Air and Space Museum 

In the year following the completion of the new National Air and 
Space Museum (nasm), over 9.5 million people visited the treas- 
ures of America's aviation and spaceflight heritage, making the 
newest Smithsonian addition to the Mall the most popular mu- 
seum in the country. By the end of September, the total visitor 
count was approximately 13 million. 

Science I 27 

The fifteen months since the Museum opened have been pro- 
ductive and exciting. The staff focus has shifted from readying 
the new building to implementing research projects and public 
service programs, studying public response to the inaugural exhi- 
bitions, adding artifacts to the galleries, and modifying some dis- 
plays. During this period, the Silver Hill facility in suburban 
Maryland was developed and opened to the public. 

A striking addition to the Museum grounds is the Delta Solar 
sculpture on the west lawn. Created by Venezuelan sculptor 
Alejandro Otero, Delta Solar reflects sparkling light off stainless 
steel "sails" that turn in the breeze. The sails are mounted in an 
open geometric grid within the 27- by 40-foot delta-shaped piece. 
In a ceremony by the sculpture's reflecting pool, the President of 
Venezuela, Carlos A. Perez, dedicated his country's Bicentennial 
gift to the United States on June 29, 1977. 

Inside the building, there have also been a number of new 
installations: Pioneer 10 and Ranger spacecraft were suspended 
in the Milestones of Flight and East End galleries, respectively; 
two new aircraft, a Douglas M-2 and a Beechcraft D-18S, were 
added to the Hall of Air Transportation; and the North American 
F-86 displayed in the West End bay was replaced by a Grumman 

The nasm Art Department arranged a special exhibition of Rob- 
ert Rauschenberg's "Stoned Moon" series of lithographs. The 
twenty-one pieces which represent Rauschenberg's reaction to the 
first lunar landing were displayed in the Space Hall during Novem- 
ber and December, 1976. 

Two new exhibits were placed in the Special Exhibits area on 
the second floor. The Museum observed the fiftieth anniversary 
of Charles Lindbergh's historic transatlantic flight with the instal- 
lation of a commemorative exhibit which is located between the 
Spirit of St. Louis and Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh's 
Lockheed Sirius. Photographs, film footage of the flight, and the 
aviator's welcomes in Paris and on his return to the United States 
anchor the display. Included in this exhibit are the check Lindbergh 
received for the flight, the barograph for the Spirit of St. Louis, 
and memorabilia from the young hero's goodwill flights through 
Latin America later in 1927. 

Amelia Earhart's Lockheed Vega, in which she became the first 

28 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

!'••■". .»mni .„,„,„,., 

The National Air and Space Museum, which opened to the public on July 1, 1976, 
was visited by 9.5 million people in its first year of operation. In the foreground is 
Venezuela's Bicentennial gift to the United States, the sculpture Delta Solar by 
Alejandro Otero, which was dedicated on June 29, 1977. Below: Director of the 
National Air and Space Museum and former astronaut Michael Collins in front of 
the Spirit of St. Louis, which hangs in the Museum's Milestones of Flight Gallery. 

woman to complete a solo transatlantic flight, was also installed 
in Special Exhibits in May. The exhibit includes the radio receiver 
she used during the flight, one of her flight jackets, and memora- 
bilia associated with her flight-related activities. 

Research was completed and construction begun on a new 
gallery, "Exploring the Planets," which will occupy the area for- 
merly held by Air Traffic Control. Scheduled to open in the summer 
of 1978, "Exploring the Planets" will acquaint visitors with the 
growth of interest in the planets and moons of the solar system 
from the time of their discovery to present-day planetary explo- 
ration programs. The exhibit script, prepared by nasm's Center 
for Earth and Planetary Studies staff, highlights current knowledge 
of the planets, the tools of exploration, and individual space 
missions. A unique feature of the exhibit plan is the emphasis on 
comparative planetology, accompanied by a discussion of cratering, 
volcanism, and other planetary processes. 

Staff planning and research continues for modifications in the 
General Aviation Gallery, completion of which is scheduled for 
the spring of 1978. "Flight for Everyone" will be the dominant 
theme and many of the units will be on how to fly. 

To ensure improvement and excellence in the exhibits, the nasm 
began an evaluation of its effectiveness as a publicly oriented 
communications medium. During fiscal year 1977, the nasm devel- 
oped two programs of exhibits evaluation. The first was based on 
modern techniques of opinion research, while the second was 
an ad hoc study based on qualitative and quantitative observations 
of visitor behavior. 

Evaluation of about one-third of the new galleries was con- 
tracted to a private firm, which developed the interview structure, 
conducted the interviews, and reduced and correlated all data. The 
demographic parameters of the visitors to nasm were quantified 
and tabulated. Results showed that the Museum is especially 
popular with young people; more than one in four visitors are 
between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five, while a majority of all 
visitors are over sixteen. Over one-half of the visitors surveyed were 
college graduates, while four out of ten were employed in profes- 
sional and executive positions. 

The Museum was found to be one of the biggest tourist attrac- 
tions in the nation's capital, with a high number of repeat visitors 

30 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

— about one in three. The following quote from the preliminary 
survey report conveys visitors' attitude: "Word about the nature 
of the museum has clearly gotten around — for the mood and level 
of expectation of the visitors was quite different from what we 
have found at other institutions. The primary motive was enter- 
tainment and pleasure — but with a feeling that they would end up 
with a twofold benefit — a good time and educational gains as well." 

Behind the scenes of the exhibition areas, the staff pursues his- 
torical and scientific research projects. Curatorial research efforts at 
the nasm are for exhibits, publications, aircraft restoration, and 
response to public inquiries. Scientific research is conducted by the 
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. 

In addition to the Hall of Air Transportation and General Avi- 
ation revisions, three future aeronautics exhibits were planned and 
most of the script completed. These include an exhibit called "Fly- 
ing for Fun" which will replace the aircraft in the West Gallery, 
and small exhibits on Grover Loening and James H. Doolittle in the 
Special Exhibits Gallery. All are scheduled to open during the next 
fiscal year. 

The Department of Aeronautics staff is preparing books and 
monographs on the following subjects: the effect of McCook Field 
on American aviation; United States Women Fliers, 1910-1918; 
United States Women Fliers, 1919-1928; the P-51C Mustang Excali- 
bur; and the Aeronca C-2. In addition, more than 1,500 aviation- 
oriented organizations have been asked to provide lists of their avia- 
tion holdings in order to compile an aeronautical history source 
guide. It is expected that this project will take two years to complete. 

The Department of Science and Technology continued its pro- 
gram of research on aerospace history, the impact of flight upon 
society, and technology transfer. 

Projects completed include studies of the airplane as a subject in 
technical art, surveys of postwar high-speed research aircraft, and 
the origins of the swept-wing and delta-wing planeforms. 

A monthly works-in-progress seminar was established to encour- 
age interdepartmental discussion on research currently underway 
by the nasm staff and others. Topics included: Guggenheim Sup- 
port of American Aviation 1926-1930, Engineers and the Airplane 
1875-1905, Using Aerospace Technology on Earth, U.S. Women in 
Aviation through wwi, Diplomatic History and the Berlin Airlift, 

Science I 31 

the Life of Robert H. Goddard, and History of Black Fighter Pilots 
in wwn. 

The Department of Astronautics staff is preparing books and 
papers on the following: Prelude to the Space Age: Rocket Soci- 
eties 1924-1940; International Astronautical Movement 1920- 
1940; Earliest Flight; and Lilienthal and the Americans, which will 
be the foreword to a book being published by the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. In addition, "To Ride the Fractious Horse," 
a book-length manuscript by curator Thomas D. Crouch about the 
rise of the American aeronautical community between 1895 and 
1905 is being reviewed for publication. 

The Smithsonian Institution, through the nasm, was awarded a 
grant from the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, Depart- 
ment of Health, Education and Welfare, to develop a set of guide- 
lines to assist museum educators in establishing educational pro- 
grams for handicapped students. These guidelines are being incor- 
porated in a publication that also contains a survey of available 
literature, information related to federal legislation, and the results 
of surveys sent to special education teachers, museum educators, 
and consumers. Publication of the book is expected in the next fiscal 

Staff research revolving around aircraft restoration is another 
intriguing aspect of the curatorial program. Before restoration can 
begin, a package containing detailed information required by the 
restoration crew must be assembled. The principal steps in the 
whole process are identified, and the detailed painting and markings 
of the original aircraft are delineated, if known. A continuing prob- 
lem is the location of replacement parts for aircraft long out of 
production. A great deal of effort is being expended to meet the 
Museum's goal of complete accuracy. During 1977, restoration 
packages were prepared by the Aeronautics staff for the following 
aircraft: Messerschmitt Me 262, Arado AR 196, Grumman F6F 
Hellcat, Navy N3N Trainer, Cessna O-lA Bird Dog, Lockheed P-38 
Lightning and XP-80 Shooting Star, North American P-51C Mus- 
tang, Langley Aerodrome, and Curtiss P-40N. Substantial progress 
has been made on two planes in particular: The Aeronca C-2 and 
the P-51 Mustang. 

The Aeronca was modified after it was built, requiring restora- 
tion specialists to do a great deal of painstaking work to restore it 
to its original condition. The configuration of the vertical fin had to 

32 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

be totally changed. The restoration of the P-51 Mustang Excalibur 
was assisted by the pilot of the plane who remembered the plane 
as being a brighter red than it appeared years later and a sample 
analysis determined that the original paint was indeed a brighter 
shade of red. 

Staff at the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies continued a 
rich scientific research program. A manuscript on "Astronaut Ob- 
servations from the Apollo-Soyuz Mission/' by Farouk El-Baz, the 
Center's Director, details the planning for and execution of the 
Earth Observations and Photography Experiment. It also includes 
an account of how the astronauts were trained to collect the data 
in support of on-going research in the fields of geology, oceanog- 
raphy, hydrology, meteorology, and environmental science. The 
manuscript was submitted for publication to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press as the first volume in a new series: Smithsonian Studies 
in Air and Space. 

The Center continued to coordinate the analysis and synthesis of 
the Apollo-Soyuz photographic results by several research groups. 
The data-analysis program included photointerpretation and the 
preparation of geologic and oceanic maps. 

Lunar scientific research continued at the Center. Results of 
photogeologic investigations of the crater Haldane in Mare Smythii 
were published in the Proceedings of the Seventh Lunar Science 
Conference. Additional research was performed using the resulting 
stratigraphic base and correlations with orbital X-ray data of the 
Smythii basin. Of particular importance were studies of the strati- 
graphic relations and origin of the terra, mare, and darker materials. 

Photogeologic studies of lunar calderas, sinuous rilles, and mare 
domes were completed during the past year. A scheme for the geo- 
logic evolution of a possible lunar caldera in Mare Smythii was pre- 
sented. This scheme is of major importance to studies of many 
morphologically similar lunar surface features. 

Two studies of lunar volcanic domes were completed at the Cen- 
ter during the fiscal year. Dome distribution was studied using six 
morphological classes. In another study, completed at the Center in 
cooperation with Brown University, the morphometric properties of 
mare domes were measured for comparison with terrestrial domes. 

Center personnel continued to cooperate with the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration in the lunar mapping program. 
A geologic map of the east side of the Moon was published in co- 
Science I 33 

BJS- '^^* 

"-» ■! 

B E 

■I W. 

> d 


i -if 

Facing page, upper: Featured in the National Air and Space Museum's Milestones 
of Flight Gallery are the Spirit of St. Louis, the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, the Wright 
Brothers' Flyer, the North American X-15, and John Glenn's Friendship 7. Lower, 
Satellites of all shapes and sizes, including Tiros, Transit, Solrad, Lofti, and repre- 
sentatives of the Explorer, Pioneer, and Vanguard, hang overhead in the Satellite 
Gallery. Below, Visitors may walk into Skylab and see where astronauts worked 
and lived for as long as three months. 

Above, The Silver Hill Museum is an active preservation and restoration facility, 
and the items seen here may change from month to month. The aircraft at the left is 
a 1912 Curtiss Pusher. Below, Pat Williams concentrates while restoring the engine 
of the Excalibur HI at the National Air and Space Museum's Silver Hill facility. 

operation with the United States Geological Survey. In addition, a 
paper on the evolution of the Moon from the stratigraphic point of 
view has been submitted for publication. This paper includes a syn- 
thesis of Apollo-gathered data on the nature of the lunar crust. 

In cooperation with the International Astronomical Union and 
the United States Board of Geographic Names, the computer file of 
lunar nomenclature was completed. Lists of named features on the 
Moon were prepared for incorporation in a book on planetary top- 
onomy to be published by the nasa. 

A project entitled "Desert Erosion and Sand Movement in Egypt" 
was begun for joint research between Center personnel and the 
Geology Department of Ain Shams University, Cairo. The Center's 
Director joined Dr. David Challinor, Assistant Secretary for Sci- 
ence, in discussing this and other Smithsonian projects in Egypt 
with President Anwar el-Sadat during his visit to the United States 
in April 1977. 

The nasm Library remains a valuable resource for historical docu- 
ments on both famous and little-known aerospace personalities, air 
craft and engine photographs and drawings, space projects and 
vehicles, early ballooning and rocketry, aerospace industry histories, 
and other miscellaneous topics relating to aerospace. All of this in- 
formation is housed in the research files of the Museum which the 
Library began to microfilm during the reporting period. The cata- 
loguing of over 1,500 pieces of aeronautical sheet music from the 
Bella C. Landauer collection was completed. 

In keeping with Director Michael Collins's stated goal of estab- 
lishing the nasm as an international center for the study of the 
history of flight, the Charles A. Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace 
History was established and announced in 1977. Charles Harvard 
Gibbs-Smith, aerospace historian and Keeper Emeritus of the Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum in London, will be the first occupant of 
the endowed chair, which has been offered for one year, beginning 
January 1, 1978. 

The Museum also developed an Artist-in-Residence program in 
1977. In consultation with the National Endowment for the Arts, 
the Curator of Art developed a list of potential candidates. After 
review by the directors of the nasm, the National Collection of Fine 
Arts, and the Hirshhorn Museum, California sculptor Frederick 
Eversley was invited to be the first Artist-in-Residence at the nasm. 

Science I 37 

Progress was made during 1977 on the next two presentations 
to be shown in the Albert Einstein Spacearium and the Air and 
Space Theater. The Presentations and Education Division staff be- 
gan production of a new Spacearium show, entitled Worlds of To- 
morrow, which will replace Cosmic Awakening and is expected to 
premiere in 1978. 

A sponsor was obtained for nasm's second imax presentation 
which will replace To Fly in the Theater. The Living Earth an over- 
view of our small, fragile planet, will be sponsored by S.C. Johnson 
and Son, Inc., with Francis Thompson, Inc., producing the film, and 
the nasm retaining certain exhibition rights. The film is expected to 
be completed by the end of December 1978. 

In fiscal year 1977, the nasm sponsored a variety of free, public 
programs highlighted by the Museum's Lindbergh Symposium, held 
to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of Charles A. Lindbergh's 
historic flight. Five noted Lindbergh scholars spoke on Lindbergh's 
life and accomplishments to a large crowd gathered in the Mu- 
seum's Theater. 

Two series, Exploring Space with Astronomers and Monthly Sky 
Lectures, were held under the starry dome of the Museum's Albert 
Einstein Spacearium. Speakers included Dr. Frank D. Drake, Director 
of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and Professor of 
Astronomy at Cornell University; Dr. J. McKim Malville, Professor 
of Astro-Geophysics at the University of Colorado; and Dr. Joseph 
Veverka, a Mars expert who served as a member of the Mariner 9 
television team. Two nights of poetry readings by Col. Alfred M. 
Worden, former Apollo 15 astronaut and poet, were held in the 
Spacearium. One noontime series, Air and Space Forums, and an 
evening series, New Windows on the Universe, were conducted in 
the Museum's Theater. 

Like many of the other Smithsonian museums, the nasm marked 
the inauguration of President Jimmy Carter with summer hours and 
free concerts. The Museum also provided a day of fun to thousands 
by sponsoring the first annual Smithsonian Frisbee Festival during 
which a Frisbee of note was accessioned into the Museum's collection. 

Several test flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter were carried live 
on television monitors at the nasm. Hundreds watched the broad- 
casts at the Museum which was the only facility in Washington to 
provide public viewing of the test flights. 

38 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

The Silver Hill facility is a revamped preservation, storage, and 
restoration center located about eight miles from the Mall Museum. 
Two hangar-like buildings display air and space craft, engines, pro- 
pellers, models, and other items, enabling enthusiasts to view much 
more of the collection than space permits at the nasm. Labels pro- 
vide information about the items on display. Guided tours are free 
and include a glimpse of the restoration shop where wood, fabric, 
metal, and other specialists work on the aircraft. 

The objects available for viewing at Silver Hill change as artifacts 
are moved for restoration work, exhibition in the Mall Museum, or 
loaned to other institutions. The fifty-five display aircraft at the new 
Silver Hill facility have included the Hawker Hurricane IIC, a fa- 
mous World War II British fighter; the Messerschmitt 163B, the 
first operational rocket-powered aircraft; a Bell Model 30, the first 
successful two-bladed helicopter; and several significant general 
aviation aircraft. Also on display are some of the Chinese kites that 
started the Smithsonian's aeronautics collection in 1876 when they 
were donated after the Centennial exhibition. 

About thirty astronautics artifacts are displayed including the 
Able-Baker missile nose cone from the Jupiter vehicle which car- 
ried two monkeys aloft in 1960; a model of Surveyor, the space- 
craft that soft-landed on the moon in preparation for Apollo flights; 
and the entrance hatch from John Glenn's Friendship 7 Mercury 

National Museum of Man, Center for the Study of Man 

In October 1976 the administration of the Center for the Study of 
Man was turned over to Dr. Porter M. Kier, who is also the Director 
of the National Museum of Natural History and the National Mu- 
seum of Man. Under this new direction, concerted efforts were 
made during 1977 to accelerate the preparation and production of 
the Handbook of North American Indians. The Handbook is a com- 
prehensive encyclopedia that, when completed, will comprise 
twenty volumes and well over one thousand scholarly articles. It 
is written from the perspectives of anthropology, history, and 

Science I 39 

Most volumes will be studies of tribal culture and history by 
area, such as the Northeast, the Southwest, and the Plains. Sev- 
eral other are thematically organized, such as language, technol- 
ogy, and the visual arts, and the history of Indian-White relations. 
The editing on two volumes, Northeast and California, was com- 
pleted in 1977, and both were sent into mechanical production. 
Plans are to complete the first of two Southwest volumes and the 
Subarctic volume in 1978. The organization of the efforts of hun- 
dreds of scholars who are contributors to the Handbook, and the 
work of editing, researching, and preparing the Handbook, is the 
responsibility of General Editor William C. Sturtevant, Curator of 
North American Ethnology in the National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, and a staff of thirteen. 

Coordination of production of the Handbook is a major admin- 
istrative undertaking in that the work of over 1,000 author-con- 
tributors must be solicited, kept track of, and paid for. In many 
subject areas there is only one person or at most a few people in 
the world who can prepare the articles needed, and it is frequently 
ncessary to adjust to their tight and changing schedules. 

The extremely high quality which will be the hallmark of the 
Handbook when it is completed derives principally from the schol- 
arship of the authors who are contributing the Handbook's arti- 
cles. In large measure, however, the quality will also be traceable 
to the care which is lavished upon the editing and preparation of 
support materials such as illustrations and indexing. Great pains 
are being taken by the Handbook staff to assure that the very best 
and most appropriate illustrations are found or created to supple- 
ment an author's text, that Indian words and place names are 
checked thoroughly, that an exhaustive index is prepared to the 
concepts and terms in the volumes, and that an extensive cross- 
indexed bibliography is prepared for each article as well as for 
each volume. All of the effort, on the part of authors and staff, is 
meant to insure that the Handbook will be an accurate, reliable 
reference work for many years to come. 

Research on American Indian problems, and liaison with the 
Indian community, has continued during 1977 under the direction 
of Dr. Sam Stanley. Dr. Stanley administers the Urgent Anthro- 
pology Program, which, by means of small grants, supports the 
timely study of projects dealing with the American Indians. 

40 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


The National Anthropological Film Center (nafc) came to the 
Smithsonian Institution in 1976 under the direction of Dr. E. Rich- 
ard Sorenson "as a means to forge beyond the too narrow view of 
the human condition as biological organization or collections of 
artifacts." It is now using the scholarly potential of film to explore 
and reveal the range of human qualities and behavior of our di- 
verse and changing world. Bridging science and humanities, it 
draws from the materials and methods of both. 

Many distinguished scholars and citizens have supported the 
Center and its work. One of these was Dr. Margaret Mead who 
said on behalf of the Center's efforts : 

Future scholars might well consider the loss of knowledge 
of the vanishing, as yet unexamined independent experiments 
in living one of the tragic losses of our time. Some of these 
ways of life reflect conditions important in our behavioral 
and cultural evolution; some reveal special expressions of hu- 
man organization potential; many tell us about the nature of 
the human condition elsewhere in our growing 'one world'. 

New research opportunities in third-world nations for scholarship 
have been identified by Dr. Sorenson in the past year. 

Micronesia. Last summer Dr. Sorenson visited Micronesia. Tra- 
ditional culture which had been so widespread and active during 
his last fieldwork in 1965 had virtually faded away. Only three, 
out-of-the-way islands still supported a way of life which could 
be said to be traditional. One of the team members was from 
these islands and had been in training for a year at the Center. 
As the son of a late paramount Chief of Ulithi, he was able to 
provide rapid entree and acceptance for the work. As filmer he 
documented in a way which Western eyes would not permit. As a 
team member he greatly facilitated the completion of this first 
phase of the study. 

Brazil. From Micronesia Dr. Sorenson went to one of the last 
great refuges of isolated, independently evolved ways of life in the 
world — Brazil. A great worry had been that in recent years most of 
the isolated Indian regions have been increasingly barred to for- 
eigners. At the same time, the Trans-Amazonia Highway, and its 

Science I 41 

feeder roads, have opened vast regions of this once isolated area 
to rapid change. 

A summer earlier, he had been invited by Dr. William Crocker to 
begin a film study of the Canela Indian tribe which the latter has 
been studying for eighteen years. Permission was received to film 
these not-so-isolated Indians. The President of the National Indian 
Foundation of Brazil became interested in the Center's techniques 
and efforts. Dr. Sorenson was invited to begin similar film studies 
in Brazil in the most isolated and sensitive Indian regions. 

Among the Canela, it was discovered, there is a culturally pat- 
terned childhood which permitted a society to develop in which 
unusually free expressions of human individuality strengthened 
group solidarity. Indeed, the social solidarity of the Canela people 
is one of the remarkable features of their kind of life, a fact al- 
ready remarked on by Dr. Crocker. A quite different condition 
prevails in Western societies, where individuality and solidarity 
are different kinds of things which oppose one another. Thus, the 
implications of the study not only touch on previously unknown 
possibilities in psychosocial patterning, but also on the very nature 
of inquiry itself. 

Cook Islands. Premier Albert Henry of the Cook Islands also 
has taken a personal interest in nafc efforts, feeling that they were 
useful in helping him define a cultural identity for the Cook 
Islands people. He has invited nafc to start studies on any of the 
dispersed islands and atolls in a nation which contains elements of 
all three of the major Polynesian groups. 

Papua New Guinea. The nafc received an unprecedented invi- 
tation to work directly with the new Institute of Papua New 
Guinea Studies throughout the country in locations the Center 
may select. This is unusual in that the Institute ordinarily limits 
itself to determining research policy for the nation and advising 
the University on who it may allow into the country for research 
and what kinds of research will be permitted. That the Institute 
wants to work directly with nafc is very promising. 

Nepal. Dr. Sorenson's visit to Nepal this year brought an unus- 
ual and unprecedented invitation to work directly with the Royal 
Nepal Academy to study and film traditional ways of life and 
culture across the entire country. 

It is a unique region to which the nafc may now go with its 

42 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

cameras and scholars. Two of the earth's major different kinds of 
people touch and mix in Nepal: the Indo-Europeans of the south 
and the Central Asiatics of Tibet and Mongolia. The contact be- 
tween East and West here was ancient and persistent. As a result, 
many unique, fascinating approaches to life have been spawned. 
Several of these still remain in the isolated regions of Nepal. 

Pakistan. The Minister of Education has opened up the Hunza 
region, a part of Pakistan which was closed to all foreigners and 
where even our own embassy had not been able to get an observer. 
In this isolated and extraordinary region, deep in the central Kara- 
koram Mountains, there was an independently evolved, isolated, 
civilized development among people who are not related linguis- 
tically or behaviorally to the others in this part of the world. Social 
harmony was high, health unusually good; many individuals lived 
to over one hundred years of age. The nafc had full cooperation 
and assistance from all levels and was able not just to survey the 
Hunza Valley, but north even to the Sinkiang border, through 
other tribes and peoples. Now being built through Hunza, and on 
to China, is the new Karakoram Highway — a major effort to link 
China and Pakistan with an all-weather modern highway. This will 
be opened to some traffic in about a year. Then, the isolation and 
independent life-style of the people there will be quickly altered. 

All these opportunities are remarkable. They are in those very 
countries which contain the greatest reserves of independently 
evolved and tribal cultures in the world. Some of these ways of life 
reflect conditions important in our behavioral and cultural evolu- 
tion; some reveal special expressions of human organizational 
capability; many tell us about the nature of human forces else- 
where in our growing "one world." 


The Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies (rues), 
during fiscal year 1977, more successfully than ever continued to 
carry out a program fostering the ongoing study of the impact of 
contemporary immigration upon and its discernible implications 
for the future of the United States and the internal community. 

During the past year, the rues staff brought to fruition its con- 
tribution to the commemoration of the Bicentennial of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. In November 1976 the Institute convened a three- 

Science / 43 

day national conference which explored the topic of "The New 
Immigration: Implications for the United States and the Interna- 
tional Community." Participating were two hundred registered 
guests representing academia, governmental and diplomatic circles, 
foundations, and special interest groups, including participants 
from France, Canada, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, England, 
Germany, Puerto Rico, and Colombia. 

In addition to its value as a contribution to the nation's Bicen- 
tennial celebrations, the conference was important because it 
marked a turning point for the Research Institute in its efforts to 
bring together what had been (for want of an identifiable "clear- 
ing center") disparate streams of research and discrete, compart- 
mentalized foci of study. 

Before the conclusion of the national conference rues had al- 
ready begun negotiations for publication of the conference pro- 
ceedings, continued research on topics revealed at the conference 
as well as lacunae uncovered therein, and continued development 
of public and professional information channels. 

Rues has sought to strengthen cooperative relationships with 
other units of the Smithsonian in order to utilize the varied media, 
programmatic and educational networks, and skills available with- 
in the Institution. Links were developed between rues and the 
Division of Performing Arts and the Smithsonian Associates for 
co-sponsorship of a performance by an immigrant artist-musician, 
a documentary film presentation by a Cantonese-American ethno- 
cinematographer and a workshop-seminar co-sponsored by the 
Office of Symposia and Seminars on "Re-evaluating the Asian- 
American Image: Themes in Sociological Literature." 

A number of small research projects were completed this year. 
The projects attempted to locate sources of data for various pop- 
ulations, including rural and urban migrant workers in California, 
Vietnamese refugees at Camp Pendleton, California, and Puerto 
Ricans and Virgin Islanders in New York City. Two bibliographies 
were completed through rues funding. One dealt with immigra- 
tion to the United States since 1965, and the other with Caribbean 
immigration, rues funded research resulting in a taxonomy of im- 
migration theory. Research continued into the characteristics of 
new immigrants to the United States and the implications of this 
continuing immigration. 

44 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Research also continued into sources of data on United States 
immigration and immigrants, and the quality of those data. The 
project was expanded to include sources of international migration 
data and a consideration of methodologies used to study immi- 
gration. Research on a bibliography dealing with the immigration 
of women was initiated. This research will focus on the character- 
istics and impacts of the process upon the participants. Planning was 
completed for a study of non-European immigrant families, to be 
carried out in 1978. Preliminary probing was begun on research on 
the Panama Canal Zone and the study of immigration patterns and 
policies in Egypt. 

National Museum of Natural History 

The National Museum of Natural History opened its new Natu- 
ralist Center in December 1976 and put out a welcome mat for 
a large group of amateur naturalists. The Museum's exhibits have 
shifted to a style of conceptual presentation that requires fewer 
specimens and brief labels. Increasingly, visitors find that looking 
at specimens in glass display cases is not adequate; they want to 
touch, examine, and test. To satisfy their curiosity, they need study 
collections placed at their disposal. The Museum reserves its pri- 
mary study collections for the use of scientists and scholars, but at 
the Naturalist Center an alternative has been assembled, a collec- 
tion of specimens that is not composed of irreplaceable one-of-a- 
kind objects. Amateurs may handle this systematic collection, see 
how it is managed, and be able to compare these items with their 
own. The response has been enthusiastic. Thousands have visited 
the Center's spacious work area located on the second level of the 
Museum's new West Court Building. Many have brought with 
them materials or photographs of materials that they want to have 
identified and learn about. Docents on duty assist visitors and ex- 
plain the Center's reference facilities. What commences as mild 
curiosity often grows into fascination and deeper interest. There 
is an increasing number of regular users working on projects of 
special interest. 

Science I 45 

Scientists recently became aware that lichen growth was disfig- 
uring the monumental stone tablets left by the Mayans in Guate- 
mala and Honduras. Infestations of these plants were penetrating 
and eroding the stone, blurring and softening the sharp details of 
the inscriptions carved by the Mayans. 

The National Museum of Natural History lichenologist, Dr. 
Mason E. Hale, was invited by authorities to study the problem 
at Quirgua, Guatemala, and Copan, Honduras. Funding was pro- 
vided by the Smithsonian and the National Geographic Society. 
Dr. Hale found the monuments densely covered by lichens, the 
growth of which posed a twofold threat. Rock crystals were being 
broken up by moisture in the lichen cover, swelling when it rained 
and shrinking when it was dry and, at the same time, rock minerals 
were being disintegrated by lichen acid excretions. Asked to rec- 
ommend a method for controlling this, Dr. Hale experimented with 
mild bleach, borates, and phenolic solutions that Europeans have 
used in recent years to combat lichen growth on tombstones and 
buildings. He discovered that a single spraying of a sodium hypo- 
chlorite commercial bleach on an afflicted area killed the more sensi- 
tive lichen and after four months made it possible to brush the 
rock surface clean with a soft brush. Tougher lichen crusts had to 
be sprayed a second time. Under Dr. Hale's supervision a two- 
year spraying program was initiated to clean the monuments at 
Quirgua and Copan. He is now looking for another spray solution 
that will leave an active residue and prevent the airborne lichen 
from colonizing the monuments a second time. 

In August 1976, Soufriere Volcano on the island of Guadeloupe 
in the French West Indies appeared ready to erupt. Dense clouds 
of ash were spewing from the volcano, and hundreds of earth- 
quakes were recorded each day. French authorities ordered the 
immediate evacuation of all 72,000 persons living on the flanks of 
the volcano. A French scientific team was on the scene and, at the 
invitation of the government of Guadeloupe, National Museum of 
Natural History volcanologist, Dr. Richard S. Fiske, assisted in 
monitoring the volcano's activity. 

In the weeks that followed, Dr. Fiske and his French colleagues 
installed tilt-monitoring stations on the flanks of the volcano. Rods 
40 to 50 meters apart, forming a square, triangle, or line, were set 
into the slopes and optically surveyed to detect slight changes in 

46 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Above, Dr. Robert Gibbs (standing), National Museum of Natural History ichthy- 
ologist, and biological team ready depth-sampling gear as part of their research to 
determine what impact industrial chemical wastes are having on deep-ocean fishes 
and other animal populations in the Atlantic. Below, Dr. Mason Hale, National 
Museum of Natural History lichenologist, sprays Mayan monument that was being 
damaged by lichen growth. Authorities at Quirgua, Guatemala, and Copan, Hon- 
duras, invited Dr. Hale to help them solve the problem. 












City streets of the capital city of Guadeloupe in the French West Indies are 
deserted following evacuation. The active Soufriere Volcano looms in the dis- 
tance. At the invitation of the government of Guadeloupe, National Museum 
of Natural History volcanologist, Dr. Richard S. Fiske, assisted a French sci- 
entific team in monitoring the volcano's activity. Below: Scientists at a tilt 
station are checking the Soufriere's volcanic activity. 

ground tilt. If tilt occurs, it is a warning that the volcano is being 
inflated by rising magma and is in danger of erupting violently. 

After the crisis on Guadeloupe and the evacuation of mid- 
August 1976, the volcano continued to be restless for the rest of 
the year. Fifty to a hundred earthquakes were detected each day, 
and steam and ash billowed almost continuously from the summit 
of the volcano; however, scientists monitoring the tilt stations 
were not able to detect any significant swelling of the volcano, 
and the government began to allow the evacuated people to return 
to their homes. In early 1977, the volcano's tempo of activity be- 
gan to dwindle and by spring things had returned to normal. 
French scientists are employing the tilt stations and other monitor- 
ing methods to keep a close watch on Soufriere, as the island be- 
gins to recover from the serious socioeconomic disruption caused 
by the temporary relocation of one-quarter of its population. 

Tilt stations have been established now with Dr. Fiske's assist- 
ance on the flanks of three potentially dangerous Lesser Antillean 
volcanoes: Montagne Pelee (Martinique), Soufriere (St. Vincent), 
and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat). 

A biological team headed by the National Museum of Natural 
History ichthyologist, Dr. Robert Gibbs, is trying to find out what 
impact industrial chemical wastes are having on deep-ocean fishes 
and other animal populations in the Atlantic. Two research cruises 
were made on National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Admin- 
istration vessels to a dump site for industrial wastes abutting the 
continental slope one-hundred miles off the coast of New Jersey. 
Hundreds of marine organisms were taken at different depths with 
an electronically operated discrete-depth sampler. Dr. Gibbs was 
familiar with many of the fish captured from experience gained 
earlier in project "Ocean Acre," a survey that has amassed data 
about the life histories and vertical distribution of deep-sea fishes 
in a column of ocean off the coast of Bermuda. 

Much of this Ocean Acre work — the only multi-season survey 
of the vertical distribution of Western Atlantic fish ever conducted 
— was applicable in the dump-site study. Because the pollutants 
disperse rapidly, dropping into the ocean depths and layering out, 
Dr. Gibbs was particularly interested in those fishes that he knew 
stay in the twilight zone depths during the day and then relocate 
nearer the surface during the evening hours. Dr. Gibbs' thought 

Science I 49 

was that these fishes were prime candidates to carry the pollutants. 
Fishes and other organisms sampled at the two cruises are now 
under study. Scientists at the University of Rhode Island, Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution, and the Amsterdam Zoological 
Museum are also participating in these studies. 

As the dumping continues, the data Dr. Gibbs' team has amassed 
about the distribution, abundance, and habits of these organisms 
will provide a baseline that will make it possible to detect change, if 
any, in the fish and animal populations at the site. 

On the July 1975 trip, water conditions at the site were compli- 
cated because of the presence of a large, warm-water eddy, 100 
miles in diameter and 600 meters deep. Easily seen and followed 
through satellite photography, the eddies originate when they are 
pinched off the Gulf Stream in the region of Nova Scotia and New 
England. They move to the west and south parallel to the conti- 
nental slope until they are sucked back into the Gulf Stream, some 
of them reaching the vicinity of Cape Hatteras. Apparently the 
dump site is regularly traversed by these eddies. 

Smithsonian scientists recovered an abundance of typical Sar- 
gasso-sea fishes in the core of the eddy, along with other fishes 
characteristic of the Slope Water that lies shoreward of the Gulf 
Stream. But the farther west from the core they sampled, in the 
direction of the continental slope, the fewer fish there were. Assum- 
ing that the ships and barges carrying wastes are traveling no 
farther away from land than is necessary, most of the dumping is 
probably taking place along the western boundary of the dump site. 
The paucity of fish in this area suggests that the dumping could 
be affecting fish population. 

The National Museum of Natural History is the only major 
science institution in the United States where full-time taxonomic 
studies are being conducted on amphipods, tiny shrimplike marine 
creatures crucial to monitoring programs that guard against marine 
pollution off the coast of southern California. By understanding 
the physiological tolerance of amphipods to oil and sewage, scien- 
tists are able to determine the level at which pollution will disrupt 
the entire marine ecosystem. 

The Museum's Dr. J. Laurens Barnard has published 120 papers 
on amphipod taxonomy since joining the staff in 1964. Because of 

50 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Dr. J. Laurens Barnard in his laboratory. Dr. Barnard's taxonomic studies of 
amphipods have been invaluable to monitoring programs that guard against 
marine pollution off the coast of southern California. (Photo by Doc Dougherty) 
Below: Amphipod (Uschakoviella echinophora). (Drawing by Clarence Shoemaker) 

his research, the biological characteristics of California amphipods 
are so well known that scientists in that state are able to make 
them the basis of an important part of their pollution safeguard 
technology. Seven counties and two urban areas in California now 
monitor the water near sewage outfalls. If variations in the popu- 
lations of amphipods are detected, an investigation follows. 

Large die-offs of amphipod populations mean that chromates or 
other heavy metal industrial pollutants have probably come out of 
the sewer. Another sign of trouble is the presence of certain species 
of amphipods known to feed on harmful sewage pollutants. 

Amphipod populations also warn of water-quality deterioration 
caused by offshore oil well and tanker spills, and Dr. Barnard cur- 
rently is working on studies of amphipods living in two bays on 
the coast of southern Australia where tanker ports are to be estab- 
lished. They are the only two large bays on the southern Australian 
coast, and if pollution occurs there it could mean the death of all 
the marine and estuarine life in one major biological region of the 
world. Three large descriptive volumes have been published on the 
region's amphipods with four more to come, and the Australians 
are using the information to plan monitoring programs that will 
protect their waters from deterioration. 

Museum geologist Dr. J. W. Pierce has been studying sediment 
discharge into the Chesapeake Bay and into the waters off the 
coasts of North and South America. One of his discoveries is that 
much of the sediment suspended in water is included in aggregates, 
composed of mineral grains and organic matter. Phytoplankton 
often are associated with the aggregates, as are bacteria. The fine 
mineral particles and organic matter have the ability to absorb some 
trace metals and pesticides. Thus, the aggregates often are micro- 
environments consisting of small mineral grains, organic matter, 
bacteria, phytoplankton, pesticides, and metals that may bear little 
relationship to the environment of the stream or estuary as a 
whole. Fish, decapods, and other grazers and filter feeders ingest 
these tiny aggregates (5 to 100 millimeters in diameter) for their 
food value, and at the same time, are exposed to the metals and 
pesticides. Larger mineral grains usually are not associated with 
organic matter and phytoplankton, and Dr. Pierce sees no evidence 
that these larger grains provide the same micro-environment as the 

52 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Other sediment studies conducted by Dr. Pierce bear on the 
problems that can arise when the mass of discharged sediment be- 
comes so great that it causes excessive siltation of harbors, clogs 
rivers, overwhelms benthic communities, and degrades the esthetic 
value of recreational water areas. Dr. Pierce has shown that, for 
the Patuxent River Basin in Maryland, as much as 82 percent of 
the sediment transported by the streams came from construction 
sites which occupied only 23 percent of the area of the Basin. Most 
of this material is deposited in the upper Patuxent estuary, result- 
ing in a filling rate of 3.7 centimeters per year. 

Working with scientists from the Smithsonian's Chesapeake Bay 
Center, Dr. Pierce is also attempting to determine the amount of 
sediment discharged from different land uses in the Rhode River 
watershed, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Several small water- 
sheds, each with multiple land uses, are monitored to determine 
how much sediment is derived from each watershed. Monitoring is 
also done to determine how much is deposited in tidal marshes and 
on mudflats and how much is exported to the estuary proper. 

Southwestern Afghanistan's Sistan Desert, a 5,000-square-mile 
area the Afghans know as Dash-i Jehanum, "Desert of Hell," is 
a country that Lord Curzon once described as one of the most un- 
attractive, inhospitable, and odious places on earth. It is this region 
of solitude and sand that National Museum of Natural History 
archeologist Dr. William Trousdale has been investigating. 

Once this region welcomed man. During long periods from the 
sixth century b.c. until the fifteenth century a.d., hundreds of thou- 
sands of persons lived there, supported by such agricultural plenty 
that geographers called this area the "granary of the east." Today, 
vast sand dunes have buried much of what has survived of this 
civilization, covering manor houses, villages, dozens of palaces, 
temples, forts, vast walled compounds, and at least three cities a 
square mile in extent. The most spectacular of the ruins that still 
stand belongs to the Islamic period, particularly to the Ghaznavid 
and Timurid empires which ruled the major portions of the Iranian 
world during the eleventh and fifteenth centuries. Part of the 
Trousdale team's work was to photo-document what still stands of 
these Islamic ruins, which are crumbling so rapidly that within 
fifty years more than half of what remains today will be gone. It is 
probably the best place in the world, and perhaps the only place, 

Science I 53 

to study unaltered fifteenth-century sacred and secular Islamic 

Dr. Trousdale's excavations have revealed the key to Sistan's 
past prosperity — a sophisticated system of dams and canals that 
controlled the waters of Afghanistan's Helmand River. At Sar-O- 
Tar, the Sistan's most remarkable urban complex, water to supply 
the city and its neighboring farms traveled fifty miles through a 
huge, high-banked canal. Dozens of smaller canals, some of them 
longer than the great trunk itself, watered the surrounding region. 
Dr. Trousdale's team mapped the city's canals, discovered how the 
ancient gravity-fed irrigation system had worked and identified 
crops that the canal water had nurtured. 

Sistan's complex system of water distribution dates back to the 
third or second millennium b.c. Neither the opening nor the closing 
dates for this unknown civilization have been determined yet, but 
it is known that in addition to being superb engineers, these people 
manufactured elegant stone weapons and fine polychrome pottery. 

The first known period of sanding and abandonment took place 
in Sistan before the first century b.c. From the first century b.c. to 
the third century a.d., another period of occupation was archeolog- 
ically documented by Dr. Trousdale through coins, and storage jars 
stamped with the insignia of the third-century Crown Prince Sha- 
pur and others. Then from the third to the ninth century a.d., the 
Sistan appears to have been deserted again. 

The Sistan's last period of occupation began in the ninth century 
a.d. Ancient historians record that Genghis Khan's hordes sacked 
Sar-O-Tar in the thirteenth century a.d., ending two centuries of 
prosperity. Evidence of this decline as well as a revival that came 
a century later under the rule of Tamerlane was uncovered by Dr. 
Trousdale. Another political decline followed a century later. The 
canal system broke down, and sand blew out of ancient lake beds, 
burying the region, driving out the population, and sealing off the 
area. Today, only roving Baluchs and a few Afghan soldiers sta- 
tioned at small military posts remain in Sistan. 

Dr. Trousdale hypothesizes that the periodic sanding of the Sis- 
tan may be a cyclical phenomenon. Twice, after periods of desola- 
tion and emptiness lasting from 600 to 1,000 or more years, the 
region cleared itself of sand and was reinhabited by man. It is not 
beyond the realm of possibility that someday Sistan may flourish 

54 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Sar-O-Tar, a remarkable urban complex in southwestern Afghanistan's Sistan 
Desert; this region inhabited from the sixth century B.C. until the fifteenth century 
a.d. is being investigated by a team of scientists headed by Dr. William Trousdale, 
National Museum of Natural History archeologist. Below; Dr. Trousdale examines 
an inscribed funerary tile recovered from a fifteenth-century mausoleum. 

again and that the study he has made of the area's ancient and 
contemporary hydrology and agriculture may assist in this rehabili- 

Lakes and rivers that are sources of drinking water are being 
monitored by ecologists who rely on variations in the density and 
composition of certain aquatic insect populations to help warn them 
of the onset of water degradation. Aquatic insects are also under 
scrutiny by public health officials as potential transmitters of dis- 
ease. Before studies and programs based on this knowledge can be 
fully developed, basic taxonomic keys must be produced so that 
ecologists and public health experts can have at their fingertips bio- 
logical information with which to identify aquatic insects through- 
out the world. 

The National Museum of Natural History's Dr. Paul J. Spangler 
and Dr. Oliver S. Flint, Jr., are working on aquatic insect keys 
needed in South America, but have found it very difficult to acquire 
sufficient study material to solve biosystematic and zoogeographic 
problems. For this reason, the opportunity to train and work with 
three Peace Corps entomologists in a five-year comprehensive sur- 
vey of all of Ecuador's aquatic insect fauna was welcomed by the 
two Smithsonian scientists as an important opportunity. When the 
study is completed, it will mark the first time a South American 
country has ever had all of its aquatic insects surveyed. 

Collecting at localities throughout Ecuador, under the supervi- 
sion of Dr. Flint and Dr. Spangler, Peace Corps entomologists 
Andrea Langley and Jeff Cohen from 1975 through 1977 shipped 
thousands of aquatic insects to the Museum of Natural History. 
Peace Corps entomologist Joseph Anderson is expected to continue 
the collecting through 1979. Specimens are sorted at the Museum 
and one set is returned to the Tumbaco Experimental Station near 
Quito, Ecuador. The Museum is distributing its specimens to inves- 
tigators who will publish authoritative studies, banking the re- 
mainder of the material in its reference collection where it can be 
made available to future workers. 

Dr. Spangler, an authority on water beetles, is incorporating sur- 
vey material into several generic revisions he has underway of the 
Western Hemisphere's aquatic beetles, and is investigating a genus 
of little-known water scavenger beetles that were collected by 
Langley and Cohen from the water-filled pods of Heliconia plants 

56 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

growing in the lowland forests of the Amazon Basin in eastern 
Ecuador. He has made several trips to Ecuador to train the Peace 
Corps workers and to collect. On one of these trips Dr. Yiau-Min 
Huang of the Smithsonian's Medical Entomology Project accom- 
panied him and during seven weeks of field work reared more than 
2,000 mosquitoes from the larval through the pupal to the adult 
stage, thus providing the Museum of Natural History with one of 
the best collections of these aquatic insects available from South 

Dr. Flint, a specialist on caddisflies, is finding the Ecuador mat- 
terial pertinent to studies he has in progress on the fauna of the 
Central Amazon Basin and the northern coastal ranges of Vene- 
zuela. In addition to the production of keys, one of the great bene- 
fits of the Ecuador study is to further refine knowledge of the pat- 
tern of distribution of various known types of South American 
aquatic insects. Dr. Flint is finding that caddisflies he has studied 
from Costa Rica and Venezuela and thought were restricted to 
those regions are also distributed south along the Andes slope as 
far as Ecuador. 

National Zoological Park 

The National Zoological Park enjoyed an event-filled year in 1977. 
New exhibits proved popular with both visitors and animals. Edu- 
cational innovations helped the visitors to better understand the 
animals, their importance, and the National Zoo's responsibilities. 
Attractive and functional graphic presentations also aided the vis- 
itor. Research into visitors' expectations and subsequent impressions 
enhanced exhibit construction. For the first time in the Zoo's long 
history, all facets of a visitor's experience were in the Zoo's domain, 
when the Friends of the National Zoo (fonz) took over operation of 
all food and concession services. Scientific studies continued to de- 
velop new understanding of the behavior, sociology, communication, 
and nutritional needs of rare and endangered animals. Health ad- 
vances were made and shared broadly with other zoos and institu- 

Science I 57 


Fiscal year 1977 saw the first full year's operation of a new big-cat 
complex, the Dr. William M. Mann Lion-Tiger Exhibit. By the end 
of summer 1976, it was filled with lions, tigers, leopards, clouded 
leopards, and jaguars. The new complex permitted the important 
addition to the collection of one male and three female Atlas lions 
on loan from the National Zoo of Rabat, Morocco. These lions and 
the few remaining in Rabat are among the last members — all in cap- 
tivity — of the subspecies Panther a leo leo extinct in the wild since 
the 1930s. The complex itself was selected as one of ten outstanding 
examples of federally sponsored architecture in 1976. 

The new Education-Administration Building was occupied in Feb- 
ruary 1977, by staff of the National Zoo. In addition to offices of 
the Director, Deputy Director, Education and Information, and 
Management Services, it houses the executive offices of the Friends 
of the National Zoo. The building has a low profile with grassy, 
sloped sides — a visually pleasing and an energy-saving architectural 

The building houses the Zoo Library which supports research 
and management activities. It also contains classrooms and a 300- 
seat theater where weekend visitors enjoy informative wildlife and 
zoo films in air-conditioned comfort. 

A resources room is now being readied for use in 1978. This 
room will serve as a self-teaching library for family groups and 
others who wish to know more about particular animals they have 
grown fond of or curious about during their Zoo visits. Art ex- 
hibits and changing graphic presentations will welcome each vis- 
itor to the Education-Administration Building. Information can be 
obtained by visitors and their questions answered by knowledge- 
able Zoo docents, who will also be sure visitors are made aware of 
unique events taking place in the Zoo on the days of their visits. 

Also, the Bird House area was renovated. The crane area empha- 
sizes barrier-free design and breeding potential; already the sarus 
crane and Stanley's crane have produced young. Four outdoor ex- 
hibits for hardy bird species were constructed. A new Flamingo 
Exhibit allows year-round exhibition with a heated, glass-fronted 
house with pool and sand floor for winter. The front of the Bird 
House is approached through three waterfowl ponds, which include 
natural nesting conditions. Off-exhibit yards are available for rais- 

58 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Atlas lion cub born to one of several Atlas lions on loan to the National 
Zoological Park from the National Zoo in Rabat, Morocco. The Atlas lion has 
been extinct in the wild since the 1930s. 

ing young birds. The interior of the Bird House was redone to 
demonstrate relationships between species. 

In the Small Mammal House, old, small metal cages in the noc- 
turnal room were replaced with longer, interconnecting block 
cages. This allows more space per animal and permits the combina- 
tion of areas for larger or more active species. Elsewhere in the 
building, natural materials, improved exhibits, and experimental 
mixed-species exhibits are featured. 

New bear exhibits, one for polar bears and another for grizzlies 
and other species, housed animals by August 1977. These exhibits 
provide natural-appearing rock work, large water moats, and free 
space for the bears. The Polar Bear Exhibit invites the visitor to an 
exciting underwater view of the animals. The entire polar bear area 
simulates a large iceberg. 

In all, two-thirds of the new animals added to the collection in 
fiscal year 1977 were born at the National Zoo. The gravest loss 
was the death of the American black bear, who had been the offi- 
cial Smokey Bear for twenty-six years. Other losses were the fe- 
male Asian elephant Shanthi, the male African forest elephant, 
Dzimbo, and a male Chinese alligator which had been added to the 
collection in 1937. Noteworthy additions to the collection included 
markhors, the first at the National Zoo in over twenty years; the 
Atlas lions; three Aldabra tortoises; Caribbean flamingoes and 
kookaburras. For the Zoo's breeding efforts with the rare kiwi, the 
American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums awarded 
the National Zoo one of its top honors, the Edward Bean Award. In 
addition, the Zoo received a conservation award from the Associ- 
ation for the fiftieth successful breeding of the endangered pygmy 


Other awards recognized the National Zoo's emphasis on realizing 
the educational importance of the collection. Two films produced 
to complement the new Lion-Tiger Exhibit were especially well 
received. The Big Cats And How They Came To Be received the 
Golden Eagle Prize of the Council on International Nontheatrical 
Events. The Zoo was invited to show Big Cats during the Inter- 
national Week for Education and Teaching films in Berlin; at the 
Fourteenth Yorkton International Film Festival, Yorkton, Saskatche- 

60 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

wan, Canada; and Sixth International Film Festival in New Delhi 
India. The other film, Tiger, won the first prize audiovisual award 
at the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums 
annual convention in October 1976. A film, Zoo, produced by the 
Friends of the National Zoo (a service organization made up of dedi- 
cated and energetic lovers of the National Zoo has won over a dozen 
national and international awards. It is available to schools and 
libraries throughout the nation. 

Other activities and products to enhance a visit to the Zoo were 
tours for school groups, including special guides for handicapped 
persons, new bilingual (Spanish and English) labeling of all exhib- 
its; and ZooBook, a guide, of such quality and importance that it 
survives the owner's visit to become an often-used addition to home 

A new trail system has been developed to make it easier for 
visitors to see the animals. Each trail is marked by totems with 
attractive pictographs of major animals to be seen on it, as well as 
by footprints of a "theme" animal for that trail. 


As the nation's Zoo, the National Zoo in 1977 did more than ever 
before to disseminate its learning in animal management, health, 
and basic research to other zoos and concerned institutions. Over 
forty publications issued from National Zoo staffers. A number of 
students and future zoo careerists were hosted and trained at the 
National Zoo. Cooperative breeding agreements saw over 160 ani- 
mals belonging to the National Zoo on loan to other zoos, and 70 
animals were on loan from others to the National Zoo. Zoo veter- 
inarians conducted seminars for professionals of other zoos on 
health issues. 

Zoo scientists made presentations before such organizations 
as the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, 
Animal Behavior Society, Ornithologists' Union, Wilson Ornitho- 
logical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, and a London symposium on breeding rare and endangered 
species. On matters of such common interest as the breeding of 
exotic animals and diseases affecting them, the National Zoo spon- 
sored two symposia at which national authorities considered ways 
to improve Zoo performance. The Front Royal Conservation and 

Science I 61 

Research Center of the National Zoo, in the short space of its three 
years' existence, is on the road to becoming one of the nation's 
focal points in the cooperative breeding of irreplaceable animals 
and field research into their behavior. 

In basic research, the National Zoo continued its diverse activi- 
ties to improve awareness of the influences on rare and endangered 
animals. Studies in Venezuela have determined the carrying capac- 
ity of the habitat for howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus; that 
patterns of competition and coexistence among cebids and calli- 
trichids are functions of habit and feeding strategies; and that fox 
pairs forage together, but do not hunt cooperatively. Vocal reper- 
toires of bird species in different habitats are being studied, as are 
the thermal ecology of South American pond turtles and the pop- 
ulation dynamics of the caiman. In other field studies, a Zoo re- 
searcher developed a framework for understanding how the physi- 
cal structure of sound relates to motivation and to information 
communicated by vocalizations of mammals and birds. 

Also studied were the maternal care and juvenile behavior of 
harbor seals, which led to techniques for the care and manage- 
ment of harbor seals. Eastern blue birds were studied to determine 
clutch size and reproductive success. Studies in Panama seek to 
understand the sources of natural selection acting upon vocal com- 
munication in congeneric wrens. A Zoo research associate in Java 
undertook a study to see if the number of Javan tigers at the Meru 
Betiri Reserve warranted a management plan for their future pro- 
tection. Many other studies yielded basic scientific data and critical 
information about the complex web of interactions between exotic 
animals and their natural habitats. Many health studies were de- 
veloped to improve the clinical care of exotic animals. 


During the past year, expanded Zoo support programs character- 
ized efforts of the Friends of the National Zoo (fonz), a not-for- 
profit organization established to augment the Zoo's programs. A 
new, diversified educational campaign utilized 50 volunteer guides 
and many printed and visual materials to impart a wider under- 
standing of zoology to more than 30,000 touring school children. 
Bimonthly publications, year-round classes, lectures, films, trips, 
and other special events continued to be offered to the 12,000 fonz 

62 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

members. The FONZ-managed restaurant, gift shop, trackless train, 
and parking lot offered improved services to the public. 

Additionally, approximately 300 fonz volunteers assisted Na- 
tional Zoological Park scientists in animal behavior studies, and 50 
Junior members staged animal-themed puppet shows daily through 
the summer. 

The great majority of net revenue generated by fonz activities 
this past year has been used in furtherance of Zoo education pro- 
grams. In particular, a $52,000 grant program supported a National 
Zoo summer intern program along with various symposia and 
conferences conducted at the Zoo and the Front Royal Conserva- 
tion Center. 

Further detail of fonz's financial operations for calendar year 
1976 (its fiscal year) is shown below. In addition, a percentage of 
the restaurant and parking concessions are available directly to the 
Smithsonian for the benefit of the Zoo and are reported as income 
in the Financial Report of the Smithsonian. 


Financial Report for the Period 

January 1-December 31, 1976 

[In $1,0005] 

Net increase/ 

(decrease) to 

Revenue Expense fund balance 

FUND BALANCE @ 1/1/76 $431 


Membership $ 81 

Publications 47 

Education 1 28 

Zoo Services 2 1,040 

Totals $1,196 

FUND BALANCE @ 12/31/76 

1 Excludes an estimated $55,000 in contributed volunteer services. 

2 Includes gift shop, balloon shop, sightseeing trains, parking service, and food 

3 Includes $120,690 paid during this period to the Smithsonian under contrac- 
tual arrangement. 

4 Funds retained for program activities of the Zoo. 

Science I 63 

$ 90 
828 3 

$ (9) 




Office of International Programs 

The Office of International Programs fosters and coordinates the 
international aspects of Smithsonian programs and also provides 
support to United States institutions of research and higher learn- 
ing, including the Smithsonian, through Special Foreign Currency 
Program grants. Its functions are carried out by sections designated 
as the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program and the Interna- 
tional Liaison Section. 


The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program (sfcp) awards grants 
to support the research interests of American institutions, includ- 
ing the Smithsonian, in those countries where the United States 
holds blocked currencies derived largely from past sales of surplus 
agricultural commodities under Public Law 480. The Program is 
active in countries where the Treasury Department deems United 
States holdings of these currencies to be in excess of normal federal 
requirements, including in 1978 Burma, Egypt, Guinea, India, and 
Pakistan. Research projects are continuing to conclusion under 
Program support in the former excess-currency countries of Israel, 
Morocco, Poland, Sri Lanka, Tunisia and Yugoslavia. 

The Smithsonian has received a fiscal year 1978 appropriation 
of $4 million in "excess" currencies, which will be used to support 
projects in the anthropological sciences, systematic and environ- 
mental biology, astrophysics and earth sciences, and museum pro- 
fessional fields. The Smithsonian received a fiscal year 1977 appro- 
priation of $3.5 million in "excess" currencies that is being used to 
support over fifty projects in these disciplines. From its inception 
in fiscal year 1966, through fiscal year J 977, the sfcp has awarded 
about $30 million in foreign currency grants to some 191 institu- 
tions in 32 states and the District of Columbia. Within the frame- 
work of the Program, the Smithsonian will make a fourth and final 
contribution of $1 million in Egyptian pounds in support of Egypt's 
effort to save the submerged temples of Philae in Nubia. 

The International Liaison Section (ils) provides foreign affairs liai- 

64 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

son and assistance for Smithsonian activities abroad, and for for- 
eign nationals participating in Smithsonian programs in the United 
States. In addition to its liaison responsibilities with the Department 
of State, United States missions abroad, and foreign governments, 
ils is responsible for the administrations of foreign students and ex- 
change-visitor programs at the Smithsonian, foreign travel docu- 
mentation for official Smithsonian travelers, and programming for 
foreign official visitors to the Smithsonian. Foreign visitors to the 
Smithsonian during the year have included those from the People's 
Republic of China Institute for Foreign Affairs and His Holiness, 
the Karmapa Lama from Sikkim. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Plants and animals exist in a sea of energy. This energy is avail- 
able in numerous forms, but the most significant for plants is sun- 
light, from which they are capable of producing their own food 
through photosynthetic reactions. This photosynthetic food is used 
for the growth and development of the plants, and they in turn are 
ingested as a concentrated form of energy by animals. 

In addition, because the environment is exposed at regular, pe- 
riodic intervals to sunlight as the earth rotates daily, both plants 
and animals have evolved elaborate molecular mechanisms for 
using light signals to control their growth and development. These 
mechanisms do not depend upon trapping large amounts of energy 
from sunlight, as is needed in photosynthesis. Rather, they depend 
upon measuring such variables as the length of the day, or changes 
in the color of the light during the day. From such signals, the rate 
of flow of energy through the organism or through whole popula- 
tions may be regulated. The ability to detect these light signals 
confers upon these organisms a large survival advantage. 

The Radiation Biology Laboratory has continued its research em- 
phasis during the last year in several major areas. These are: (1) 
regulatory processes of plants, such as membrane synthesis and 
pigment synthesis; (2) environmental processes and energy flow in 
biological systems, such as photosynthesis and phosphorus me- 
tabolism; (3) the measurement of the amount, duration, and color 
quality of sunlight present in the environment; and (4) the age 

Science I 65 

estimation of biological artifacts based upon their radioactive car- 
bon content. 


Algae grow at varying depths in the ocean. Depending upon the 
depth and the presence of absorbing materials in the water, the 
color of the light varies with depth. Algae have evolved special 
protein structures on membranes within the cells which have ac- 
cessory pigments that enable the algae to absorb the light more 
efficiently for photosynthesis. These phycobiliproteins, the major 
light-harvesting pigments in red and blue-green algae, were isolated 
in their in vivo state as phycobilisomes from eight species. All 
were energetically tightly coupled as reflected by the energy mi- 
gration to the pigment allophycocyanin, low fluorescence polariza- 
tion, and high quantum yield. 

The energy transfer efficiency from phycoerythrin — > phycocy- 
anin -» allophycocyanin was slightly smaller at -196°C than at 
20°C, indicating that a resonance type of energy migration occurs 
in the phycobilisomes as previously proposed. The fluorescence 
quantum yield of phycobilisomes was 0.60 (Porphyridium omen- 
tum) and 0.68 (Nostoc sp.) similar to that of allophycocyanin, 
0.68. The fluorescence quantum yield remained essentially un- 
changed when the ratios of the phycobiliproteins were varied by 
growing cells under different spectral quality of light. In Nostoc 
and Fremyella, where phycoerythrin was greatly decreased in red 
light, the quantum yields only varied from 0.68 to 0.60. Allophyco- 
cyanin is not rate-limiting in transferring the excitation energy to 
chlorophyll, because its rate of de-excitation is much faster than 
the rate of quantum absorption. 

The synthesis of the proteins needed for the chloroplasts which 
are the site of photosynthesis in both algae and higher plants is 
controlled by an interaction between the cytoplasm of the cell and 
other organelles. Ribosomes are the organelles at which protein is 

The relationship between chloroplast, cytoplasm, and prokary- 
ote ribosomes was investigated. Chloroplast ribosomes of the green 
alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have a buoyant density distinctly 
different from reported values for prokaryote ribosomes, but indis- 
tinguishable from cytoplasm ribosomes of Chlamydomonas. 

66 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Chloroplast ribosomes sediment more rapidly during centrifuga- 
tion on sucrose density gradients than has previously been re- 
ported, and thus behave differently than ribosomes of prokaryotes. 
The slower rates of sedimentation which have been reported earlier 
appear to be artifacts due to the dissociation of the ribosomes in 
the gradients during centrifugation. 

Chloroplasts and mitochondria in Chlamydomonas and bean 
seedlings (Phaseolus) have been examined by electron microscopy 
for the presence of cytoplasm ribosomes bound to the envelopes of 
these organelles. Cells were first treated with cycloheximide to pre- 
serve any attachment of the ribosomes to the membranes. Ribo- 
somes of the cytoplasm were not closely associated with the orga- 
nelle envelopes. Thus, it appears that the mechanism for transfer 
of cytoplasm-synthesized organelle proteins into mitochondria and 
chloroplasts does not operate in green plants by the secretory 
process postulated for yeast cells. 

The carotenoid pigments and their oxygenated derivatives, the 
xanthophylls, are responsible for many of the yellow, orange, and 
red colors observed in both plants and animals. Many of these 
compounds act as accessory pigments in photosynthesis, ^-carotene 
is an important carotenoid in the diet of animals, because it is a 
precursor of vitamin A. In many organisms, the carotenoids have 
been shown to protect against adverse effects of visible light. 

In the fungus Neurospora crassa, blue light is required to initiate 
the biosynthesis of at least eight different carotenoid pigments. 
Inhibitor studies indicate that one or more enzyme activities in the 
carotenoid pathway are absent or at low levels in dark-grown 
Neurospora cultures and that these activities increase following the 
light treatment. 

Phytoene, a 40-carbon colorless compound, is a precursor of the 
carotenoid pigments, and phytoene is synthesized from a 5-carbon 
compound, isopentenyl-pyrophosphate (ipp). The enzyme system 
which catalyzes the biosynthesis of phytoene from ipp is being 
investigated. This activity, which is undoubtedly due to more than 
one enzyme, has been partially purified by differential centrifuga- 
tion and ammonium sulfate precipitation. Light induces a 9-fold 
increase in this enzyme activity, and this increase is blocked if 
cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, is added to Neuro- 
spora cultures immediately after the light treatment. These results 

Science I 67 

support the hypothesis that the de novo production of one or more 
of the enzymes required for the conversion of ipp to phytoene is 
regulated by light. 

This enzyme system has been studied in several Neurospora 
albino mutants which produce little or no carotenoids. The enzyme 
system is present in albino-1 mutants, and as with wild type, light 
was shown to induce an increase in the level. The albino-1 strains 
are not blocked in the synthesis of phytoene, but in the conversion 
of this compound to the carotenoid pigments. 

The same blue light photoreceptor which is involved in the in- 
duction of carotenoid synthesis in fungi is also believed to be in- 
volved in the phototropic responses of higher plants. If barley 
seedlings are grown in the presence of the herbicide Sandoz, the 
seedlings do not develop the yellow carotenoid pigments nor the 
green chlorophylls. Such white-grown seedlings, if then exposed 
from one side to a dim blue light, bend toward the blue light 
source. The rate of bending is almost identical to the bending rate 
for untreated dark-grown seedlings. The conclusion is drawn that 
the phototropic pigment is unaffected by the herbicide treatment 
and is probably a flavin molecule, since the carotenoid pigments 
are greatly reduced by the herbicide. 

The process of spore germination in the sensitive fern Onoclea 
sensibilis is inhibited by the presence of small amounts of ethylene. 
If ethylene-inhibited spores are exposed to light, the ethylene in- 
hibition can be overcome. It has not been known if this effect of 
light is through photosynthesis or through the regulatory plant 
pigment phytochrome. One of the ways of testing this hypothesis 
is to determine an action spectrum for the sensitivity of the process 
to various spectral regions of light. Such an action spectrum has 
been determined, and the light release of ethylene inhibition has 
been shown to be a high irradiance response with an action spec- 
trum maximum at 711 nanometers. The response differs from the 
normal phytochrome-mediated high irradiance response in that 
there is no activity by blue light. Such high irradiance responses 
are believed to function through the phytochrome pigment system. 

The phytochrome molecule also acts as the receptor molecule 
for the control of reproductive development. When light signals 
are received from the environment, either inhibition or promotion 
of reproductive development occurs that is dependent upon both 

68 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

the species of plant and the time in the development cycle during 
which the signal is received. Normally, the red portion of sunlight 
predominates during the day, with marked increases in the far red 
portion near sunrise and sunset. Plants apparently respond to the 
length of time between these two far red signals. In order to do 
this, the signal must be received at a time when the plant's internal 
clock reaches maximum sensitivity. When the timing of the clock 
and the signal are in synchrony, some as yet unknown biochemical 
change takes place which leads to flowering. 

Experiments with barley, a plant that requires long daylengths 
to flower, have shown that a far red signal must be present eight- 
een hours after the light comes on, and that if the signal comes 
either before or after this point, flowering is reduced. A method 
has been developed to measure directly the changes in the phyto- 
chrome molecule in the light during the time when the signal is 
present. This was previously impossible due to the presence of 
chlorophyll. The technique removes the chlorophyll by adding the 
herbicide Sandoz allowing direct determination. Also, it has been 
found that a second process is involved, beyond that which occurs 
at eighteen hours, which is required for continued development of 
the flower. This second process is similarly dependent on a far red 
signal and occurs several hours after the first signal. It is possible 
that the sunset signal starts the first process and the sunrise signal 
the second. 

The phytochrome molecule which absorbs these light signals is 
a photoreversible chromoprotein and is present in all photosyn- 
thetic plants. Physiological processes such as seed germination, 
flowering, dormancy, and pigmentation are also controlled by phy- 
tochrome. Sunlight converts the protein from its inactive form to 
its active form. The active form can then revert slowly to the in- 
active form in darkness, be converted to the inactive form by light, 
or be destroyed by normal protein turnover processes in the cell. 

This year a comparison was made of the properties of the iso- 
lated, purified molecule to those in the undisturbed plant cell. It 
has been found that the relative state of aggregation of phyto- 
chrome in solution is dependent on the nature of the buffer in 
which it is dissolved. It has also been observed that the rate of 
interconversion of the active and inactive forms, as well as the 
spectral properties of the two forms, are affected by the solution 

Science I 69 

environment. The same conditions which promote the formation of 
higher aggregates in solution appear to favor spectral properties 
closer to those observed in intact plants. 

Flowering in plants is regulated by the length of the night. When 
the light is absorbed in the leaves it induces formation of a flow- 
ering substance. From the leaves there is transmission of this 
flowering substance to the apex, where this substance induces 
flower formation. Salicylic acid has been identified as one of the 
naturally occurring substances which will affect flowering. In short- 
day plants of Lemna perpusilla 6746 salicyclic acid has been found 
to extend the critical daylength by about two hours. Cobalt is the 
only other known substance which will affect the critical daylength 
in more than two plant species. 


Photosynthetic utilization of incident light energy provides the 
earth with renewable fuels, namely, the carbohydrates comprising 
the bulk of plants. As early as 1905, it was noted that light energy 
delivered in flashes rather than continuously caused apparent 
changes in the photosynthetic utilization of the incident light en- 
ergy. The Radiation Biology Laboratory has been testing the effects 
of flashing light on plant growth. Using an electronically controlled 
fluorescent-lamp flashing system, plants have been grown under 
different light and dark times. 

Previous work using mechanically operated flash units had indi- 
cated a minimal light utilization with light and dark periods of 
about one minute duration. Current work has dramatically shown 
this to be the case. The major focus of this work, however, has 
been in the region of the very short flashes where light energy 
utilization increases and may surpass the utilization found with 
continuous lighting. 

Salt marshes are believed to be among the most productive eco- 
systems; that is, measurements of the amount of green biomass 
that accumulates in some low latitude marshes during the growing 
season is equal to or greater than that accumulated by agricultural 
crops or tropical rain forests. In order to document this observa- 
tion in a way that would lend itself to a study of the relationship 
between productivity and solar radiation, the capacity for CO2 as- 
similation has been measured on a daily basis in communities of 

70 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

salt marsh along the Chesapeake Bay. The specific question is: 
how much C0 2 is assimilated by plant communities for each unit 
of photosynthetically active radiation available to the community 
for this process each day? Measurements have been made during 
three field seasons. Efficiency for the daily assimilation of CO z 
declines throughout the growing season. On a daily basis, the plant 
communities which have been studied have the capacity to convert 
from 0.4 to 4.0 percent of the portion of solar radiation that can 
be used by photosynthesis (the photosynthetically active radia- 
tion, about 50 percent of total incident solar radiation) from ra- 
diant into chemical energy. 

The measurement of the amount of sunlight and the spectral 
quality of daylight in 100-nanometer (nm) bands from 400 nm to 
800 nm is still in progress along with the monitoring of the total 
irradiance and total IR to 2800 nm. The three monitoring sites, 
Barrow, Rockville, and Panama, are yielding much-needed data that 
are being disseminated to the scientific community for biological re- 
search, as well as to local and federal governments for baseline 
data applied to solar energy utilization. The Barrow site is still 
serving as a clean-air reference for spectral quality comparison. 
Panama is particularly interesting. Because of its location (9°N 
latitude), it exhibits all of the influences tropical climate has on 
the spectral quality of daylight, and, therefore, is yielding valu- 
able information on "local" disturbances. The variabilities from 
place to place, and even within the same geographical location, are 
so great that even an eight-year data base in the Washington- 
Rockville area is not sufficient to determine trends or periodicities. 
New normal incident pyrheliometers (nip) and trackers have been 
installed at Rockville, and the data, along with a shadow-band de- 
vice that permits measurement of skylight alone, will help to sort 
out the various factors that influence the spectral quality of day- 
light in an urbanized area. The largest areas of variability are in 
the blue and red areas of the spectrum. These are the two areas 
which are important in photosynthesis and plant morphology. 

A year of uvb data has been collected starting November 1975 
using the analog version of the scanning radiometer developed at the 
Radiation Biology Laboratory. The prototype of a digital model, with 
selectable integrating periods, has been completed and will replace 
the units now in the field at Barrow, Rockville, and Panama. 

Science I 71 

The present data have been collected by sampling every three 
minutes from before sunrise to after sunset. The integrated values 
are computed for each hour and each day. The bands are 5 nm 
wide at the halfpower points and centered at 285 nm, 290 nm, 295 
nm, 300, nm, 305 nm, 310 nm, 320 nm, covering the erythemal 
band. Comparisons about solar noon on clear days using the same 
kind of instrument, one measuring global uvb and the other nor- 
mal incident uvb, show that only about 40 percent of uvb is con- 
tained in the direct beam and 60 percent in diffuse radiation. 

Since only one year of data is available, the main trends are 
annual and are clearly shown in the average daily values for each 
month. The outstanding feature is the large variation in uvb energy 
found at Barrow and Panama at sec z = 2.5. These variations in- 
dicate changes of as much as 20:1. This type of phenomenon indi- 
cates that ozone absorption may be the principal determinant of 
the short wavelength transmission of the atmosphere, but the 
amount of energy received at the earth's surface is strongly influ- 
enced by meteorological conditions. If the ozone level were to 
change by 100 percent from .24 cm to .48 cm, the global irradiance 
at 305 nm would decrease from 7.37 /«.w cm 2 nm 1 to 2.76 fiw cm 2 
nm 1 , a factor of about 3 and not 20 as occurs. Measured values of 
ozone in the Panama area show small variations occurring, but no 
changes in ozone that would produce such drastic change in uv 
irradiance. The data can be used to determine and follow changes 
in ozone, but ozone values cannot be used to predict uvb values, 
except on clear days. 

Sunlight can also be utilized directly as a source of house heat- 
ing and hot-water heating. Three solar collector panels with selec- 
tive black surfaces were installed for testing on the laboratory 
roof. One system uses a copper black, one a chrome black and, the 
third an evacuated tubular collector. 

Instrumentation using a bank of six Eppley precision pyranom- 
eters, each with a different outer dome, provides measurement of 
spectral irradiance in hundred-nanometer bands, as well as total 
insolation. Such a pyranometer bank installed parallel with the sur- 
face of the collector provides a measure of the incident solar radi- 
ation. Correlation of these data with the Radiation Biology Labora- 
tory's solar radiation measurements on a horizontal surface over 
the past eight years has provided a basis for evaluation of the flat 

72 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

plate collectors. In addition, the other parameters have been meas- 
ured directly. 

Preliminary test data from these three flat plate collectors indi- 
cate that the critical insolation values range from 180 Wm z to 620 
Wm 2 . Critical insolation values differ between the test collectors 
as much as 40 percent. The weighted efficiencies based on these 
critical insolations show that a collector having low efficiency under 
steady-state tests and a low critical insolation has a higher system 
efficiency, based on a long-term evaluation. 

The Carbon Dating Laboratory has begun a detailed investiga- 
tion of the recent geological history of the upper Chesapeake Bay. 
Dating of materials cored from the Rhode River estuary and the 
coast of Kent County on the Eastern Shore is underway. Since the 
Bay was practically nonexistent as recently as 9,000 years ago, this 
study, and associated analyses of the sediment and pollen, docu- 
ments the flooding of the upper Bay with rise in sea level, and 
provides a history of the vegetation and climate regimes of the 
area for archeologists and geologists, as well as scientists of the 
Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. 

The Mediterranean program continues with the dating of sam- 
ples cored from the Hellenic Trench in order to confirm and refine 
the details of drastic changes some 10,000 years ago in climate and 
current already outlined for other areas of the Mediterranean. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

At an international scientific meeting in early 1977, a Smithsonian 
delegate presented data apparently linking periods of solar varia- 
bility with terrestrial climate change. Although of intrinsic interest, 
the findings had particular relevance for the Institution, because 
they resulted from studies combining modern satellite data with 
historical records of solar observation, including observations made 
in the early part of this century by two former Smithsonian Secre- 
taries, Samuel Pierpont Langley and Charles Greeley Abbot. 

This continuity in scientific research at the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory (sao) is no mere coincidence. Indeed, sao 
was founded in 1890 by Langley as a center for what he called the 

Science I 73 

"new astronomy," an Observatory devoted to the study of the 
physical characteristics of celestial bodies, rather than merely to 
their motions. Langley was most concerned with the study of the 
Sun, but his innovative approach to research laid the foundations 
for the modern astrophysics now pursued by his successors. 

As in almost every branch of science, astrophysics has experi- 
enced an explosion of ideas during recent decades. New windows 
on the universe have been opened by the discovery of radiation 
in unexpected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The expanded 
use of rocket, balloon, and satellite experiments has allowed ob- 
servation of this radiation from above the Earth's obscuring atmos- 
phere. Gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet light, radio emissions, and 
infrared radiation are all now observed by Smithsonian scientists 
almost as routinely as Langley and Abbot once observed optical 
radiation from the Sun. More importantly, however, scientists in- 
vestigating a particular problem may now gain a considerable ad- 
vantage by drawing on this variety of observing resources — by 
looking through a variety of "windows" at the same phenomena. 
For example, in the study of the vast gas and dust clouds found 
between the stars, radio astronomers may "listen" to radio-fre- 
quency emissions from the molecular constituents of the galaxy; 
infrared astronomers may in turn measure the intensity of the 
thermal radiation from the same region; optical astronomers may 
count the populations of various chemical species through spectro- 
scopy; and, finally, theorists may bring together the various pieces 
of evidence to describe the complicated process by which stars are 

Naturally, only those organizations with a broad research pro- 
gram encompassing many subdisciplines of astronomy are capable 
of pursuing such a multi-faceted approach. Recognizing the need 
for such an organization, sao joined in 1973 with Harvard College 
Observatory (hco) to form, under a single director, the Center for 
Astrophysics for the pursuit of "excellence in astrophysical re- 
search." By developing the potential of both organizations, the 
Center has assembled the scientific and technical expertise to ex- 
plore and exploit the full wavelength range of the electromagnetic 
spectrum, from radio waves to gamma rays. Today, this joint ven- 
ture is represented by more than 125 scientists and 350 supporting 
staff members, both in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and at field 

74 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Laser tracking system at Arequipa, Peru, part of the worldwide network 
operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. (SAO photograph) 

The High Energy Astrophysics Division of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory has published the Fourth UHURU Catalog containing an analysis of observa- 
tions by the uhuru satellite. An artist's conception of the uhuru satellite is shown 
above. (NASA illustration) Below: Fish-eye lens view of the Multiple Mirror Tele- 
scope (MMT) facility during construction in late 1976 at the Mount Hopkins Ob- 
servatory, Amado, Arizona. (University of Arizona photograph) 




if TO! 

^"J& ratals 

i^t >. o* jI^/Pb* 



*"™^™^^^^ -^^^^ ■* ^ 

fir i 

^ ; 

^fmmrnm ^^^^ 

w ' 



stations around the world. Harvard members are supported by uni- 
versity funds and by contracts and grants from agencies such as 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the United 
States Air Force, and the National Science Foundation; Smithsonian 
members are supported by federal appropriations and trust funds 
from the Institution and by contracts and grants from government 
agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion and the Office of Naval Research. Investigators are grouped 
roughly by specialties in eight divisions, each headed by an asso- 
ciate director. 

The Center for Astrophysics may be considered the largest sin- 
gle enterprise dedicated to astronomical research in the nation, if 
not the world. While the "new astrophysics" may seem far re- 
moved from Langley's "new astronomy," the goals of the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory remain essentially unchanged 
from those established by him nearly a century ago: to understand 
the basic physical processes determining the nature of the universe. 


The research program in the Atomic and Molecular Physics Divi- 
sion is designed to provide the basic parameters of atomic and 
molecular physics required in the interpretation of observational 
data. This work is carried out by both experimentalists and theo- 
rists. The experimental work includes the measurement of photo- 
ionization cross sections and oscillator strengths for species of 
astrophysical interest. Theoretical work involves calculations of 
atomic and molecular structures and of cross sections of the inter- 
action with radiation, by use of a variety of techniques. A wide 
range of collision processes is also studied. 

The theoretical studies concentrated on the development of 
model-potential methods for the accurate calculation of properties 
of complex atoms and the construction of a relativistic generaliza- 
tion of the random-phase approximation for studying the proper- 
ties of highly stripped atomic species. 

In the field of molecular structure and processes, progress was 
made in large-scale ab initio calculations of potential energy curves, 
methods for including electronic continuum functions in molecular 
calculations, and the use of model-potential and random-phase- 
approximation methods in molecular physics. 

Science I 77 

Theoretical studies of the thermosphere of the Earth were carried 
out in which a comparison was made with in situ measurements 
obtained by nasa's Atmospheric Explorer Satellite Series, in order 
to obtain a quantitative understanding of the physical and chem- 
ical processes. The absorption of solar euv radiation and photoelec- 
trons in the atmosphere and the photochemical equilibrium in con- 
centrations were calculated. By use of the satellite observations, 
information on the 2 concentration, the total ionization rate due 
to the solar ultraviolet flux, and the thermal budget of the iono- 
sphere can be obtained. 

In the laboratory, measurements continued to be made of atomic 
and molecular transition probabilities and autoionization and photo- 
ionization cross sections. For example, measurements were com- 
pleted of the absolute cross section for the photoionization of 
atomic oxygen. Emphasis is placed on species that contribute to 
discrete and continuous sources of opacity and to abundance deter- 
minations in the Sun. These measurements are made and used in 
close collaboration with observational programs from the ground, 
and from solar rocket and satellite missions. One such close col- 
laboration has resulted in the first positive evidence for the pres- 
ence of boron in the Sun. This was done by photoelectric measure- 
ments of the solar spectrum near 2500 A. The derived abundance 
of boron is in agreement with predictions of the light nuclide for- 
mation by galactic cosmic-ray spallation in the interstellar medium. 


The efforts of the Geoastronomy Division are directed toward the 
study of the Earth as a planet. Among ongoing activities are the 
development of techniques for measuring the motions of the Earth 
and its crust, satellite-borne instrumentation for studying the 
Earth, and large-scale computer software for modeling geophysical 

A major activity was the production of the fourth and final edi- 
tion of the Smithsonian Standard Earth. First published in 1966, 
the Standard Earth was revised and improved in 1969 and 1973. 
The final version contains parameters of the Earth's gravity field 
to degree and order 30, a significant advance from the previous 
solutions and entailing over 50 percent more coefficients. In a re- 
lated effort, the translocation method for determining station posi- 

78 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

tions on the Earth's surface was developed, thus making possible 
determination of long-baseline distances from satellite observations 
with an accuracy of a few centimeters. 

A model of the thermal structure deep in the Earth's crust was 
developed to describe the driving mechanisms for crustal plate 
motions. For the first time, this model shows the long-suspected 
relationship between material buoyancy and the driving force that 
propels the subducted slab downward in regions where crustal 
plates impinge. 

Analysis of data from the gravitational Redshift Experiment con- 
tinued in an effort to test the equivalence principle of Einstein's 
Theory of General Relativity. Accurate geometrical position is used 
in the method of trajectory solution; and trajectory-data-reduction 
requirements have been modified to produce the required accuracy. 
At present, the accuracy of the experiment is at the 200-parts-per- 
million level. 

During the last year, the sao laser tracking network and its over- 
seas cooperating stations provided routine tracking data to support 
ongoing programs in geodesy and geophysics. Precision orbital 
tracking to support the ocean-surface altimeter experiment aboard 
the Geos-3 satellite and the Earth dynamics measurements on the 
Lageos satellite were top priority. The network also provided in- 
tensive laser tracking coverage of several low-orbit satellites for 
the improvement of gravity-field models and the study of Earth 
and ocean tides. 


The principal activities of the High Energy Astrophysics Division 
are grouped in three main areas: planning and development of in- 
strumentation for future space missions for orbiting observatories; 
analysis of data obtained in current or previous missions; and 
continuing research on energetic phenomena in the universe. 

The analysis of observations by the uhuru satellite culminated 
in the publication of the Fourth UHURU Catalog, which lists 339 
sources of X-ray emission, or nearly twice the number previously 
known. These sources include objects within the Milky Way as 
well as many outside our galaxy. Several of the X-ray sources in 
our galaxy are associated with neutron stars and black holes; 
others are in double star systems in which one star can be observed 

Science I 79 

optically while the neutron star or black hole is optically invisible 
and can only be seen in the X-ray band. Other galactic X-ray 
sources are associated with supernova remnants, such as the Crab 
Nebula, which are produced by the explosion and death of a star. 
Other sources are found in globular star clusters — conglomerates 
of several hundred thousand stars. 

Outside the Milky Way, X rays are observed from galaxies 
much like our own, including the giant spiral in Andromeda. Other 
systems, such as the Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and clusters of gal- 
axies, also emit much of their energy at X-ray wavelengths. The 
observations of Seyfert galaxies from the uhuru satellite, combined 
with those from the Ariel 5 satellite, have been used to show that 
the Seyferts account for a significant fraction of the all-sky diffuse 
X-ray background, the origin of which has remained a mystery. 

The Catalog also lists fifty-three clusters of galaxies, the largest 
single class of extragalactic X-ray sources, and correlations between 
X-ray and optical properties of clusters have been found. These 
clusters, themselves the building blocks of so-called "superclusters of 
galaxies," may each contain as many as 1,000 galaxies, which, like 
our own Milky Way, are composed of 100 billion stars. In the 
early 1970s, observations from the uhuru satellite showed that the 
X-ray emission from clusters came from an extended region about 
a million light years across. More recent observations confirm these 
results and show that, like the superclusters, the emission is pro- 
duced by a hot gas in between the galaxies. 

Observations of extragalactic X-ray sources with the SA5-3 
X-ray observatory, produced the discovery of several X-ray objects 
including the nucleus of a Seyfert galaxy and a cD galaxy in the 
rich cluster of galaxies Abell 478. 

Studies on the origin, detection, and identification of gamma-ray 
bursts proceeded with the 10-m high-energy gamma-ray reflector 
at the Mount Hopkins Observatory. A program of observations on 
the 100-Mev gamma-ray sources was carried out using the atmos- 
pheric Cerenkov technique. Data analysis on the Mount Hopkins 
Observatory High Energy Sky Survey was completed, and a sec- 
ond generation gamma-ray experiment was designed for the 10- to 
100-GeV energy region. An experiment to detect hard bursts of 
gamma rays from primordial black holes was completed, as was an 
experiment to measure the primary spectrum of cosmic rays. 

80 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Instrumentation was completed and calibrated for flight on the 
heao-a satellite, the first in a series of X-ray observations planned 
for space flight by nasa before the end of this decade. The experi- 
ment (a collaborative sao-mit effort) consists of a scanning modu- 
lation collimator of high sensitivity (1 ufu) and spatial resolution 
(5 arc sec). The spacecraft was successfully launched on August 
12, 1977. Initial data indicate the experiment is functioning prop- 
erly and is producing highly precise positions for X-ray sources. 

The hardware for the heao-b experiment, scheduled for flight in 
1978, was completed and delivered to nasa. The experiment, a 
high-resolution X-ray telescope, is expected to produce the first de- 
tailed images of X-ray sources. Studies continued on other new 
experiments including observatory class instruments, such as the 
1.2-m X-ray telescope and the large-area modular array, as well as 
individual experiments, such as ultra-soft X-ray telescopes, X-ray 
spectrometers, and gamma-ray-burst detectors. 


The research in the Optical and Infrared Division underwent sig- 
nificant changes during this year. The Division began new pro- 
grams of extragalactic observations centered on the study of the 
distribution and dynamics of individual and groups of galaxies. 
These programs are expected to expand in the future with the de- 
velopment of new instruments and the Multiple Mirror Telscope 

Research in infrared astronomy is also expected to expand fol- 
lowing nasa's announcement that a Smithsonian-directed telescope 
project had been approved as an experiment on Spacelab II, which 
is scheduled for flight aboard the Space Shuttle in 1981. The small 
helium-cooled telescope will be operated in cooperation with the 
Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Arizona. 

The telescope will make the first complete map of extended 
regions of low-level infrared emission from the entire Milky Way. 
The experiment will also observe the zodiacal emission in the 
solar system and make the first all-sky survey of the extended 
infrared emission from intergalactic matter, distant galaxies, and 
quasi-stellar objects. 

During the spring of 1977, the ninth and tenth flights of the 
102-cm balloon-borne far-infrared telescope took place under the 

Science I 81 

sponsorship of nasa. The April 26 flight was very successful, 
yielding 7.7 hours of observation with the broad-band (40-250 
micron) photometer of the planets Venus, Saturn, Uranus, and 
Neptune; the supernovae remnants Crab Nebula and Cas A; the 
asteroid Ceres; the H II regions W42 and RCW 126; and the mo- 
lecular cloud Ml 7 SW. The data from this flight are currently 
being reduced. The pointing stability of the telescope was the best 
ever achieved during flight. The June 2 flight was aborted when 
the balloon burst just as it approached float altitude. This flight 
was equipped to use a four-color photometer built by the Univer- 
sity of Palermo. The telescope was recovered in excellent condition. 

Data reduction continued on the 1975 and 1976 balloon flights. 
Six of the ten flights have produced useful astronomical data, re- 
sulting in a total observing time of more than forty hours. Results 
on the H II regions M20, M8, and W31 have led to a better under- 
standing of dust and gas distribution in these regions, by the iden- 
tification of previously unresolved complex sources and the deter- 
mination of the total luminosity of the sources in these clouds. A 
strong, compact far-infrared source has been identified near W31, 
coincident with a compact H II region and with OH and H 2 
masers, giving new insight into the role of these objects in the 
evolution of massive protostars. In the M8 region, a new far- 
infrared source was discovered that was later associated with an 
extensive molecular cloud. 

Construction of the joint Smithsonian-University of Arizona 
Multiple Mirror Telescope (mmt) has progressed to the point where 
the dedication can be tentatively scheduled for the fall of 1978. 
All scheduled sao tasks on the mmt were completed. During this 
year, the optical systems were completed by the University. The 
telescope mount was constructed and all major components in- 
stalled. The steel frame of the telescope housing was erected on 
the site at the summit of Mount Hopkins, Arizona, and its floors 
and the outer metal siding also were installed. 

The division has embarked on a vigorous program of instru- 
ment development, including a ccd camera and an InSb infrared 
detector array. These and other instruments, used on various tele- 
scopes, will give center scientists a capability for astronomical 
research as good as is available anywhere in the world. Another 
aspect of the improved observational capability is the development 

82 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

of a new style — remote observing — in which research scientists 
can arrange to obtain high-quality astronomical data without their 
presence at the telescope. This technique has been successfully im- 
plemented in the echelles spectroscopy program at Mount Hopkins. 


The work of the Planetary Science Division ranges across a wide 
variety of solar system objects, excluding the Sun and emphasiz- 
ing smaller bodies. 

Theoretical studies on the origin and early history of the solar 
system continued, concentrating on the determination of the prop- 
erties of giant gaseous protoplanets and on the development of the 
impact theory of lunar origin. 

A program of redetermining the orbits of old single-apparition 
comets in order to acquire uniform and definitive information about 
the structure of the Oort cloud was essentially completed. The 
determination of orbits and the checking of observations of comets 
and minor planets were done in connection with various astro- 
metric programs, notably the one at the Agassiz Station in which 
over 400 observations of 20 comets and 150 minor planets were 
obtained. Instrumentation is under construction for a new program 
to determine asteroid diameters by lunar occultations. 

The division continued its responsibility for operating the iau 
Central Telegram Bureau, which issued some 120 iau Circulars 
during the fiscal year. The Bureau Director also made predictions 
of various planetary occultations, including a detailed analysis of 
the structure of the recently discovered Uranian rings. 

Division members directed the activities of the Imbrium Con- 
sortium, a group of lunar scientists from several institutions, which 
is collaborating on the study of a suite of particularly informative 
breccia samples from the highlands of the Moon. Petrologic studies 
of the lunar samples addressed by the Imbrium Consortium were 
completed and a crustal model for the Moon was developed, based 
on the properties and distribution of samples collected by the 
Apollo missions. 

Other petrologic studies of lunar samples focused mainly on two 
problems : the source of exceptionally Ti-rich particles in the Apollo 
12 soils, and the analysis of materials from seven levels in the 
core recently returned from Mare Crisium by the ussr's Luna 24 

Science I 83 

space probe. The dominant rock type in the Crisium samples is a 
variety of ferrobasalt, very poor in Ti0 2 and MgO, unlike any 
previously recognized on the Moon. 

Work on neutrinos conducted with special detectors placed in 
deep mines has shown the 37 Ar production rate at an 1100-foot 
depth is 4 times higher than theoretically estimated. This experi- 
mental result, if extrapolated to the 4850-foot depth, requires that 
the previous solar neutrino value of 1.5 snu be reduced by a factor 
of 2 — thus making the solar neutrino puzzle even more puzzling. 
The present limit of the 37 Ar production rate at 4850-foot depth 
gives a lower limit of 2.2 X 10 26 years for the lifetime of baryons 
(protons and neutrons). 


The Radio Astronomy Division's objectives concentrate on micro- 
wave atomic and molecular spectroscopy of the interstellar medium 
and the Earth's atmosphere. Laboratory and theoretical research 
supplements the interpretation of observations made with ground- 
based radio telescopes. 

Multiple molecular mapping of dense interstellar gas and dust 
regions continued with a view toward understanding the informa- 
tion and evolution of massive stars as well as physical conditions 
within the nebulae. 

By use of antennas with intercontinental separations, very long- 
baseline interferometry (vlbi) investigations of interstellar masers 
revealed a number of new H 2 maser sources in directions 
toward the galactic center. 

A new 18-cm radiometric system was added to the vlbi equip- 
ment at the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station in Fort Davis, 
Texas. The instrumentation should increase the station's participa- 
tion in network vlbi research on interstellar oh masers; initial ex- 
periments have been successful. Continuous observations were 
maintained at this site to monitor the radio behavior of the Sun. 
Planning was completed to expand this research during the forth- 
coming solar maximum period. 

vlbi observations of variable extragalactic sources were also con- 
tinued at the Harvard Station in cooperation with other radio ob- 
servatories. Plans are now being made to extend this work, to ac- 
quire new vlbi equipment, and to upgrade the 85-foot antenna at 
the station. 

84 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Interstellar maser studies, together with millimeter-wave molec- 
ular observations of SiO in the direction of long-period variable 
stars, provided a solution for determining the true radial velocity 
of the long-period variable. 

A new millimeter-wave atmospheric molecular spectrometer was 
completed and made successful observations of ozone and carbon 
monoxide. A mathematical model was developed to obtain the 
molecular altitude distribution from the spectrometer observations. 
Laboratory measurements of pressure broadening, including tem- 
perature dependence for carbon monoxide and ozone, were begun. 

Design, construction, and testing of a 384-channel filter bank was 
completed to improve millimeter-wave observations of interstellar 


The principle activities of the Solar and Stellar Physics Division 
focus on the Sun as it relates to the solar-terrestrial environment, 
to other stars, and to astrophysical processes. 

Analysis of extreme ultraviolet and X-ray solar data from the 
Skylab experiment continued. Efforts were concentrated in active 
regions and flares, in connection with nasa's year-long Flare Work- 
shop. Considerable progress was made in determining mass mo- 
tions in flares and flare loops, and in determining the energy re- 
leased in different levels of the atmosphere during flares. In addi- 
tion, observational and theoretical studies have shown that the heat- 
ing of magnetically confined structures in the corona (and perhaps 
heating of the entire corona) may well be produced by in situ dissi- 
pation of electric currents, rather than by shock waves as is com- 
monly supposed. 

Development of an extreme-ultraviolet spectrometer for the Solar 
Maximum Mission, being readied by Harvard scientists for launch 
in 1979, continued as did development of an ultraviolet corona- 
graph for rocket observations of Lyman alpha emission from the 
solar corona. 

Theoretical and observational solar and solar-terrestrial research 
was conducted as part of Smithsonian's new Langley-Abbott Pro- 
gram of solar research. Work included measuring the relative rate 
of rotation of photospheric magnetic fields and plasma with the 
inference that strong field concentrations are magnetically tied to a 

Science I 85 

more rapidly rotating subsurface field structure. The present con- 
stancy of the solar visual luminosity was established to the 0.3 
percent level. The long-term sunspot rotation rate was examined in 
relation to overall magnetic activity. 

Observational studies of chromospheres and coronas of other 
stars progressed mainly by use of data from the Copernicus satel- 
lite. Concurrently, work continued on modeling solar and stellar 
chromospheres and predicting the emergent spectrum for compari- 
son with Copernicus, atm, and other space and ground observations. 

Studies of the scientific parameters and detailed instrument de- 
sign for a faint object spectrograph for the Space Telescope were 
conducted to obtain spatially resolved spectra of galactic and extra- 
galactic objects. 


The Theoretical Astrophysics Division carries out research on a 
diverse range of astrophysical phenomena, with theoretical studies 
often applied to the support and interpretation of observational 
data. Division members frequently work in collaboration with 
members of other divisions as well as with scientists in other insti- 
tutions. In addition, they contribute significantly to the educational 
programs of the Observatory. 

By an association of theoretical and observational studies sub- 
stantial progress was made in the understanding of molecular 
clouds and star formation. An interesting suggestion was made 
that interstellar graphite particles originate in carbon-rich planetary 
nebulae with the consequence that the abundance of 13 C in the 
interstellar gas should be 1/40 that of 12 C. 

Studies of stellar evolution advanced and significant research 
was accomplished in basic aspects of gravitational theory, of fluid 
mechanics and kinetic theory, and of quantum mechanics. 

Detailed modeling of planetary atmospheres and interstellar 
clouds provided new insight into their physics and chemistry and 
led to quantitative measures of the ionizing radiation to which they 
are subjected. 

86 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

For the last twenty years the Smithsonian Tropical Research Insti- 
tute (stri) had placed a high priority on the goal of building up 
a resident staff of experts in various aspects of tropical biology. 
A great variety of problems concerning the adaptations of life to 
the tropics can best be approached by long-term, in situ, studies 
which cannot be conveniently accomplished by scientists on sum- 
mer leave from temperate zone universities. 

During fiscal year 1977, scientific visitors using the marine and 
terrestrial facilities at stri represented seventy-nine universities 
from thirty-one countries and thirty states including the District of 
Columbia and Puerto Rico. These scientists published over one 
hundred papers in international journals. Many university scien- 
tists are conducting their research on the isthmus with financial 
support from the National Science Foundation and the National 
Institutes of Health in the United States and the National Research 
Council in Canada. 

Professor George Bartholomew from the University of Califor- 
nia at Los Angeles (ucla) has been making annual trips to Barro 
Colorado Island in recent years to examine the energetics of hetero- 
thermic insects. Professors Gorman and Rosenblatt from ucla and 
the University of California in San Diego, respectively, are studying 
the biochemical genetics of Panamanian fishes. 

Professor Arnold Kluge from the University of Michigan is ex- 
amining the reproductive strategies of tropical hylid frogs. Profes- 
sors Jane Lubchenco and Bruce Menge from Oregon State Univer- 
sity are looking at the role of predators in the diversity of inter- 
tidal tropical organisms — an attempt to quantify events in a high- 
energy, high-diversity zone of the ocean. Professor Roy Caldwell 
of the University of California at Berkeley is examining the beha- 
vior of stomatopods and comparing his Panamanian results to his 
previous observations of this group in the Indo Pacific. Professor 
Gordon Moodie, who is taking his sabbatical year here from the 
University of Winnipeg, is studying comparative diversity patterns 
of fresh-water fishes from the temperate and tropical regions. Drs. 
Patricia Brown and Alan Grinnell from the University of California 
at Los Angeles are examining the ontogenetic changes in behavior, 

Science I 87 

neurophysiology and neuroanatomy in developing young of the 
moustache bat Pteronotus parnelli. 

Since a considerable part of the research effort, particularly on 
Barro Colorado Island, is conducted by visiting scientists and stu- 
dents, the work being performed is often not a uniform or random 
selection of the scientific disciplines available for study. Last year, 
plant ecologists were the dominant scientific group. This year 
mammalogists appear to dominate, although they spread their at- 
tention over a variety of the 97 species of mammals that inhabit 
Barro Colorado Island. 

Katharine Milton, supported by a Smithsonian postdoctoral fel- 
lowship, continues her observations of howler monkeys that were 
the subject of her doctoral dissertation. She is interested in the 
ecological and physiological correlates of the animals' diets, and 
has been studying the energetics and metabolic rates of both free- 
ranging and captive monkeys. In April, 25 helpers were marshalled 
in an extensive effort to census the howler monkey populations of 
the island. This census revealed a total of 65 howler monkey troops 
which ranged in size from 9 to 32 individuals, with an average of 
20, giving a total population of approximately 1,300 animals. 

Howler monkeys were also the object of study of Christina Du- 
bov, a stri short-term fellow, who studied intraspecific variation in 
feeding patterns. Jeff Otis conducted further observations in con- 
nection with a long-term study of Jeff Froelich of the University 
of New Mexico, and Richard Thorington of the National Museum 
of Natural History, on the micro-population genetics of howlers. 
They are attempting to discover whether genetic differences exist 
between individual howler monkey troops by measuring small dif- 
ferences such as the structure of their dentation and hand prints. 

Roy Fontaine from the University of Georgia is testing predic- 
tions derived from morphological studies of the positions monkeys 
assume when they are free in their natural habitat. He believes that 
differences in the pelvic and shoulder girdles and long-bones reflect 
ecological differences in the feeding sites of howler, spider, and 
white-faced monkeys. 

All this attention to howler monkeys serves a particularly im- 
portant practical function in addition to the fundamental biological 
data derived from them. Howler monkeys are particularly suscep- 
tible to yellow fever, and the large population of this species acts 

88 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

as a sentinel to the periodic northward spread of this disease out of 
the Darien forests. 

Regarding the non-primates, James Russell of the University of 
North Carolina, supported by a National Science Foundation Doc- 
toral Dissertation Grant, is in the middle of a two and one-half 
year study of the social dynamics of coatimundi groups. He has 
marked fifty individual animals by freeze-branding and has at- 
tached radio transmitters to members of three different bands. He 
is thus able to relocate a band by their radio signals and to observe 
the behavior of individuals. He is particularly interested in the 
degree to which females in the groups interact with juveniles, and 
has found that a considerable amount of care may be expended on 
young animals to which they are not necessarily closely related. 
Deedra McClearn, a Harvard graduate student, was able to use 
these same habituated and radio-marked coatis in her observations 
of locomotive patterns. 

William Glanz, a Smithsonian postdoctoral fellow, is studying 
patterns of habitat use among tropical mammals, particularly arbo- 
real rodents. Using the recently completed (42-meter) tower in the 
forest at the Lutz watershed, he has been able to observe eighteen 
species of mammals; eleven of these, particularly difficult to observe, 
were nocturnal species. 

Gene Montgomery and Yael Lubin have been studying the ecol- 
ogy and behavior of anteaters. They have recently been concentrat- 
ing their work on the tiny, nocturnal, arboreal silky anteater 
Cyclopes didactyla, about which almost nothing is known. This 
animal is very seldom seen, but they have been fortunate in being 
able to take advantage of the extraordinary observational abilities 
of Bonifacio DeLeon, a technician with the Environmental Sciences 
Program. He has found fifteen silky anteaters and these have been 
fitted with small radio transmitters. The ability to relocate the ant- 
eaters has produced a variety of new data. The silky anteaters feed 
exclusively on small ants (up to 6,000 a day) which they extract 
with a long sticky tongue after splitting open small twigs and vines 
with their claws. Females have one offspring at a time which re- 
mains with them for at least three months. Each night the mother 
leaves her young and goes out to forage on her own. In the morn- 
ing, she returns, picks up her baby and moves to a new sleeping 
place. Silky anteaters are essentially solitary animals. The females 

Science I 89 

have non-overlapping home ranges, and the males have a home 
range that may include several females. The home ranges are rela- 
tively large for a small (about 200 gm) mammal, and this may be 
due to the dispersed nature of the food supply. 

Charles Handley and his colleagues from the National Museum 
of Natural History have continued their study of the population 
dynamics of bats, particularly of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. 
With mist nets they have caught and marked nearly 3,000 bats 
belonging to 39 of the 46 species known to exist on Barro Colorado. 

A study of frugivorous mammals, the agouti and paca, was be- 
gun by Nicholas Smythe in 1971. Almost 200 animals have been 
caught, marked and released, providing much data on the breeding 
patterns, mortality, and use of space by these animals. 

Our knowledge of the population dynamics of tropical wild 
mammals is extremely scant. Even fundamental facts such as the 
average life span are not known for any free-living neotropical 
mammals. Studies to determine such data are only possible at es- 
tablished scientific reserves such as Barro Colorado Island, where 
a researcher can be reasonably confident that he can initiate long- 
term observations or experiments on natural populations without 
fear of human interference with the habitat or the animals. 

The Environmental Sciences Program continues in its task of 
monitoring long-term change in tropical ecosystems on Barro Colo- 
rado and at the Galeta Point Marine Laboratory. The analysis and 
display of data obtained by this program, long subject to consid- 
erable delay because of its sheer volume, is now being expedited 
by a mini-computer. An example of the product of this system is 
illustrated by the tree phenology data. Over 33,000 individual obser- 
vations of tree phenology taken over a period of 80 weeks were read 
and analyzed in a single day. The series of bar graphs on leafing 
behavior well illustrates the dramatic seasonal difference in the 
availability of young leaves, which is the preferred food of prac- 
tically all leaf-eating animals. These seasonal differences are 
thought to underlie many of the fluctuations in animal abundance 
and behavior which are being investigated on Barro Colorado. 

Barro Colorado remains a principal focus for much of the re- 
search performed by the stri staff and visitors; however, a contin- 
uous and increasing effort is being devoted to other areas in both 
the New and Old World Tropics. 

90 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Silky anteater — the smallest and least frequently seen of the neotropical anteaters 
is being radio tracked on Barro Colorado Island by Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute scientists. 

This 42 m tower in the Lutz Watershed on Barro Colorado Island permits obser- 
vations of the forest canopy and a platform for solar radiation measurements. 
Its operation is supervised by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Envi- 
ronmental Sciences Program. Below: Salvage archeology excavations of a cemetery 
(300 B.C. to A.D. 1) in Code, Panama, are under the auspices of Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute scientists. The individual in the foreground was an 
axe-maker or woodworker and was buried with the earliest dated sample of corn 
(Zea mays) from Central Panama. 



Alan Smith has pursued his studies of plant ecology in the Vene- 
zuela paramo and the alpine region on Mount Wilhelm in Papua, 
New Guinea. This year, he began a three-year study of the alpine 
zone of Mount Kenya as well as continuing a genetic analysis of 
the variegated and plain phenotypes of Byttneria aculeata on Barro 
Colorado. The study of Espeletia in Venezuela has produced the 
unexpected observation that these plants become larger as eleva- 
tion increases, the opposite of the normal trend in alpine regions. 
Apparently, with increasing altitude, there is a reduction in both 
interspecific and intraspecific competition, lowering adult mortality 
and allowing older and consequently taller plants to survive. 

Olga Linares returned to West Africa to complete her studies, 
begun in 1961, of the ecology and social organization of the Diola 
peoples of southern Senegal. She has concentrated on questions of 
what aspects of the Diola agro-ecosystems help maintain the egali- 
tarian fabric of their society; what is the relationship between 
large irrigation work and the lack of Diola social stratification; and 
how wet-rice cultivation adapts to different ecological conditions. 
Her studies indicate that political decentralization, shallow lineages, 
territoriality-based kin units, and wide-ranging filiation with uter- 
ine kin lend flexibility to Diola wet-rice cultivation. That this flexi- 
bility is ecologically advantageous is demonstrated by the fact that 
the Diola were the only Senegalese group able to feed itself with- 
out government assistance during the early 1970s drought. 

Work on the behavior and evolution of wasps continues in the 
Colombian Andes. M. J. West Eberhard is examining Microstigmus 
a genus of tiny wasps about the size of mosquitos. More than fifty 
species are known, many of which are endemic to small isolated 
cloud forests on the sides of mountains. Their study is producing 
information on the process of species formation in the tropics and 
the nature of primitive social organization. This work is particu- 
larly urgent, since the montane forest habitats are in danger of 
disappearing due to human activities. She is also collaborating 
with medical researchers on methods of desensitizing patients al- 
lergic to wasp venoms. 

Martin Moynihan began a long-term behavioral study of tropical 
birds of the order Coraciiformes. This ecologically important group 
includes the hornbills, rollers, kingfishers, hoopoes, and wood- 
hoopoes in Senegal, the Ivory Coast, and Gabon. Many of the 

Science I 93 

species have remarkably unequal sex ratios and other peculiar intra 
and interspecific social organizations. 

Studies on coral reefs in the eastern Pacific have revealed a 
variety of interactions between the corals and their associated in- 
vertebrate fauna. Some of these organisms confer a degree of pro- 
tection to their coral hosts by warding off predators, whereas 
others are clearly destructive to coral growth and interfere with 
long-term reef accretion. 

In the first category is the symbiotic relationship between crabs 
of the genus Trapezia and the snapping shrimp Alpheus, which live 
as obligate commensals on a branching coral Pocillopora. Labora- 
tory studies conducted by Peter Glynn have shown that the coral 
without the crabs and shrimps, is a favored food item of Acan- 
thaster, the infamous Crown-of-Thorns seastar. However, if the 
commensals are present on the branching coral, as is usually the 
case on healthy reefs, a Crown-of-Thorns attempting to feed on the 
coral is vigorously bitten and snapped at until it moves away. 
Another invertebrate that protects corals is the Painted Shrimp 
(Hymenocera). The Painted Shrimp attacks the Crown-of-Thorns 
seastar, driving it way from the coral or riding on it until it even- 
tually kills the much larger seastar. 

In other studies, Glynn found that a small molluscan gastropod 
(Jenneria) with a voracious appetite for coral, can kill up to 5 per- 
cent of the standing crop of coral on a reef every year. Recent 
studies in the Galapagos archipelago have disclosed that the slate- 
pencil sea urchin Eucidaris is also capable of prodigious destruc- 
tion of live corals. These studies indicate that reef corals in the 
Galapagos Islands, long suspected of being limited by cool waters, 
must also contend with significant attrition due to an abundant 
invertebrate browzer. 

Last year saw an increased use of the San Bias Islands on the 
north coast of Panama by biologists studying aspects of fish be- 
havior, from the intra and interspecific competition of diurnal fishes 
for sleeping sites by D. Ross Robertson, to continued studies of 
sequential and simultaneous hermaphroditism in a variety of spe- 
cies by Steve Hoffman and Eric Fischer. 

Political and economic events such as the completion of nego- 
tiations of a new canal treaty between Panama and the United 
States and the requirement to transport Alaskan oil to Gulf Coast 
refineries have interacted to reactivate the idea of building a sea- 

94 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

level canal. In August, Peter Glynn and Ira Rubinoff were appointed 
to a National Research Council Committee with the responsibility 
of updating the National Academy's 1970 report on the "Ecological 
Consequences of a Sea-Level Canal." 

Our marine program has grown significantly since 1970, and 
stri will be in a better position to participate significantly in new 
canal studies, should they develop. 

On January 5, 1977, a contract was signed by the Minister of 
Health of the Republic of Panama and the Director of stri, author- 
izing stri to pursue its research and conservation interests through- 
out the Isthmus of Panama. This contract also authorizes the estab- 
lishment of field stations whenever they may be of particular re- 
search interest. 

Dr. Pedro Galindo retired in 1976 as Director of the Gorgas Me- 
morial Laboratory and joined stri as a part-time consultant to help 
in developing the establishment of wildlife sanctuaries in the Re- 
public of Panama. 

Rapidly developed interest in tropical ecology was illustrated by 
the success of the IV International Symposium of Tropical Ecology 
held in Panama, March 7-11, 1977. stri co-sponsored this sympo- 
sium with several Panamanian organizations, and over 400 scien- 
tists representing 36 countries attended. 

A number of improvements to stri physical plants were com- 
pleted this fiscal year. The ancient wooden launches serving Barro 
Colorado Island were retired and replaced by two 40-foot fiberglass 
boats obtained surplus from the Navy. Rechristened Megalops and 
Brycon, they are providing speedier service to the island. Without 
the worry of dry rot they should represent a considerable reduc- 
tion in maintenance time and expenses. A dial telephone system has 
been installed on the island, greatly facilitating communications and 
the ability to react to island emergencies. 

The final phase of the Tivoli Administration/Laboratory build- 
ing has been completed and a move is planned later this year. 

In 1977, short-term fellowships financed by the Exxon Corpo- 
ration, the Noble Foundation, and the Henry B. and Grace Doherty 
Foundation supported twenty-eight fellowships and assistantships. 
The assistantship program was initiated in 1977 to provide trop- 
ical experience to promising young students who had not yet 
developed sufficient background to initiate independent research 

Science I 95 

Alexander Calder (1898-1976), America's best known sculptor, is well represented 
by documentation in the Archives of American Art. 

Smithsonian Year • 1977 

Archives of American Art 

As the Smithsonian's repository for original source material on the 
visual arts in America, the Archives of American Art continued its 
pursuit of individual and institutional records reflecting the history 
of painting and sculpture in the United States. Through its five 
regional centers and interlibrary loan arrangements, it makes the 
documentation it assembles available to scholars on a national 

The personal and professional papers of artists represent the 
majority of collections acquired by the Archives, but an unusual 
amount of rich material from curators, collectors, dealers, and crit- 
ics was received during the past year. Two groups of gallery rec- 
ords worthy of note are a collection of letters written to the New 
York dealer Curt Valentin by, among others, Alexander Calder, 
Lyonel Feininger, Henry Moore, and David Smith; and business 
records of Doll and Richards, a Boston firm that has handled the 
work of American artists since the late nineteenth century. The 
papers of Katharine Kuh, reflecting her career as curator and critic 
as well as dealer, include correspondence with such leading figures 
as Joseph Albers, Alfred Barr, Naum Gabo, Hans Hofmann, and 
Mark Tobey. William Milliken's papers cover his position as Di- 
rector of the Cleveland Museum of Art for more than thirty years 
and contain information about that museum as well as the profes- 
sional organizations he served as president. The correspondence of 
William M. Ivins, Curator of Prints at the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art from 1916 to the 1940s, includes a long series of letters 
from Bernard Berenson. 

Edwin Shaw, an Akron, Ohio, collector of American art in the 
late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, corresponded with 


George Inness, Frank Duveneck, William Merritt Chase, and other 
major painters of the period. The extensive research material gath- 
ered by art historian Alfred Frankenstein for his books on Ameri- 
can still-life painting and on William S. Mount was also turned 
over to the Archives. 

Among significant artists' papers received in 1977 were those of 
the painters Fairfield Porter, Paul Sample, Allyn Cox, Karl Knaths, 
and Harold C. Davies; diaries kept by Max Beckman; and corre- 
spondence, notes, and other records of the sculptors Chaim Gross, 
Walker Hancock, Robert Laurent, Richard Lippold, and John Storrs. 

Three collections in particular throw light on aspects of govern- 
ment involvement in the arts under the New Deal. The records of 
the Early American Portrait Survey for the Northeastern United 
States, a cataloguing project conducted under the Work Projects 
Administration (wpa), were lent for microfilming. Some newly do- 
nated Ben Shahn papers provide thorough documentation on his 
mural painted for the Society Security (now hew) Building in 1942. 
The papers of Chicago sculptor Milton Horn offer both manuscript 
and painted material from the modernists' side of a sharp contro- 
versy over the design for the Jefferson Memorial. 

The Archives Oral History Program has since 1958 been conduct- 
ing and acquiring tape-recorded interviews with artists and others 
involved in the arts. This useful method of documentation from the 
source was expanded in 1977 with fifty-six interviews, the majority 
of them held in the Midwest and New England. The reminiscences 
and observations of Philip Adams, retired Director of the Cincinnati 
Art Museum, of Joseph Butler III, Director of the Butler Institute of 
American Art in Youngstown, Ohio, of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, col- 
lector and art patron, and of Robert Graham of the Graham Gallery 
in New York are particularly valuable. 

The use of microfilm enables the Archives to duplicate its hold- 
ings for each of its regional offices. Films of 112 collections of 
papers were made and distributed in 1977, together with more than 
2,000 catalogue cards describing and indexing their contents. 

Scholarly use of the Archives continues to grow. Over 2,300 re- 
search visits from graduate students, curators, faculty members, 
and independent scholars were made to all Archives offices during 
the course of the year, and 1,085 rolls of film, a 50 percent increase 
over the number for 1976, were sent out through interlibrary loans 

98 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

to researchers throughout the country. Books, articles, disserta- 
tions, and exhibition catalogues are the end product of this activity. 
Among those depending on Archives resources published during 
the year were a catalogue raisonne of the works of David Smith; a 
survey of highlights of American painting and sculpture since 
1776; a large volume on Alexander Calder; major exhibition cata- 
logues on California art, Daniel Chester French, New Deal paint- 
ing, and the Collection of the Rhode Island School of Design; 
and articles on Henry Inman, Maurice Prendergast, and collector 
Thomas B. Clarke. 

In an effort to reach out to the general as well as the scholarly 
public, the Archives organized and participated in several exhibi- 
tions in 1977. "Artists and Writers in America," held in the gallery 
made available to the Archives by the National Portrait Gallery, 
presented letters, sketches, and photographs reflecting relationships 
between the art and literary worlds over the past century. "Artists 
and their Studios," a display of photographs of painters and sculp- 
tors at work, traveled to Detroit, Minneapolis, and Portland Ore- 
gon, under the auspices of the Smithsonian National Associates' 
Program. Documents from the Archives were shown in connection 
with fifteen exhibitions of American art in museums in New York, 
Baltimore, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Boston, and other cities. 
Members of the Archives staff delivered twenty-five lectures and 
participated in six symposia concerned with American art and with 
the archival profession. 

The Archives continued to publish its quarterly Journal, a maga- 
zine devoted to articles based on Archives resources and informa- 
tion on recent acquisitions. A new edition of the Checklist of the 
Collection, a comprehensive listing of Archives holdings, was pre- 
pared during the year for publication in 1978. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 

of Design and Decorative Arts 

The Cooper-Hewitt Museum reopened to the public on October 
7, 1976, to rave reviews by the press. Visitors lined up around the 
block to attend the opening exhibition, "MAN transFORMS," and 

History and Art I 99 

during the first few months the Museum's attendance was more 
than 5,000 per week. This exploration of the design process 
through the ages and in different cultures closed in February and 
was followed by "The Royal Pavilion at Brighton," an exhibition 
honoring the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II. Objects from 
the Cooper-Hewitt, the Royal Pavilion, and nine items especially 
chosen by the Queen were included in this exhibition, which also 
received great acclaim and is now beginning a two-year tour of 
the United States. 

Two architectural exhibitions, "Andrea Palladio" and "200 
Years of American Architectural Drawing," followed. Because of 
extensive coverage of these exhibitions in the design, architecture, 
and general press, the Museum was able to sustain the visitor 
count begun with the opening exhibition, so that at the end of the 
first year a total of 250,000 visitors was recorded. There is every 
reason to believe that this number of visitors can be maintained 
and increased as the popularity of the Museum grows. 

Five exhibitions were held in the Contemporary Design Gallery: 
"Drawings of 19th Century Berlin," "The Carnegie Mansion," 
"Henry Mercer," "Palaces for the People," and "Drawing Toward 
a More Modern Architecture." These were responsive to particular 
interests of the Museum and explored different facets of the design 

A membership program was begun in October 1976 with an 
appeal to the greater New York metropolitan area. More than 
4,000 members have enrolled, an extraordinary achievement con- 
sidering that the Cooper-Hewitt was then virtually unknown to the 
public. A series of educational programs coinciding with the open- 
ing have reflected the special interests of the Museum — design, 
architecture, decorative arts. There were more than ninety programs, 
including tours to underground New York; homes in the Hamp- 
tons, Olana, and Williamsburg; weekend seminars on the age of 
Louis XVI; craft workshops on quilting and bookbinding; lectures 
on American decorative arts, carpets and silver; luncheon talks on 
interior design and antiques; and children's classes for ages three 
to twelve. More than 3,000 people participated in these events. 

The volunteer and internship program became more important 
than ever before. One hundred volunteers are now assisting the 
Museum's curators, librarian, registrar, information desk, and pub- 

100 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

A view of the Loggias of the Palazzo Delia Ragione, a model prepared by Ballico 
Pietro, and part of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Decorative Arts' 
exhibition of the works of Andrea Palladio. Below: Angel cage in Bird Room, a 
contribution of Arata Isozaki to the Cooper-Hewitt Museum's exhibition "MAN 
transFORMS, Aspects of Design," which celebrated the reopening of the Museum on 
October 7, 1976. 

/ / TT I 


lie affairs office in a variety of tasks. Trained docents take visitors 
on special tours of the building and the exhibitions. Interns have 
been assigned to individual curators and work on projects for 
which they receive credit at their institutions. 

An important project is under way with the Book-of-the-Month 
Club, which will print a twelve-part series, Smithsonian Illustrated 
Library of Antiques, to be offered to its members and to the Smith- 
sonian Associates. The first volume will appear in the winter of 

During the year, the drawings and prints collection was in- 
stalled in the Drue Heinz Study Center and the library in the 
Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Memorial Study Center. A textile con- 
servation laboratory was established thanks to the Samuel Kress 
Foundation, and a special storage center for the Museum's ce- 
ramics collection was created. One hundred and ten individuals 
have donated 612 objects to the Museum's collections, responding 
to special appeals from the different departments. 

The Museum looks forward to continued growth and to the 
opportunity of enriching the cultural life of New York and the 
nation with its public programs and activities, its remarkable 
collections that only now are being made accessible to the visitor, 
its exhibitions, and its scholarship. 

Freer Gallery of Art 

Dr. Harold P. Stern, Director of the Freer Gallery of Art since 
1971, died after a long illness on April 3, 1977. His premature 
death at the age of fifty-four is a serious loss to specialists in the 
field of Oriental art as well as to the Gallery. Dr. Stern's entire 
professional career was spent at the Freer Gallery of Art. He came 
to the Gallery as a graduate student from the University of Michi- 
gan in 1949. Appointed to the curatorial staff of the Gallery in 
1950, he became Assistant Director in 1962. Dr. Stern was an 
internationally recognized scholar in the field of Japanese art. His 
wit and erudition are embodied in his publications, just as his many 
contributions to the Freer Gallery of Art are an indelible part of 
the history of that institution. 

102 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Japanese wood sculpture; Kamakura period, 1185-1333; Komokuten (one of the set 
of four Shitenno). Height is 26 inches; width at base is 13 inches. Freer Gallery of 
Art, 76.12. 

Chinese calligraphy; Ch'ing dynasty, 1644-1912; Wang Shih-min (1592-1680); panel; 
ink on paper. Its height is 28V2 inches; width 19% inches. Freer Gallery of Art, 77.1. 

While Director of the Freer Gallery of Art, Dr. Stern was re- 
sponsible for the acquisition of a number of important objects for 
the collection. Some of his favorite Japanese objects, all of which 
were acquired during his tenure as Director, were displayed in a 
memorial exhibition held at the Gallery throughout the summer. 
The Harold P. Stern Memorial Fund has been established to fur- 
ther Dr. Stern's lifelong interest in Japanese art. Income from the 
Memorial Fund will be used to increase the understanding and 
appreciation of Japanese art through lectures, symposia, and publi- 
cations; teaching activities; conservation training and apprentice- 
ship programs; and the acquisition of Japanese art of the highest 

Several special exhibitions were held at the Freer Gallery of Art 
during the past year, all of them designed to highlight relatively 
unexplored areas of the collections. A select showing of Japanese 
objects was included in "Shinto Art." Long considered too esoteric 
a subject for Western audiences, the carved and painted images of 
tutelary deities proved to have great appeal for Gallery visitors. 
Most of the Freer's major American paintings were included in a 
large exhibition entitled "A Connoisseur's Vision: Selections from 
Charles Lang Freer's American Art Collection." Many of the Ameri- 
can paintings included in the exhibition were newly cleaned, and 
a number of the original frames were refurbished before being 
shown. The emphasis upon American artists who were patronized 
by Charles Lang Freer reflects a growing scholarly interest in this 
comparatively unstudied period of American cultural history. 

Oriental calligraphy has never enjoyed the same prestige in the 
West that it has traditionally received in the Far East, but the suc- 
cess of the Gallery's "Oriental Calligraphy" exhibition clearly in- 
dicated increasing Western awareness of the importance of callig- 
raphy for an understanding of Far Eastern cultures. Rubbings of 
ancient Chinese calligraphic monuments, shown for the first time, 
were especially noteworthy highlights of this exhibition. 

The fall season of 1977 was highlighted by two exhibitions. 
"The Four Seasons in Japanese Art," which occupied four separate 
galleries, presented a selection of handscrolls, hanging scrolls, 

History and Art I 105 

screens, and larger artifacts. All of the objects illustrated the 
theme of birds, flowers, and animals of the four seasons. Original 
planning was begun by Dr. Stern, and the opening date was sched- 
uled to coincide with a loan exhibition entitled "Birds, Bees, Blos- 
soms and Bugs," which he had organized for the Asia Society in 
New York City. Unexpectedly, the exhibition at the Freer and the 
one at the Asia Society became memorial exhibitions for Dr. Stern. 
A slightly smaller exhibition, "Chinese Album Leaves and Fan 
Paintings," provided unusual insights into Chinese painting of 
relatively small scale. In spite of their size, however, the fan paint- 
ings and album leaves provided exciting glimpses into traditional 
Chinese representations of landscapes, figures, birds, and flowers. 

Academic appointments to the Freer were Richard Edwards and 
Calvin French, University of Michigan professors, who are serving 
as honorary associates. 

For the twenty-fourth season, the Gallery offered a series of 
illustrated lectures on Oriental Art. The November lecture, spon- 
sored jointly by the Freer Gallery of Art and the Embassy of Japan, 
was given by Robert Moes of the Brooklyn Museum. Mr. Moes 
spoke on "Important Developments in the History of Japanese 
Ceramics." In March the Rutherford J. Gettens Memorial Lecture 
was delivered by Professor Kazuo Yamasaki. The topic of his lec- 
ture, "The History of Japanese Paintings as Seen from Pigment 
Studies," provided new insights into an area of research that has 
special importance to the Conservation Laboratory of the Freer 
Gallery. A generous contribution by John S. Thatcher supported 
Professor Yamasaki's lecture. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

As the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden completed its 
second full year of operation, a remarkable change had taken 
place. The building had become a familiar Washington landmark, 
and the Museum, through its collection and exhibition programs, 
had established itself as one of the nation's most popular museums 
of contemporary art. 

106 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Newly acquired by the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden: The Rooster (Le 
Coq), 1916, a painted bronze relief by the pioneer Cubist sculptor, Raymond Du- 
champ- Villon. Below: In opening ceremonies at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden on November 18, 1976, Mexican Ambassador Jose Juan de Olloqui and a 
guest view the celebrated Chac-Mool from Chichen-Itza. The Mesoamerican sculp- 
ture, part of the collection of the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City 
and dating from the tenth to the twelfth centuries a.d., was loaned to the Smithsonian 
by the people of Mexico in celebration of the Bicentennial of the United States. 

In 1977 more than a million visitors were again recorded. Sam- 
plings of their written comments — submitted on forms provided 
at the Hirshhorn's lobby Information Desk — suggest their diver- 
sity. They range from those making their initial contact with 
contemporary art (most like it, a few do not) to experienced mu- 
seumgoers suggesting greater representation of one or another of 
their favorite artists. 

Central to the Museum's diversified 1977 program was a series 
of special exhibitions and installations utilizing both works of art 
drawn from its own collection and those borrowed from other 
sources. Two exhibitions — "Chac-Mool: A Bicentennial Loan from 
Mexico" and "14 Canadians: A Critic's Choice," guest curated by 
Andrew Hudson — saluted the nation's neighbors south and north. 

The installation of the "Chac-Mool," one of Mexico's great 
treasures — never before seen outside of its permanent home in the 
National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City — was aug- 
mented by a selection of Pre-Columbian sculpture from the Mu- 
seum's own collection. 

Another exhibition, "Winslow Homer Drawings," celebrated the 
opening of the Smithsonian's Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design 
and Decorative Arts in New York and included thirty-two works 
drawn from the latter's extensive collection of Homer's works. "Kin 
and Communities," a special installation of works on the theme of 
the family, was mounted to mark the occasion of the Smithsonian's 
international symposium on that topic. 

Besides Winslow Homer, eight other Americans served as sub- 
jects for solo exhibitions. Largest in scope were "Hans Hofmann" 
— a retrospective loan exhibition organized jointly with the Mu- 
seum of Fine Arts, Houston, and selected by the noted painter and 
critic Walter Darby Bannard — and "The Thomas Eakins Collection 
of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden," the first exten- 
sive showing of this collection, one of the largest in the United 
States. Also drawn from the Museum's permanent collection were 
"E. E. Cummings: The Poet as Artist," an exhibition of sixty-six 
works by the well-known poet shown in connection with a Wash- 
ington-wide project celebrating the collaboration of poetry and the 
visual arts, and "Arthur B. Carles," a smaller exhibition of the 
Museum's holdings of the paintings of the Philadelphia artist who 
died in 1952. 

108 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

"Summer Sculpture '77: Jules Olitski" consisted of five monu- 
mental steel sculptures by this outstanding abstract painter. It was 
the Museum's first outdoor sculpture loan exhibition, and was orig- 
inally organized by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. From this 
same source came an exhibition of large-scale figure paintings, land- 
scapes, and allegories by the realist painter Alfred Leslie. Complet- 
ing the roster of one-man exhibitions were showings of the work of 
two California artists: "Peter Plagens: Works on Paper," which in- 
cluded works drawn from eighteen private and public collections, 
and "The Photography of Leland Rice," the Museum's first exhibi- 
tion of contemporary photography. 

In one sense, however, the most significant exhibition presented 
during 1977 was "Acquisitions: 1974-1977." It included more than 
130 works of art by 96 American and foreign artists. In the ac- 
companying checklist, the exhibition's scope and the Museum's 
assessment of its significance were described this way: 

All of the paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings in this 
exhibition have been acquired since the opening of the Mu- 
seum on October 1, 1974. As a group, they testify to the 
Museum's continuing commitment to contemporary art and to 
the enrichment of other aspects of its permanent collection. 

When Joseph H. Hirshhorn presented to the Nation the ap- 
proximately 6,000 works of art with which the Museum 
opened, he intended that the collection should be a living — 
not a static — one. During the past two and one half years the 
Museum has continued to acquire works of art both through 
purchase and gift, including a number of additional gifts 
from Mr. Hirshhorn. To him, and to the other 34 donors 
whose generosity this exhibition reflects, the Museum is deeply 

Supplementing the Hirshhorn's exhibition schedule was an audi- 
torium program of lectures, films, and symposia. Two of the latter, 
the most ambitious the Museum has yet undertaken, were of par- 
ticular note. Organized in conjunction with the Museum's exhibition 
of contemporary Canadian painting and sculpture, "20th Century 
Canadian Culture," was an eleven-week series devoted to the liter- 
ature, drama, and visual arts of Canada. Panel discussions and 
other events were presented both at the Museum and The Phillips 

History and Art I 109 

Collection under the sponsorship of the Association for Canadian 
Studies in the United States, and were made possible by a grant to 
the Association from the National Endowment for the Humanities. 
The keynote address at the opening ceremony, attended by Mrs. 
Joan Mondale and Mrs. Margaret Trudeau, together with members 
of the American and Canadian Diplomatic Corps, was delivered by 
Professor Northrop Frye of the University of Toronto. 

In conjunction with the opening of its "Thomas Eakins" exhibi- 
tion, the Museum organized a one-day symposium at which four 
of the nation's leading Eakins scholars presented papers that dealt 
with various aspects of the artist's career and work. Participating 
were Lloyd Goodrich, Evan Turner, Gordon Hendricks, and Maria 
Chamberlin-Hellman. On a separate evening, the eminent West 
Coast critic and art historian, Alfred Frankenstein, gave his own 
estimate of the artist in a lecture entitled "Eakins: A Dissenting 

Other speakers during the year included the artists Alfred Leslie 
and Yaacov Agam; critics John Canaday, Walter Darby Bannard, 
and John Bernard Myers; and scholars Eugenia Parry Janis, Mi- 
chael Klein, and Barbara Wolanin. A series of lectures — given in 
conjunction with the Museum's ongoing film program — included 
talks by filmmakers Jonas Mekas, Chuck Henry, Tony Bannon, 
Nancy Baer, and Doris Chase. The film program itself, which in- 
cluded special Saturday showings for children, continued its dual 
emphasis on films about art and film as art with showings each 
Tuesday and Thursday. 

A series of Museum publications also supplemented the exhibi- 
tion program. Outstanding was the 240-page catalogue of the 
Eakins exhibition. Nearly three years in preparation, under the su- 
pervision of curatorial assistant Phyllis Rosenzweig and incorpo- 
rating the research efforts of graduate art-history students at the 
University of Delaware, it was widely hailed within weeks of its 
publication as a significant contribution to American art historical 

Through funds appropriated specifically for the purpose, as well 
as gifts received from a growing body of individual donors, the 
Museum was able to continue the important tasks of building its 
collection. In so doing, two areas were emphasized: the extension 
of the collection forward in time, in order that it should continue 

110 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

to reflect ongoing developments in contemporary art; and the si- 
multaneous enhancement of those areas — such as American and 
European sculpture of the past one hundred years — where it is 
possible to build upon its original strengths. From all sources, the 
Museum acquired 108 works of art during the year. 

Since its opening, the Museum has continued to respond as gen- 
erously as the prudent care of the collection will permit to requests 
for loans by other institutions. During the year, 107 loans were 
made to 38 museums and other organizations throughout the 
United States and abroad. Works of art borrowed from the Hirsh- 
horn Museum were seen by the public in cities as far apart as 
Indianapolis and Zurich, Providence and Paris, and Houston and 

The Museum also continued to explore other means by which 
its collection might be shared with a larger public than that able 
to see it in Washington. Most recently, it has organized an exhi- 
bition which includes one sculpture and one drawing by twenty- 
four major American and European artists of the past one hundred 
years to travel to three South Carolina art museums during 1977- 
1978. Other traveling exhibitions drawn from the permanent col- 
lection are being considered for later years with one — a national 
tour of paintings from the Museum's collection of the works of 
Louis B. Elshemius — now firmly scheduled to begin in 1979. 

For those who were able to visit the Museum itself during the 
year, there was a wide range of educational activities. For many 
exhibitions, the staff prepared — in addition to catalogues — one- to 
five-page handouts, brochures, or checklists that were distributed 
to the public without charge. The Telesonic self-tour guide system 
was expanded by the creation of fifty-nine new tapes and the in- 
corporation of a number of new or improved stations. And the 
Museum's docents, who contributed approximately 4,458 hours of 
volunteer time during the year, provided more than 28,317 visitors 
with general and special tours of the galleries. 

One new program was developed specifically for children: "A 
Hirshhorn Holiday: An Adventure in Art and Illusion." Staged 
shortly before Christmas, this was a four-hour blend of continuous 
live performances, gallery tours, music, and animated films. It was 
made possible through the generosity and cooperation of the 
Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates and brought 

History and Art I 111 

more than 3,600 children to the Museum for a festive morning. 

Underlying the year's ambitious public program was the effec- 
tive behind-the-scenes work of many departments. The Depart- 
ment of Painting and Sculpture not only organized the Museum's 
exhibitions schedule but continued its long-term project of cata- 
loguing and documenting the more than 6,000 works of art received 
when the Museum first opened in 1974, and also answered more 
than 290 research inquiries. The Department of Education was 
responsible for the ongoing training of docents, the supervision of 
the auditorium and tour programs, and the preparation of hand- 
outs, brochures, labels, and Telesonic tapes. 

In addition, the Department of Education — working closely with 
the Department of Painting and Sculpture and other departments 
— administered the Museum's intern programs, which provide 
training to future museum professionals. During the year, the Mu- 
seum trained interns, at both the graduate and undergraduate lev- 
els, from George Washington University, Brandeis University, Uni- 
versity of California at Berkeley, New York University, and Trin- 
ity College of Hartford. A special intern was accepted from the 
Australian Gallery's Directors' Council. The Museum also pro- 
vided facilities for two Smithsonian predoctoral fellows working in 
the field of American art history. 

Also contributing importantly both to the care of the permanent 
collection and to the mounting of exhibitions were: 

The Conservation Department which, in its newly completed 
laboratory, provided treatment for some 680 works of art, per- 
formed routine examinations, and prepared condition reports. 

The Office of the Registrar, which supervised the movement of 
works of art both to and from the Museum as well as within the 
building itself, continued its project of translating the Museum's 
catalogue data into machine-retrievable forms. 

The Department of Exhibits and Design, which was responsible 
for the design, construction, and installation of thirteen exhibi- 
tions, as well as for continuing changes in the installation of the 
permanent collection and the general design and appearance of the 
galleries, plaza, and Sculpture Garden. 

Special note should be made of the retirement of the Adminis- 
trative Officer, Joseph Sefekar, on May 7, 1977. Mr. Sefekar, who 
spent more than thirty-five years in government service, was one 

112 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

of the Museum's first employees, having joined the staff in 1970, 
and contributed greatly to the Museum's growth. 

Theodore E. Cummings, one of the Museum's original Trustees, 
resigned from the Board of Trustees on November 24, 1976, because 
of pressure of other obligations. To succeed him, the Trustees 
elected Jerome Greene, Esq., of New York City. 

Joseph Henry Papers 

Research and editing for Volume 3 of The Papers of Joseph Henry 
neared completion during the year, and the manuscript was sched- 
uled to go to press. The centerpiece of the volume, covering 
Henry's career in 1836 and 1837, is a series of diary entries docu- 
menting his eight-month European sojourn. Complemented by 
sprightly diary entries by his American friend A. D. Bache, who 
accompanied Henry part of the way, the diaries constitute a mine 
of information for transatlantic scientific awareness and influence. 
An unexpected but equally important by-product of annotating 
these difficult entries has been the development of an unusual per- 
spective on the European scientific scene, including features often 
neglected in conventional histories. It is very much a "living" his- 
tory told through the eyes of participants. The result is expected to 
be a volume of interest not only to Americanists but to specialists in 
French, English, and Scottish science as well. The project continues to 
search repositories for further Henry documentation. Major finds 
have been made in recent additions to the James Hall papers at the 
New York State Library. 

The Joseph Henry-Alexander Graham Bell Library was installed 
in the project's new quarters. These rare-book libraries, the proj- 
ect's other great historical resource, are now under proper tem- 
perature and security conditions. In addition, a major first step has 
been taken toward the renovation of the Joseph Henry Library, 
resulting in the rebinding of about 700 books during the past fiscal 

The Henry Papers project, in addition to publishing its volumes, 
is increasingly recognized for its function as a central scholarly re- 
source for science in America. It received inquiries and researchers 

History and Art I 113 

on a wide diversity of topics, including the history of research on 
sunspots, early United States-Japanese contacts on education and 
science, ideas of forest ecology, and the early years of the Smith- 
sonian. The appearance of the Henry volumes has publicized to 
outside scholars the wide range of materials on hand at the project. 
The staff was also consulted by representatives of other existing 
and prospective historical editing projects (e.g., the Edison and 
Henry Laurens Papers), interested in applying its procedures, espe- 
cially the computer index system. Over the fiscal year, the Henry 
Papers took on its usual complement of Smithsonian fellows, from 
visiting senior scholars to undergraduates. It has also welcomed 
two predoctoral fellows for the current and next fiscal year. 

The Nineteenth-Century Seminar, under Nathan Reingold, con- 
tinued to feature monthly presentations on an eclectic array of 
nineteenth-century subjects, including historic preservation, aero- 
nautical history, photography, and art history. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

The final presentations in the Museum's ambitious Bicentennial 
program were the stimulating exhibition of works by Robert Raus- 
chenberg, one of the few major Bicentennial exhibitions accorded 
a living American artist, and the Renwick's colorful "Americas: 
The Decorative Arts in Latin America in the Era of the Revolu- 
tion." The Rauschenberg exhibition, made up of some two hundred 
works representing all aspects of the artist's career borrowed from 
collections here and abroad, opened on October 28. The most com- 
prehensive exhibition ever held of Rauschenberg's work, it was 
widely reviewed in the national press. After its closing in Wash- 
ington, the exhibition was shown at the Museum of Modern Art 
in New York and then was scheduled to go on to San Francisco, 
Buffalo, and Chicago. The extensive catalogue accompanying the 
exhibition, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, pro- 
vides a thorough documentation of the artist's career, and remains 
of permanent value. 

In the throes of Bicentennial enthusiasm, it was easy to lose 
sight of the fact that the new United States were not alone in the 

114 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Americas at the time they achieved their independence. As a reminder 
of the contemporary cultural scene, the Renwick Gallery gathered 
together a dazzling collection of treasures from ten Latin American 
countries, created during the period of the American Revolution, 
to present a rich and decorative complement to the more austere 
northern taste. The exhibition, "Americas," which later was shown 
in New York, was supplemented with lectures by scholars from 
Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, and the United States, 
and with musical programs, all made possible through the cooper- 
ation of the Organization of American States, embassies, and the 
Smithsonian Associates. The handsome publication accompanying 
the exhibition included an informative text by Elizabeth Wilder 

The National Collection of Fine Arts' (ncfa) exhibition program 
for the year was one of the largest and most varied in its history. 
Of the twenty-six exhibitions presented, eighteen were produced 
by the Museum, four were produced in close collaboration with 
other institutions, and three were produced elsewhere. 

Renwick Gallery exhibitions ranged from "Paint on Wood," a 
historical survey of painted furniture that provided a provocative 
contrast to the purist side of modern taste, to the delightful em- 
broidered pictures by Ethel Mohamed. As usual, most exhibitions 
were accompanied by special programs and films. 

Even larger than the Rauschenberg exhibition was "Painting 
and Sculpture in California: The Modern Era" with some 250 
works. Produced in association with the San Francisco Museum of 
Modern Art, where it was first shown (the selection was made by 
the Director, Henry Hopkins, in collaboration with ncfa curator 
Walter Hopps), the exhibition continued ncfa's policy of studying 
the art of different areas of the United States in depth, begun with 
"Art of the Pacific Northwest" in 1974. The California exhibition 
was concerned with modern works from 1900 to the present and, 
although it made no effort to define a local style, did suggest the 
extraordinary vitality that has characterized art throughout the 

As a moment of classical calm between the Rauschenberg and 
California showings, an exhibition of works by the sculptor Dan- 
iel Chester French (1850-1931), who executed so many well-known 
monuments in Washington, was produced in association with the 

History and Art I 115 

National Trust for Historic Preservation. Of like calm was the 
small exhibition of paintings and drawings by John White Alexan- 
der, French's contemporary. 

In conjunction with a Washington-wide festival of art and po- 
etry, "Inscapes," ncfa celebrated the association of the two arts in 
a pair of highly original exhibitions: Peter Bermingham's "The Art 
of Poetry" in the Department of Education's Discover Gallery, and 
Lloyd Herman's "The Object as Poet" at the Renwick. Many of 
the works in "The Object as Poet" were created through collabo- 
ration by craftsmen and poets, some expressly for this showing. 
The major portion of this exhibition was later shown at the Mu- 
seum of Contemporary Crafts in New York City. 

No less poetic, in their way, were the prints of Jacob Kainen, 
displayed in an impressive retrospective exhibition by the Depart- 
ment of Prints and Drawings in November. On the occasion of 
the exhibition, which was later shown in Baltimore, the Museum 
published a complete catalogue of Kainen's prints. The galleries 
devoted to a selection of prints and drawings from the permanent 
collection were redesigned to allow more hanging space, and some 
large exhibitions, notably the prints of Mauricio Lasansky and the 
"25th National Exhibition of Prints," sponsored jointly with the 
Library of Congress, extended well into the newly organized areas. 

An exhibition of particular interest was of the works of Arthur 
Wesley Dow (1857-1922), an influential teacher whose Japanese- 
inspired theories revolutionized art instruction throughout the 
country. This was the first representative showing of his own 
works. A major publication on Dow accompanied the exhibition. 

The most spectacular addition to the permanent galleries was the 
Gellatly Gallery, opened in October. Named in honor of John 
Gellatly, who presented his large and varied collection to the Insti- 
tution in 1929, its objects range from Greek gold and ancient Chi- 
nese jade and glass to medieval ivories, fine Renaissance jewelry, 
and intricately blown eighteenth-century glass reliefs. Mr. Gellatly, 
who also gave the collection most of its paintings by Albert Pinkham 
Ryder, wished to show that American art of his period was the equal 
of the fine European and Asiatic art of the past. Now, some of the 
treasures he collected for comparison can again be seen in context. 

Since John Gellatly presented his gift, the ncfa collection has 
grown enormously. It now consists of some 6,500 paintings and 

116 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Maurice Prendergast, Summer, New England, 1912, oil on canvas, 19 x 27 inches. A 
recent gift to the National Collection of Fine Arts. Below: Francis W. Edmonds, The 
Speculator, circa 1852, oil on canvas, 25 x 39 inches. A recent acquisition by the 
National Collection of Fine Arts, gift of Mr. and Mrs. Kevin McCann. 

Adelyn Breeskin, Consultant for Twentieth-Century Painting and 
Sculpture at the National Collection of Fine Arts. Below: Young 
participants in Kaleidoscope Day in the National Collection of 
Fine Arts courtyard, June 4, 1977. 

sculptures, almost 13,000 prints and drawings, and 2,000 works of 
decorative art. Among the carefully selected 1,000 new works ac- 
cessioned this year were many of notable quality. Outstanding 
among the gifts were a superb 1912 painting by Maurice Prender- 
gast, two especially fine early paintings by Milton Avery, an im- 
portant large panel by Bob Thompson, whom the Museum re- 
membered with an exhibition in 1975, and a large and lively paint- 
ing by Stanley William Hayter, best known for his contributions 
to printmaking. 

The Speculator, an expertly painted and amusing work by the 
nineteenth-century genre painter Francis W. Edmonds was a major 
gift in that area. A group of ninety-five works by Morris Kantor 
and a series of works by Charles Pollock and studies by Abraham 
Rattner add much to our understanding of these artists. For the 
nineteenth-century collection, major purchases included Castle 
Rock, Marblehead by Alfred Bricher, William Beard's amusing 
The Darwinian, and a luminous, early landscape by Elihu Vedder, 
for whom an extensive retrospective exhibition will be mounted in 
the fall of 1978. Two of the major twentieth-century works pur- 
chased were a large sculpture by Saul Baizerman and Ralston Craw- 
ford's precise and elegant Buffalo Grain Elevator of 1937. 

In order to document the collection better and provide more ma- 
terial for the public and scholars, all matters pertaining to slides 
and photography were recently organized under a single office. 
This includes not only the photography laboratory and office of 
rights and reproductions, but the collection of 30,000 slides, 15,000 
photographs, and 127,000 negatives of the Peter Juley and Son 
archives. The slide and photograph collection is now indexed on 
computer by artist and subject. An additional help to scholars has 
been the ncfa's continuing project of indexing works of artistic 
interest throughout the Smithsonian. In less than a year and a half 
more than 82,000 works have been listed. 

The Museum published six books and major catalogues, five 
small catalogues, and various informational folders during the 
year. Research carried on by its fellows, who came from seven 
universities, ranged from the iconography of the West in the nine- 
teenth century to the paintings of David Smith. Regular seminars 
were held for visiting scholars and the staff, and the intern pro- 
grams in museum training continued successfully. 

History and Art I 119 

Each spring ncfa's resourceful docents (there are eighty-five in- 
cluding those at the Renwick) hold a special day-long event in the 
courtyard and galleries featuring artists, musicians, many things 
to do, and much gallery activity. Once called Children's Day, it 
has now become a day for all members of the family. It is now 
called Kaleidoscope, and the approximately 2,800 people, young 
and old, who came this year thoroughly enjoyed the experience. 
Families also came to the fifth high-school graphics exhibition, 
"Through the Eyes of New Printmakers," for which much of the 
planning and the catalogue were done by students. Still an addi- 
tional audience celebrated the opening in the Discover Gallery of 
"Raices y Visiones/Roots and Visions," which was a vital and 
colorful exhibition of works by American artists of Hispanic or 
Latin American origin who have consciously used their distinctive 
cultural background in developing their art. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

The year following the American Revolution Bicentennial has per- 
mitted the return to a more normal pattern and breadth of museum 
activity. Two of the nine Bicentennial exhibits were actually com- 
pleted in 1977: "Belgian Gunmaking and American History" and 
"Person to Person," and new exhibits continued to be produced. 
Most staff members, however, were able to devote more of their 
time to research and professional activities, and to participation in 
public service responsibilities. A major effort has been applied to 
improving control of collections and to planning directions of mu- 
seum development. 

Improved control of collections has been substantially advanced. 
Thousands of objects borrowed from other museums and indi- 
viduals to supplement the Museum's holdings for producing its 
major Bicentennial exhibitions, and the large number of objects 
loaned to other museums and institutions of learning for use in 
their Bicentennial exhibits, left a great wake of registrarial work 
involving staff at all levels in various aspects of collections man- 

120 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Secretary Ripley speaks on a vintage telephone, while Bernard S. Finn, organizer of 
the "Person to Person" exhibit, watches. Dr. Finn is Curator of Electricity and Nuclear 
Energy at the Museum of History and Technology. 

During the same period and as part of the same effort, a new 
project was initiated to place accession and registration informa- 
tion into a central computer file. A total of some 15,000 objects 
has been added to this master file, and cataloguing for a great part 
of this total has been completed by Museum staff. This conversion 
will continue with each new object added to the collections. 

The assignment of an expert member of the staff of the Office of 
the Registrar to each new exhibition project to manage the intri- 
cate registration procedures has proved to be extremely productive, 
and provides for the most efficient accountability of the multitude 
of objects involved in the process. The Office of the Registrar has 
now established control over current accessions and loans, and 
reports a total of more than 14,957,598 accessioned objects in our 

A recently implemented major resource contributing to the con- 
trol of collections is the addition of a central processing facility 
operated by Kenneth Bush assisted by Larry Bird, under the super- 
vision of the Office of the Registrar. All objects coming into and 
being sent out of the Museum are handled through this facility, 
with carefully recorded condition reports for all items, utilizing the 
most advanced scientifically developed methods of packing and 

The new emphasis upon collections management is a part of a 
planning program currently in progress, that will reorganize the 
Museum into more rationally related departments within which 
both research and collecting activity can be multiplied in their ef- 
fectiveness. Technicians and specialists have been given new en- 
couragement to participate with curators in the development of 
policies and specific programs for collecting and for exhibits. 

Substantial additions to the collections were made during the 
year. Perhaps the largest item was a portion of a "balloon frame" 
house installed in the Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past. 
Built in Illinois in about 1855 for a farmer, John C. Cowing, the 
house was a gift of Patrick Murray, and its transfer to and instal- 
lation in the Museum were made possible by a grant from Certain- 
Teed Corporation. The dwelling was disassembled and reassembled 
by Charles H. Rowell, specialist in period construction, with the co- 
operation of Curator Rodris Roth, in an exhibit designed by Deborah 
Bretzfelder. This type of innovative construction, common today, 

122 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

employed thin presawn wood held together with mass-produced cut 
nails. Originating in Chicago in the early 1830s, it contributed to 
the rapid settlement of the West. The opening of the exhibit was 
marked with a special display on "Going to Housekeeping" and 
an illustrated lecture on "The Cowing House and Balloon-Frame 
Construction" by research consultant Paul E. Sprague, sponsored 
by the Latrobe Chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians 
and the Greater Washington Area Chapter of the Victorian Society 
in America. 

Notable also was an underwriter duplex-type steam fire pump of 
about 1900, of the type manufactured by many builders to an 
absolutely standard design formulated by the Factory Mutual In- 
surance Companies and other underwriters, required to be installed 
in all industrial plants covered by the associated underwriters. 
Once found in almost every American mill, these machines saw 
almost universal service until their role was taken over by elec- 
tricity-driven centrifugal pumps. 

Contrasting in size are acquisitions of two clocks that are sig- 
nificant additions to the National Collections. A Seth Thomas 
pillar-and-scroll shelf clock dating from about 1820 is the only 
known example of the second of five models believed to have been 
constructed by Thomas in his efforts to produce a standard shelf- 
clock style suitable for mass production. The pillar-and-scroll, the 
design of which is credited to Thomas's contemporary, Eli Terry, 
was the first American mass-produced shelf clock. 

Another horological acquisition was a tall-case clock made and 
signed by Peter Hill, the first black American clockmaker. Born a 
slave, Hill was trained in clockmaking by his owner, Joseph Hol- 
linshead, Jr., of Burlington and Mount Holly, New Jersey. Subse- 
quently achieving freedom, and later permitted to purchase the 
freedom of a slave girl who became his wife, Hill repaired and 
made clocks in Burlington and Mount Holly until 1820. He died 
bankrupt and is buried in the Friends Meeting House burial ground 
in Burlington. This signed, eight-day, brass-movement striking clock 
is one of only two known surviving signed examples of Hill's work. 

The collections of the Department of Cultural History were sig- 
nificantly enriched by the gift from John Paul Remensnyder of his 
notable collection of American pottery, consisting of approximately 
300 pieces illustrating the history of stoneware manufacture in the 

History and Art I 123 

Northeastern and Middle Atlantic states from the eighteenth to 
the middle of the nineteenth century. A fine silver teapot made 
by Barent Ten Eyck (1714-1795) of Albany for his cousin on the 
occasion of her marriage in 1734 was presented to the Museum 
by a descendant of that marriage. Among other acquisitions were 
an eighteenth-century violin from the workshop of Amati in Cre- 
mona, and a chamber organ made by Eben. Goodrich of Boston. 
Two important nineteenth-century grand pianos made by Steinway 
Sons were formally presented by the Steinway family at a cere- 
mony that included music played by Van Cliburn on the 1892 
Steinway grand used by Ignace Jan Paderewski during his 1892- 
1893 American concert tour. Related to the presentation, Cynthia 
Adams Hoover presented an illustrated lecture on "The Steinways 
and their Pianos in the Nineteenth Century." 

The Department of Applied Arts received the gift of an exten- 
sive collection of postage stamps formed by Mr. and Mrs. H. Earl 
Hoover of Glencoe, Illinois, as well as highly specialized collections 
of postal emissions of the Saar, nineteenth-century postage stamps 
and covers of Venezuela, and vintage stamp-printing apparatus. 
Among significant additions to the Department of National and Mili- 
tary History were a Collier flintlock revolver of about 1818; a collec- 
tion of letters, sketchbooks, and gifts of Thomas Cochrane Dudley, 
who was assistant purser aboard the S.S. Powhatan during Commo- 
dore Perry's expedition to Japan; a handsome Chinese export bowl 
decorated with the insignia of the Order of the Cincinnati, from 
the service owned by George Washington; a handsome collection 
of jewelry owned by Mrs. Jefferson Davis; the television stage 
furnishings used in the 1976 presidential campaign debates; the 
two chairs used by presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and 
Richard M. Nixon from the first televised presidential debates, in 
1960; and a doll house and doll owned by the children of President 
Grover Cleveland. 

Outstanding additions to the collections of the Department of 
Industries were a group of 450 pieces of rare ancient glass, a fine 
group of Wedgwood jasper ware, and twenty pieces of eighteenth- 
century Meissen porcelain as well as three outstanding presenta- 
tion pieces of engraved glass of about 1786 made at Frederick 
Amelung's New Bremen Glass Manufactory. 

One of the most outstanding accessions of the past year has 

124 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

been the Division of Transportation's sugar-plantation locomotive 
built in 1883 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for service in 
Hawaii. Named the Olomana, the diminutive engine is on display 
in the Railroad Hall. 

Although the major exhibits for the Bicentennial were completed 
in the past year, the Museum produced a new exhibition entitled 
"Person to Person/' which celebrated the centenary of the tele- 
phone. Supported by substantial grants and donations of artifacts 
from various entities of the telephone industry, the exhibit focuses 
on the history of inter-person communication, how it has changed 
the American way of life, and the social impact of changes effected 
in its technical devices. The four thousand square feet of display 
features the original apparatus of Alexander Graham Bell; early 
switchboards, including an operating panel frame automatic switch- 
board from 1922; glass insulators; telephone-song sheet music; 
early telephone instruments; and a wide variety of operating units, 
including one incorporating a piece of the original wire used by 
Bell to summon Watson, his assistant, over which visitors to the 
exhibit may talk. 

Representing a cooperative effort between the Museum's Divi- 
sion of Graphic Arts and the Department of Anthropology of the 
National Museum of Natural History was an exhibition entitled 
"Perfect Likenesses," which opened in April. Featuring drawings 
and paintings of American Indians made from life, paintings copied 
from them, and lithographs produced from them, the exhibition 
pointed to the changes that occurred from copy to copy. Organized 
by Dr. Peter C. Marzio and designed by Richard C. Virgo, with the 
assistance of Dr. Herman Viola, Director of the National Anthro- 
pological Archives, the exhibit assembled for the first time a wide 
range of materials never previously shown together. 

On June 15 the Museum opened a special exhibition on the "Sil- 
ver Jubilee" of Queen Elizabeth II of England. Based on the theme 
of American associations with members of the British royal family 
from the first English plantations in North America, the nucleus of 
the exhibit was a collection of materials loaned by special permis- 
sion of the Queen from her personal collection in the Royal Library 
at Windsor Castle. Included were the original draft penned by 
Prince Albert of the famous "Trent Memorandum," which resolved 
the pending break in Anglo-American relations during the Civil 

History and Art I 125 

War; an exchange of letters between Queen Victoria and Mary 
Todd Lincoln following the assassination of President Lincoln; let- 
ters and a painting relating to the visit of the Prince of Wales, later 
King Edward VII, to the United States; a pair of telephones turned 
in ivory by Alexander Graham Bell for Queen Victoria; and Vic- 
toria's message of congratulations to President Buchanan, relayed 
over the submarine cable laid across the Atlantic. 

Other objects in the collections included state gifts from the 
royal family to Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Johnson, and Ford, 
in addition to other memorabilia borrowed from several presiden- 
tial libraries, the United States National Archives, the Library of 
Congress, and the Maryland Historical Society. Organized and de- 
veloped by Silvio A. Bedini, the exhibition was designed by James 
M. Mahoney of Exhibits Central and produced and installed by the 
cooperative efforts of the Office of Exhibits Central and the Mu- 
seum's exhibits staff. Several days after the opening, the exhibition 
was visited by Princess Anne during her visit to Washington. 

Temporary exhibits in special galleries included a photographic 
display, in the Hall of Photography, entitled "Photographing the 
Frontier," organized by Eugene Ostroff, Curator of Photography, 
and designed by Nadya Makovenyi. An exhibition on "Pochoir" 
was organized by Dr. Elizabeth Harris for the Hall of Printing and 
Graphic Arts, and designed by Richard S. Virgo. 

Several special units are featured on the first floor of the Mu- 
seum. An innovative approach to science education is the descrip- 
tion of the Foucault pendulum on a nearby panel that was created 
by Dr. Faye Cannon and designed by Benjamin W. Lawless, Assist- 
ant Director for Design and Production. A whimsical display en- 
titled "Ride On," representing the cooperative efforts of Curator 
Donald Berkebile and Designer Deborah Bretzfelder, combines some 
of the noteworthy bicycles from the Museum's collections with 
graphic materials to relate the technological and social history of the 
bicycle in American life at the beginning of the twentieth century. 

In the special gallery created as an adjunct to the Dibner Library, 
Curator Dr. Jon B. Eklund produced an exhibition on "Art and 
Chemistry," combining manuscripts and published works from the 
Library with artifacts from the collections. This was followed by 
an exhibition entitled "Focusing on America," prepared by Dr. 
Cannon and designed by Deborah Bretzfelder, in conjunction with 

126 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

the Washington meetings of the Seventh International Conference 
on the History of Cartography. Original maps chronicled the depic- 
tion of America in increasingly greater detail with the continuing 
exploration and development of the New World. The exhibit begins 
with a fifteenth-century world map in which the American conti- 
nent does not appear, and terminates with panoramic views pro- 
duced in the late nineteenth century, in which each mountain peak 
is depicted with its own characteristics. Featured are books from 
the Dibner Library; the field notebooks and other memorabilia of 
Major Andrew Ellicott, surveyor of the major national boundaries; 
and maps, charts, and scientific instruments from the Museum's 
collections. Of special significance is the mariner's astrolabe of 
Samuel de Champlain on loan from the New-York Historical Society. 

In the Hall of Everyday Life in the American Past, a display of 
personal memorabilia, art work, family photograph albums, and 
other mementos reflecting the gathering of community groups and 
family reunions was produced to illustrate the phenomenon of re- 
unions for the Smithsonian symposium "Kin and Communities." 
Designed by Deborah Bretzfelder, the exhibit was organized by 
Richard E. Ahlborn, Chairman of the Department of Cultural His- 
tory, with the assistance of Carolyn Sadler and April Fehr, gradu- 
ate students in anthropology. 

A special display on "Thirteen Star Flags" was produced by Dr. 
Harold D. Langley, Associate Curator of Naval History, in cooper- 
ation with Mrs. Grace R. Cooper, Curator Emeritus of the Divi- 
sion of Textiles. The exhibition, designed by Deborah Bretzfelder, 
was produced for the annual Conference of Vexillologists, which 
met in Washington in June. 

Much effort during the past year has focused on the development 
of collections and preparation of scripts and designs for the Hall of 
American Maritime Enterprise, which is scheduled to open to the 
public in 1978. Supported by grants from numerous maritime in- 
dustries, the concept and outline for the hall were produced by Dr. 
Melvin H. Jackson, Curator of Marine History, with the assist- 
ance of historian Dr. Robert C. Post; the designer is Mrs. Nadya 

Considerable work has also been completed for a new exhibition 
being produced by the Museum in cooperation with the Energy 
Research and Development Administration (erda) on high-energy 

History and Art I 127 

particle accelerators. Entitled "Atom Smashers," this fifty-year 
retrospective exhibit was developed by Dr. Paul Forman, Curator of 
Modern Physics; the designer is John Schmid of erda and the project 
coordinator is Richard 5. Virgo, the Museum's Chief of Design. 

The Frank Nelson Doubleday Lectures for 1977 featured the 
topic "Education in the Real World," and brought to the Museum 
a wide range of speakers. Author John Updike opened the series 
with a discussion of "The Written Word." Congressman John 
Brademas of Indiana spoke on "Government and Education," while 
the third speaker, Alex Haley, author of Roots, presented a lecture 
on "Black Heritage." Designer Charles Eames examined "Education 
as a Found Object," and the final speaker in the series, James M. 
Hester, Rector of the United Nations University in Tokyo, selected 
as his topic, "Education for a Changed World." 

In October Silvio A. Bedini, Deputy Director, led a study group 
to Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt, to advise the Egyptian Ministry 
of Health on the establishment and development of museums for 
the history of medicine and pharmacy, in an ongoing program of 
cooperation under a treaty on health negotiated between the United 
States and Egypt. He was accompanied by Dr. Sami K. Hamarneh, 
the Museum's historian of pharmacy; Dr. John B. Blake, historian 
of the National Library of Medicine; and Dr. L. Max Brodny, Di- 
rector, Museum of Surgical Science, International College of Sur- 
geons in Chicago. 

In November Dr. Brooke Hindle, Director of the Museum, pre- 
sented the keynote address at the Fifth Annual United States Mili- 
tary Museum Conference held at the Presidio of San Francisco. In 
May he gave the annual address at the John Carter Brown Library, 
and in September 1977 he gave the opening address at the West- 
chester Museum Conference at the Rockefeller Archives Center. 

In February Dr. Bernard S. Finn visited India upon invitation 
from the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, to 
consult on India's developing program of technology museums and 
to discuss a possible United States-India exhibition on the history 
of technology. He spoke on the exhibition of artifacts of technology 
at the Visvesbaraya Institute and Technology Museum and at the 
India Institute of Science at Bangalore, at the Birla Industrial and 
Technological Museum in Calcutta, and the Nehru Science Center 
in Bombay. 

128 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Alex Haley, author of Roots, was the speaker for the Frank Nelson Doubleday 
Lecture Series on February 23, 1977, at the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology. The title of his talk was "The Black Heritage." Below: The exhibition "Ride 
On" opened in May 1977 in the National Museum of History and Technology. The 
exhibit combined bicycles from the Museum's collections, posters from the Museum's 
Collection of Business Americana, and graphics from a Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service exhibit. 

Robert M. Vogel, Curator of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 
participated in several important public events concerned with 
industrial archeology, including a "Section 106" hearing before 
the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, called to assess po- 
tential damage to Baltimore's historic properties from a planned 
interstate highway. With the Historic American Engineering Rec- 
ord group of the National Park Service, he participated in a heli- 
copter survey of the "Northeast Corridor," to view, photograph, 
and assess the significance of all structures along the mainline of 
the former Pennsylvania and New Haven railroads from Washing- 
ton to Boston, in an effort to improve rail travel between the ter- 
minal cities. In May he delivered the keynote paper on the preser- 
vation and continued re-use of early industrial districts at a London 
conference sponsored jointly by the Victorian Society and the 
Association for Industrial Archeology. 

Accepting a special invitation from Vatican authorities, Mr. 
Bedini spent five weeks in two visits to Rome conducting research 
on several projects in the library, archives, museums, and other 
facilities of the Vatican. 

In May Robert G. Tillotson, Assistant Director for Administra- 
tion, attended the annual meetings of the International Council of 
Museums (icom) held in Leningrad and Moscow. Also attending 
were Curators Philip K. Lundeberg and Cynthia A. Hoover, and 
Conservator Scott Odell. Mr. Tillotson is chairman of icom's Inter- 
national Committee on Museum Security, of which Dr. Lundeberg 
is the secretary. Earlier in the year, Mr. Tillotson coordinated the 
publication of a volume on Museum Security in English and French, 
published by icom with sponsorship by the Smithsonian Institution, 
the American Association of Museums, and the Mellon and Shell 
foundations. The work was developed by an icom International 
Committee of thirty-four authorities from nineteen countries. 

The Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research was the host for 
several important scholarly gatherings during the year. In December 
a session on "Non-Americans in the American Revolution" was 
sponsored jointly by the Eisenhower Institute, the American Mili- 
tary Institute, and the United States Commission on Military His- 
tory. Under the chairmanship of Professor Russell F. Weigley, the 
conference was attended by more than two hundred historians. 

130 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

In May, the Eisenhower Institute joined the American Committee 
for the History of the Second World War in developing a confer- 
ence on "Americans As Proconsuls: U. S. Military Government in 
Germany and Japan, 1944-1952," which was held at the Museum. 
In was the third and final conference of a series on United States 
occupation policy held in cooperation with the Douglas MacArthur 
Memorial Library and the George C. Marshall Research Library. 
The conference was attended by more than two hundred and fifty 
historians and individuals who had played important roles in mili- 
tary government during and after World War II. 

Participating in the ongoing program of visiting scholars from the 
academic and museum worlds, Dr. Klaus Maurice, Curator of the 
Bavarian National Museum in Munich, spent six months at the 
Museum. During this period he performed research in his subject 
specialty of the history of horology and cooperated with Dr. Otto 
Mayr in the planning of an exhibition on German clocks of the 
period 1600 to 1650, to be produced in 1980 at the Bayerisches 
Nationalmuseum and the National Museum of History and Tech- 

Several members of the curatorial staff continue as editors of 
scholarly periodicals in their fields. Dr. Robert P. Multhauf is editor 
of ISIS, the journal of the History of Science Society, and Dr. Ber- 
nard S. Finn is its managing editor. John H. White, Jr., continues to 
edit the semiannual publication Railroad History, while Dr. John T. 
Schlebecker is editor of the bimonthly Living Historical Farms 

The Division of Musical Instruments was engaged in twenty-eight 
events featuring a variety of instruments from the collections, in- 
cluding several ensemble concerts by the Smithsonian Chamber 
Players under the direction of James Weaver. Performances were co- 
sponsored largely by the Friends of Music and the Ward Hamilton 
Memorial Fund for Folk Music. The Chamber Players also appeared 
in twenty performances throughout the United States in collabora- 
tion with the National Smithsonian Associates program to bring 
Smithsonian activities to other parts of the country. Harpsichord 
music of Jacques Duphly was recorded for the "Smithsonian Collec- 
tion" on the Stehlin harpsichord from the collection, performed by 
James Weaver. 

History and Art I 131 

The Division of Education and Visitor Information cooperated 
closely with the District of Columbia school system by means of 
monthly meetings with administrative personnel, and emphasized 
adult education and special populations in especially designed pro- 
grams. Among these programs was a ten-visit museum experience at 
the School Without Walls, presented to secondary school students 
by trained docents using the Museum's collections and exhibits to 
illuminate topics in nineteenth-century American social and political 

School programs were also expanded by the addition of new les- 
son-tours designed specifically for primary grade students. Programs 
in special education and for the handicapped and elderly were en- 
larged during the year to include lesson-tours in transportation for 
learning-disabled students. Outreach programs were offered to a 
large number of nursing homes and senior citizen groups. 

Throughout the year, the Museum attempted to reach a broad 
cross section of the Washington public through a variety of infor- 
mal musical programs. Free concerts were held in the galleries, in 
the auditorium, and outdoors on the Mall terrace. At Christmas, 
local chorus groups and musicians performed in the Flag Hall. Dur- 
ing the Easter and Cherry Blossom season, the Museum sponsored a 
Spring Celebration jointly with the Division of Performing Arts. 
This two-week long out-door music program featured military 
bands and local musical groups playing a variety of American music. 

In order to call attention to the onset of summer hours, the Musi- 
cal Instruments Division invited John MacFadyen of Busby, Scot- 
land, to perform "An Evening of Scottish Piping" in the pendulum 
area. The concert was a huge success and drew approximately nine 
hundred people. High school musicians were also given an oppor- 
tunity to perform outdoor programs on the Mall terrace during the 
tourist season. Young people from Maine, Connecticut, Illinois, and 
other states participated. 

A three-day Fourth of July Celebration, sponsored with the Divi- 
sion of Performing Arts, offered music programs, puppet shows, 
barbershop quartets, craft demonstrations, cyclists, and a dance pro- 
gram on the Museum's terraces and grounds. Many of the traditions 
of an old-fashioned Fourth of July were recreated and approximately 
200,000 visitors attended. 

A special summer evening concert series by the United States 

132 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Navy Commodores held on Wednesdays in July and August drew 
500 people to each concert. In the fall, the Museum started noon- 
time music concerts on Mondays and Fridays in the Carmichael 

Books published by the staff in 1977 reflected a wide range of the 
Museum's interests. Physics, Patents & Politics by historian Robert 
C. Post is the first full biography of Charles Grafton Page, a remark- 
able nineteenth-century experimentalist with electro-magnetism, 
who in his time was considered to be on a par with Joseph Henry, 
although his scientific achievements were overshadowed by his ac- 
tivities as a reformer and promoter. An important work on the 
American patent system and federal involvement with science and 
technology, it is published by Science History Publications. 

An addition to the Museum series Smithsonian Studies in History 
and Technology is a volume by Peter C. Marzio on The Art Cru- 
sade, which provides an analysis of the numerous American draw- 
ing manuals produced between 1820 and 1860. Drs. Vladimir and 
Elvira E. Clain-Stefanelli wrote a popular book on the history of 
numismatics, entitled Das grosse Buch der Munzen und Medaillen, 
which was published in Munich. A useful little work on Costume 
Display Techniques, written by Karen Harris, the Section of Cos- 
tume's museum specialist, was published by the American Associa- 
tion for State and Local History. Two research monographs pub- 
lished with the cooperation of the Division of Electricity and Nuclear 
Physics are Relics of the Electrical Age by Robert Belfield and Saga 
of the Vacuum Tube by Gerald F. J. Tyne. 

National Portrait Gallery 

During the past year 413 portraits were added by gift and purchase 
to the permanent collection of the National Portrait Gallery. Espe- 
cially notable gifts to the collection this year were three likenesses 
of Joel Barlow — a drawing by John Vanderlyn, a miniature by Wil- 
liam Dunlap, and a rare engraving by Ruotte — all donated by the 
present-day descendant of the subject who bears his illustrious an- 
cestor's name. A magnificent daguerreotype of President Zachary 
Taylor and his son-in-law, Colonel William W. S. Bliss, was pur- 

History and Art I 133 

chased with the assistance of funds provided by the Quaker Oats 
Foundation. A striking portrait drawing of President Jimmy Carter 
by Jamie Wyeth, done from life at Plains, Georgia, in November 
1976, was presented by the Peretz Foundation. 

The most significant gift to the collection this year (indeed, per- 
haps of this decade) was the magnificent John Singleton Copley self- 
portrait, an acquisition made possible by a very generous matching 
grant from The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation. 

Worthy of special mention among the year's purchases were a 
sparkling small oil of Benjamin West with his family by the artist 
himself in the garden of his house and studio in London; an extra- 
ordinarily vivid Sharpies pastel of Joseph Priestly, the eminent 
scientist and political thinker, who became an American citizen in 
1794 and spent the remainder of his life in this country; a brilliant 
watercolor self-portrait of one of America's greatest impressionists, 
Mary Cassatt; and a daguerreotype of General Thomas J. "Stone- 
wall" Jackson, one of only two known such original photo images. 

The Gallery mounted eight exhibitions during the period covered 
by this report. The most ambitious of these was "The President's 
Medal, 1789-1977," which dealt with presidential inaugural medals 
from the earliest times to the present. It was accompanied by a fully 
illustrated catalogue published by Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. This 
show has since gone on to the Lyndon B. Johnson Library in Austin, 
Texas. The other seven exhibitions were "Thomas Hart Benton," 
which celebrated the acquisition in the preceding year of a major 
self-portrait of the artist; "Not a Model Boy," marking the hun- 
dredth anniversary of the publication of Tom Sawyer by Mark 
Twain; "Gallant Harry of the West," in commemoration of the 
two-hundredth anniversary of the birth of Henry Clay; "Aaron 
Burr Acquitted," which dealt with Burr's trial for conspiracy; "Re- 
cent Acquisitions from the Department of Photographs," the first 
time a major selection of this new area of the Gallery's holdings was 
shown; "Illustrators of the Civil War: Conrad Wise Chapman and 
Winslow Homer," which was mounted in conjunction with the Gal- 
lery's permanent installation of Civil War period portraits; and "We 
Were But a Handful," which opened on the fifty-seventh anniver- 
sary of the ratification of the Women's Suffrage Amendment to the 

134 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


^ v 

| 1 





Mary Cassatt, self-portrait in watercolor, circa 1880, 
recently acquired by the National Portrait Gallery. 

Jimmy Carter, pencil drawing from life by Jamie Wyeth at 
Plains, Georgia, November 1976, was presented to the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery by the Peretz Foundation. Below: 
Daguerreotype of President Zachary Taylor and his son-in- 
law, Colonel William W. S. Bliss, circa 1847, was purchased 
by the National Portrait Gallery with the assistance of funds 
provided by the Quaker Oats Foundation. 

"Faces of Freedom/' a half-hour film about the history of the 
United States as told through portraiture, produced for the Gallery 
by Charles Guggenheim and narrated by Charlton Heston, pre- 
miered in July and is now being shown daily in a small theater de- 
signed especially for that purpose adjacent to the front entrance of 
the Gallery. 

David E. Finley, a member of the National Portrait Gallery Com- 
mission from its inception, and the one person more than any other 
responsible for the existence of the Gallery, died on February 1, 
1977. A generous bequest by Mr. Finley made possible the acquisi- 
tion of a long-sought-after portrait print of Pocahontas by Simon 
van de Passe, done in 1616, which is yet another way whereby the 
name of David E. Finley will continue to be remembered. Wilmarth 
Sheldon Lewis, also one of the first Commissioners of the Gallery, 
retired from its membership on August 25, 1976. Mr. Lewis's service 
to the Gallery from its earliest days has been invaluable, and we 
look forward to many more years of his wise counsel. 

Office of Academic Studies 

In its role as a leader in the international scholarly community, the 
Smithsonian maintains close scholarly ties with universities, mu- 
seums, and research institutions around the world. Among the most 
important of these connections are the Institution's academic pro- 
grams. Through them young scholars come to the Smithsonian, 
bringing a refreshing spirit of vitality to the basic research efforts of 
the Institution. This continuous infusion of new ideas and enthusi- 
asm assists in maintaining a high level of intellectual diversity and 

With policy direction from the Board of Academic Studies, the 
Office of Academic Studies acts as the center through which the 
Smithsonian's research activities pursue their academic objectives. 
Academic programs reflect the character of the research and collec- 
tion strengths of the Smithsonian. They deliberately avoid duplica- 
tion of university-based study and research, stressing new perspec- 
tives on academic subjects and disciplines not commonly studied in 
the university. These programs range from off-campus undergradu- 

History and Art I 137 

ate studies to traditional postdoctoral research-training fellowships. 
They are flexible, giving assistance to individuals who need to study 
at the Institution for a few days and to persons who require the 
research resources of the Institution for a year or more. 

Fellowships are awarded to postdoctoral scholars to spend six 
months to one year participating in a program of advanced research 
training. Predoctoral Fellows receive appointments for a similar 
period to conduct research necessary to complete their dissertations. 
During 1976-1977 sixty-nine postdoctoral and predoctoral fellows 
were appointed. Students who need to spend a shorter period pur- 
suing their research in consultation with the research staff of the 
Smithsonian are offered ten-week appointments. During 1976-1977 
sixteen such appointments were made. The Office of Academic 
Studies also conducts a Short-Term Visitor Program, under which 
twenty-two visitors spent one week to a month at the Institution 
during the past year. 

Smaller academic programs continue to be developed by individ- 
ual bureaus of the Institution to meet specific needs that cannot be 
met by those Institution-wide programs conducted by the Office of 
Academic Studies. In the past year the Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden, the National Zoological Park, and the National 
Collection of Fine Arts have continued to conduct specialized aca- 
demic programs for undergraduate and graduate students. 

A system developed to maintain regular contact with past fellows 
has resulted in an index that includes a listing of significant books 
and articles resulting from fellows' tenure at the Institution. 

A total of 146 individuals participated in the Smithsonian's aca- 
demic studies programs during 1976-1977. A listing of individual 
names and research projects may be found in Appendix 7. 

Office of American and Folklife Studies 

The Office of American Studies continued its program in graduate 
education throughout the year. The fall 1976 seminar in "Material 
Aspects of American Civilization" had as its theme "American Mu- 
seums in the Year of the Bicentennial." Taught by the Director of 
the Program, Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn, and Professor Bernard 

138 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Mergen, of The George Washington University, the course had 
twenty-five students. 

Other seminars given during the academic year 1976-1977 in- 
cluded: "The American Decorative Arts in Historic Preservation," 
taught by Babara Carson; "The Material Culture of Alexandria, 
Virginia: 1770-1830," taught by Dennis O'Toole, Curator of Educa- 
tion of the National Portrait Gallery; and "American Art and 
American History," taught by Lillian Miller, Historian of American 
Art and History of the National Portrait Gallery. 

Individual students continued to pursue specialized research un- 
der the supervision of the Director of the Program. 

In November 1976 a Folklife Unit was established at the Smith- 
sonian Institution within the Office of American Studies. Concom- 
mitantly, the Director of the American Studies Program, Dr. Wash- 
burn, was appointed Chairman of the newly established Folklife 
Advisory Council, which held its first meeting January 7, 1977. The 
Council was established by Secretary Ripley to "advise and guide 
the evolution of our documentation, Festival, and other folklife ac- 
tivities" at the Smithsonian Institution. Under the guidance of the 
Advisory Council, the Folklife Unit staff made major progress to- 
ward organizing the documentary materials amassed from the ten 
Festivals of American Folklife held by the Smithsonian, and formu- 
lated plans for the utilization of these materials in scholarly publi- 

Dr. Washburn spent a month, starting in January, as Regents 
Lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley. He also attended 
the Second International Reunion of the History of the Art of Navi- 
gation and of Hydrography at the invitation of the Documentation 
Section of the Brazilian Navy in Salvador, Bahia. Afterward, the 
Director attended meetings in Rio de Janeiro of the Instituto Histori- 
co e Geografico Brasileiro, of which he is one of two United States 
members. In October 1976 he delivered a paper entitled "Reflections 
of an Historian about Archives Past and Present with Special Refer- 
ence to the United States" at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, 
British Columbia. 

History and Art I 139 

President Jimmy Carter inspects "Silverworks from Rio de la Plata, Argentina" 
exhibition at the Pan American Union Building before addressing a meeting of 
the Organization of American States. With him is Rafael Sarda, an OA5 
official. "Silverworks from Rio de la Plata, Argentina" is a major international 
exhibition being circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service. (Official White House photo) 

Smithsonian Year • 1977 


Two words have often been used to describe museums — "attic" and 
"iceberg." It is a moot question whether the word "attic," when it 
was used in the nineteenth century, had the pejorative connotations 
that we attribute to it today. An attic was once considered a secure 
place, a safe spot to house heirlooms, hope chests, or the legacies of 
relatives. Yet, the term connotes misuse and underuse; out of sight, 
out of mind; reservoirs of obsolescence rather than treasures to be 
shared with one's descendants. It evokes unwanted burdens that 
lassitude has elbowed out of consciousness. Hence, museums no 
longer want to be referred to as attics. What about icebergs? That 
terminology arose when it became increasingly evident that the vast 
proportion of museum collections, by necessity, could not be exhibi- 
ted to the public, either because there was not enough space to do 
so properly, as was so often the case, or because collections were 
not spectacular enough or were too repetitive to enlighten but a 
small percentage of visitors, a special audience that was far more 
content to search through drawers and study objects close at hand 
in a storeroom, laboratory, or office than in public exhibition spaces 
with the attendant interference of glass vitrines and wandering 

A great majority of the world's most important museums are ice- 
bergs, in that a great proportion of their resources are hidden away 
from the general public and are accessible, primarily, to the research 
staffs who curate them and who seek out new knowledge with the 
occasional assistance of visiting scholars. 

The semantic comparison between a museum and an iceberg, 
however, falls apart since one expects that an iceberg will melt. The 
museum iceberg, on the contrary, far from melting, keeps growing 
in an orderly fashion based upon the needs of scholarship, the de- 
sire of society to know more about its evolution, and the moral obli- 


gation to pass the material testimony of the past to future genera- 

The museum iceberg also is not a cold, uninviting environment 
but rather one where continuity from one civilization to another can 
be traced, and where, in spite of the traumas to which human kind 
has been subjected repeatedly over the ages, the evidence can be 
found that reason, hope, and creativity can survive. That is the im- 
portant message of the collections in our care, that is their seminal 
significance for the future, that is why so many of the resources and 
so large a portion of the efforts expended on their behalf, which to 
an outsider may seem superfluous or even wasteful, are, on the con- 
trary, essential if these resources are to be studied adequately, inter- 
preted, and transmitted for the benefit of this and future generations. 

It is to these ends that the Office of Museum Programs' various 
entities are dedicated. In this year following the Bicentennial, all 
have shifted from that one momentous series of activities to less 
visible but no less necessary tasks. 

Perhaps the most important mission carried out during the year 
was the Collection Management and Policy Study undertaken by the 
Chief Registrar, with the cooperation of the museums. This, for the 
first time, attempted to analyze policies and procedures that govern 
the acquisition and management of the Institution's collections. The 
first phase of this enormous task, made particularly complex by the 
variety of the resources involved, has been completed. It will now 
be refined to become an instrument to strengthen the governance of 
the Institution as well as to provide an example of self-analysis use- 
ful to others. 

The Libraries are now serving their constituency at a far higher 
rate of user satisfaction than heretofore. The leadership of Dr. Rus- 
sell Shank, for ten years the Institution's Director of Libraries, is 
responsible for this happy state of affairs. Under his direction, the 
Libraries grew in resources and service, and its internal organization 
was strengthened. It was with regret that we learned that Dr. Shank 
had accepted the position of Director of Libraries of the University 
of California at Los Angeles. This regret was tinged with pride that 
he was receiving such professional and academic recognition in an 
area of the country in which he wanted to live. The quality of Dr. 
Shank's leadership was further recognized, shortly before his de- 
parture, by his election to the presidency of the American Library 

142 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

All of the units responsible to the Assistant Secretary for Mu- 
seum Programs have refined their procedures and enriched their of- 
ferings. Perhaps it would not be inappropriate to pay special tribute 
to the Department of Horticulture which, in spite of one of the 
harshest winters on record, a small staff, and temperamental sum- 
mer weather, has provided visual delight on and around the Mall 
and has enriched, with its special green touch, many exhibitions and 
other public events. The roots of service grow deep in that depart- 
ment and roots, just like icebergs, though out of sight, are as essen- 
tial for the ultimate flowerings of plants as reserve collections are 
to a museum's ability to provide, through the objects in its care, the 
material evidence of mankind's evolution. 

Conservation Analytical Laboratory 

The Conservation Analytical Laboratory (cal) supports the Institu- 
tion's programs by providing conservation service and advice on 
many diverse objects in the National Collections. 

In cooperation with Conservation Information Programs, cal con- 
tinued its educational programs through video-taped conservation- 
orientation lectures and its collaboration with the National Bureau 
of Standards on a series of seminars on various scientific subjects 
related to conservation and archaeometry. 

In response to growing demands for information from the public, 
a system of continually revised, "standard" answers to questions on 
the preservation of objects in every conceivable material was ini- 
tiated in February 1977. In six months 150 "hand-outs" were com- 
pleted, enabling prompt response to over 500 public questions. 

Fulfilling the Institution's commitment to research, cal supported 
Dr. James Blackman, a postdoctoral fellow, in the examination of 
the obsidian and steatite artifacts from Tall-i Malyan, Anshan, a 
mid-4th-to-late-2nd-millenium b.c city in the highlands of south- 
western Iran; and Dr. Frederick Fraikor, in the study of the copper, 
bronze, and iron objects excavated at Tell Jemmeh, Israel. 

Several cal staff members were involved in local, national, and 
international activities: 

Museum Programs I 143 

R. M. Organ, Chief of cal, and Eleanor McMillan, Supervisory 
Conservator, participated in the meetings in May of the Interna- 
tional Council of Museums in Leningrad and Moscow. Mr. Organ 
also lectured in May to the conservators at the International Centre 
for Conservation, Rome, where Nikki Horton, Conservator-in-train- 
ing at cal, was attending the four-month course, "Fundamental 
Principles of Conservation." 

Eleanor McMillan and R. M. Organ were lecturers and modera- 
tors for a workshop on the Principles of Conservation and Preven- 
tive Care organized by the Office of Museum Programs at the 

Jacqueline S. Olin, Research Chemist, presented a paper at the 
Archaeological Chemistry Symposium of the American Chemical 
Society meeting in Chicago, Illinois, which was also attended by 
Walter Hopwood, Chemist. 

Martha E. Goodway presented a paper at the annual meeting of 
the American Institute for Conservation, Boston, Massachusetts, 
which was also attended by several cal Conservators, each of whom 
specializes in a specific field of conservation. 

National Museum Act Program 

The National Museum Act of 1966 reaffirms the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution's traditional role of assisting other museums, and authorizes 
the Institution to strengthen its activities of service to them. The 
Act directs the Institution to cooperate with museums and their pro- 
fessional organizations in a continuing study of museum problems 
and opportunities in the United States and abroad; to prepare and 
carry out programs for training career employees in museum prac- 
tices; to prepare significant museum publications; to perform re- 
search on museum techniques; and to cooperate with departments 
and agencies of the government concerned with museums. Within 
these objectives, emphasis is given to projects dealing with museum 
conservation: the study of conservation problems, research leading 
to new or improved conservation techniques, and training of mu- 
seum conservators. 

144 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Eleni Martin, Conservation Aide, is shown operating the fumigation chamber in 
the Conservation Analytical Laboratory. Below: At their benches, Conservators Ed 
McManus, Mary Lou Garbin, and Greg Byrne work on a variety of objects — an 
1876 silver-plated decorative vessel, one of several pairs of turn-of-the-century ice 
skates, and one of two large nineteenth-century terra cotta relief panels each of 
which depicts a Biblical scene. 


"i i » 




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4i*> L 

ail ' «=. m 

Funds appropriated to the Smithsonian for the implementation of 
the National Museum Act are made available primarily by grants 
and contracts to museums, nonprofit museum-related organizations 
and associations, academic institutions, and individuals employed or 
sponsored by eligible organizations. Each year, guidelines describing 
the specific grant program offerings and application requirements 
are distributed widely to the museum community and institutions 
having an interest in the objectives of the National Museum Act. 

Applications for support are reviewed and evaluated by an Ad- 
visory Council composed of museum professionals who represent a 
cross section of museum interests and disciplines as well as various 
regions of the United States. Members of the Advisory Council are 
appointed to three-year terms by the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. The members in 1977 were: 

Robert Feller, Senior Fellow 

National Gallery of Art Research Project 

Russell Fridley, Director 
Minnesota Historical Society 

Bonnie Pitman Gelles 
Museum Consultant 
Washington, D.C. 

Julia Hotton, Assistant Director 
Public Affairs and Development 
The Brooklyn Museum 

Philip S. Humphrey, Director 
Museum of Natural History 
University of Kansas 

Thomas W. Leavitt, Director 
Merrimack Valley Textile Museum 

Joseph Veach Noble, President 
American Association of Museums and 
Director, Museum of the City of New York 

Richard H. Randall, Director 
Walters Art Gallery 

Mitchell Wilder, Director 

Amon Carter Museum of Western Art 

Vernal L. Yadon, Director 

Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History 

Paul N. Perrot, Chairman 

Assistant Secretary for Museum Programs 

Smithsonian Institution 

146 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

In addition to its review and evaluation of applications, the Ad- 
visory Council assists with the determination of policies governing 
the grant program and with the establishment of standards which 
applicants must meet. The Council requires that projects supported 
by the National Museum Act must be of substantial value to the 
museum profession as a whole, and must contribute to the improve- 
ment of museum methods and practices or to the professional 
growth of individuals entering or working in the museum field. 

In 1977, the National Museum Act received an appropriation of 
$790,027. A total of 224 proposals requesting more than $2,800,000 
were received and reviewed during the year. The Advisory Council 
recommended funding for 82 grants totaling $726,430. Of this 
amount, $286,106 was directed to conservation training and research 

A majority of the projects supported in 1977 were associated with 
training individuals entering or working in the museum field. This 
support has provided approximately 700 persons with an opportuni- 
ty to receive theoretical and practical training in various museum 
functions, including exhibition, administration, museum education, 
conservation, and curation. Among the major conservation projects 
supported by the National Museum Act in 1977 was the National 
Conservation Advisory Council, a body comprised of leading figures 
in the field, which is investigating the current status of museum 
conservation in the United States. Initial reports of the ncac examine 
the training of conservators, education of users, scientific support, 
and conservation facilities, and provide recommendations for the 
establishment of a cohesive national conservation program. Another 
National Museum Act project related to conservation is being under- 
taken by the School of Textiles at North Carolina State University 
and involves the study of textile aging and degradation mechanisms. 
The results of the study will be invaluable in the development of 
systems for preserving textiles in the nation's museums. (A full list 
of the projects supported by the National Museum Act is included 
in Appendix 3 to this volume.) 

Although many of the projects have provisions for publishing 
and distributing the results to the profession, the National Museum 
Act maintains copies of all project reports in the Museum Reference 
Center of the Office of Museum Programs, where they are available 
for study and reference. 

Museum Programs I 147 

Office of Exhibits Central 

Highlights of the busy, fruitful year were (1) the Silver Jubilee exhi- 
bition which the Office of Exhibits Central (oec) designed, edited, 
produced, and installed at the National Museum of History and 
Technology in honor of Queen Elizabeth II (and visited by her 
daughter Princess Anne), and (2) the international acclaim accorded 
the motion-picture unit which received three Emmys — in the Pro- 
duction, Direction, and Cinematography/Editing categories — for the 
Festival of American Folklife. Celebrating a Century: The Philadel- 
phia Centennial Exhibition of 1876, also produced by the motion- 
picture unit, is being widely shown and recognized. It, too, is an 
award-winner (five awards), as are The Big Cats and How They 
Came to Be and Tiger, produced for the National Zoological Park. 

Shortly before the Smithsonian subway station was opened, oec 
completed the installation of the last in a series of three-dimensional 
directories, keyed in six languages to orient and guide Mall visitors. 

A major portion of oec's time and talent has supported the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. The oec exhibits 
editors have edited, and sometimes also written, label and other copy 
for virtually all Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Ser- 
vice exhibitions — and provided printed labels for most, oec design- 
ers, graphics specialists, modelmakers, cabinetmakers, and other 
staff members also lent their creative talents to the full schedule of 
sites exhibitions. 

In addition to sites, oec has provided specialized assistance to vir- 
tually every other Smithsonian facility, and to some non-Smithson- 
ian activities, ranging from the Botanical Garden to the President's 
Commission on Mental Retardation. Exceptional projects have in- 
cluded the custom-sculptured mannequin of Mrs. Gerald R. Ford for 
the First Ladies Hall, extensive participation in the Festival of 
American Folklife, label editing and printing for most National Mu- 
seum of History and Technology exhibitions, brochures for the 
Smithsonian National Associates Program, and an exhibition for the 
reception area at the Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental 

The freeze-dry laboratory is back in full operation, handling more 
than 600 objects during the year. Its scientist, Rolland O. Hower, is 

148 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

cooperating with Harvard University on improved preservation of 
the nation's oldest collection of human pathologic and anatomic ma- 
terial, and is working with pathologists at the Memorial Sloan-Ket- 
tering Hospital Cancer Center. His manual on the freeze-dry 
preservation of biological specimens has been written, reviewed, 
edited, and submitted for publication. 

Office of Horticulture 

Working with the various Smithsonian museums and allied organi- 
zations, the Office of Horticulture provided horticultural plantings 
for special exhibits and events such as the Inaugural Celebrations at 
the John F. Kennedy Center, the Cooper-Hewitt Conservatory, the 
exhibition "Paint on Wood" at the Renwick Museum, and the spe- 
cial dinner at the National Air and Space Museum commemorating 
the fiftieth anniversary of Lindbergh's transatlantic flight. The Office 
of Horticulture participated in over two hundred special programs 
sponsored by the Institution. 

Assisting the Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates, 
the Office designed and installed plantings for the 1976 "White 
Christmas" benefit. Assistance was also provided to the Women's 
Committee's fund-raising event at the opening of the Lord & Taylor 
store at the new White Flint Mall. All proceeds from this benefit 
were donated to the Office of Horticulture for use in the construc- 
tion of the mini-garden between the Arts and Industries Building 
and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

New plantings in the Victorian Garden, which is located in the 
South Yard of the Smithsonian Institution Building, include two 
floral beds. This summer five antique cast iron Victorian urns were 
added to the garden and planted with a large variety of upright and 
trailing tropicals and blooming annuals. Hanging baskets were also 
hung from the lamp posts. All trees, shrubs, and bedding plants in 
the Victorian Garden are labeled to add educational interest to this 
lovely, quiet garden. 

Much work has been completed this year on the renovation of the 
Office of Horticulture's greenhouse-nursery complex which is leased 
from the United States Soldiers' and Airmen's Home located at 3700 

Museum Programs I 149 

N. Capitol Street, N.W. Also located there is the Institution's grow- 
ing orchid collection which now includes over 1,000 plants, and all 
the state flowers and state trees which were donated by the states 
who participated in the Office of Horticulture's Bicentennial project. 
These plants will be used for the interior and exterior landscaping 
schemes of the Smithsonian museums on the Mall. 

A major project, and the first exhibit of the Office of Horticulture 
to be displayed outside the Institution, was installed at the Williams- 
burg Garden Symposium last March. This exhibit included nine 
panels of photographs of Victorian bedding designs, Victorian gar- 
den accessories and furniture, and live bedding plants which were 
planted in small embroidery parterres similar to those in the Vic- 
torian Garden. 

The Horticultural Advisory Committee of the Institution met 
three times this year to discuss projects and the future development 
of the Office of Horticulture, including the Victorian Garden, the 
Cooper-Hewitt Conservatory, the grounds at Belmont, the Hirsh- 
horn Museum and Sculpture Garden, and the renovation of the 
grounds of the National Museum of History and Technology. 

Office of Museum Programs 

The museum field looks to the Smithsonian Institution as a major 
resource for information on the latest developments and up-to-date 
practices in museum operations. Through the Office of Museum 
Programs, the Institution seeks to provide much-needed assistance 
and information. 

The Workshop Series provided training for museum personnel 
from the United States and abroad through three-, four-, and five- 
day workshops at the Institution. The subject matter of the work- 
shops includes exhibit preparation, educational management, docent 
training, grant solicitation, collection management and maintenance, 
evaluation, membership development, budgeting and accounting, 
and interpretation. Enrollment for the workshops ranges from 
twelve to twenty individuals, representing museums with a wide 
geographic distribution. The Office also conducted four on-site 
workshops in the Boston area. In addition, the Office of Museum 

150 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Programs offered workshops to Smithsonian Institution personnel 
on insurance, conservation, label-writing, and lighting. 

The Internship Program over the years has offered opportunities 
for individual training to 323 United States and foreign museum 
employees. It now averages twenty persons a year. Interns serving 
in departments and offices throughout the Institution include United 
States residents and museum professionals from African, Asian, 
European, and South American nations. Internships, without sti- 
pend, vary in length from three weeks to two years, although the 
average length is three to four months. As with the workshops, the 
focus for the internships is museum techniques, and intern assign- 
ments may involve assisting with research, collections management, 
education, cataloguing, and exhibit preparation. 

The Conservation Information Program is charged with develop- 
ing audiovisual presentations demonstrating basic principles of mu- 
seum conservation. It is further charged with distributing these 
presentations throughout the United States and around the world. 

The information produced by the Conservation Information Pro- 
gram is intended to be used by conservators and students of conser- 
vation, or nonconservation personnel (e.g., curators, exhibits spe- 
cialists, etc.). Thus, some presentations illustrate approaches to the 
treatment of objects, while others attempt to educate the viewers to 
the importance of safeguarding collections from negligence, ignor- 
ance, or environmental extremes. 

The Program has completed a core series of eighty video tapes 
orienting museum personnel to the procedures and chemistry of 
conservation, plus a selection of eleven slide/audio presentations 
and video tapes dealing with specific topics. Each of these eleven 
tapes is supported by printed matter which provides preliminary or 
supporting information and identifies the sources of that informa- 
tion. Since 1974, more than 894 slide shows and 523 packages of 
two or four video tapes have been loaned to museums and museum 
training organizations. In response to viewer demand, sales of tapes 
and slide shows were begun in 1976. To date, fifteen institutions in 
the United States, Canada, Australia, Sweden, and Great Britain 
have purchased 53 slide shows and 424 video tapes. 

Career counseling for people interested in the museum field is a 
subsidiary activity of the Office of Museum Programs, along with 
the organization of national conferences. Resource materials are 

Museum Programs I 151 

compiled, and staff serve as consultants for other museum studies 
programs. A Museum Evaluation Conference was held in June 1977, 
attended by psychologists, evaluators, and museum personnel. The 
taped proceedings have been transcribed and will be disseminated. 

The Psychological Studies Program provides an increasingly re- 
quested service to the Institution's museums, and has attained a 
leadership role for its research methodology, and the assembly of 
analytical data. There is mounting evidence that museums need to 
evaluate the effectiveness of their services and the impact of these 
on the visiting public, and to examine their roles as social, cultural, 
and educational institutions. 

A number of internal studies have been completed on visitor be- 
havior, guards, orientation, docent evaluation, exhibitions; and a 
consultant service has been developed for other museums which are 
involved in evaluation programs. The staff psychologist counsels 
and works with staff of Smithsonian Institution museums in their 
search to assess the effectiveness of their exhibition and educational 

The Museum Reference Center, a unique working collection of 
resources on all aspects of museum operations, is located in the 
Office of Museum Programs. It provides reference assistance to 
professional museum personnel and researchers throughout the 
world. Its files contain up-to-date information on museum organi- 
zation, administration and management, legislation, exhibitions, 
support services, museum architecture, exhibit design, the history 
and philosophy of museums, management of museum collections, 
conservation, museum education, and related areas such as experi- 
mental, educational, and behavioral psychology. 

The Reference Center offers the following services to museum 
professionals and qualified researchers within and without the In- 

Literature searching 

Bibliographies on selected subjects 

Information on current museum activities 

Information on current issues in the profession 

Selected materials from Office of Museum Programs workshops 

Files on professionals activities and training opportunities 

Access to the collection for research use. 

The Native American Museum Training Program, initiated in 
1977, has been organized in response to increasing requests from 

152 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

the Native American communities for assistance in establishing, 
operating, and maintaining tribal museums in order to preserve 
their cultural heritage. Existing avenues of assistance and training in 
museology generally have not been available to Native Americans; 
this new program is intended to fill this void. 

To determine the training needs of Native Americans and coor- 
dinate activities designed to meet those needs, the position of 
Native American Training Program Coordinator was created, and 
Dr. James A. Hanson was appointed to fill it. He serves as liaison 
between the Institution's Office of Museum Programs and the 
Department of Anthropology, which has had an American Indian 
Cultural Resources Training Program (Archives) since 1973, as well 
as other involved agencies, and the Native Americans. Over 80 
tribes have already built museums or are planning to establish them. 
Other tribes have expressed serious interest in having a profession- 
ally maintained cultural facility. Practical training in theory and tech- 
nique along with consultation and encouragement will be offered. 

Part I of the new multifaceted training program will provide for 
a pilot series of four seminars at locations easily accessible to sev- 
eral native groups. Part II will consist of internships at the Smith- 
sonian for periods varying from one to two months, adjusted to 
the individual's requirements in conservation, exhibit design and 
construction, registration, management and research. Smithsonian 
staff will supervise the training activities in their fields of expertise. 
Part III will encourage cooperation with museums in other parts of 
the country. This can develop into long-range assistance, exchange 
of information and, wherever applicable, sharing of resources. 

Office of the Registrar 

The Institution's major collections policy and management study 
dominated activity in the Office this year. Staff members were 
heavily involved in data gathering, writing, and editing as well as 
in production of interim and final reports. 

Coordination of registrarial activities was provided as usual 
through the Central Registrar and the Council of Registrars. The 

Museum Programs I 153 

role of the Council continued to expand during the year. In addi- 
tion to regular monthly meetings at which business was transacted 
and featured professional discussions were presented, the Council 
sponsored various cooperative projects. This year members of the 
Council served as instructors in a seminar on museum registration 
methods, part of the Workshop Series offered by the Office of 
Museum Programs for employees of museums in the United States 
and foreign countries. Work on next year's seminar is now under 
way, and plans are being developed for an intramural seminar 
series for employees of Registrar's offices in Smithsonian bureaus. 
The Office itself, while continuing to serve as a clearinghouse 
for Council matters, pursued projects of its own at the Institutional 
level. Ongoing projects include an inventory of data elements used 
in collections management information systems, an analysis of po- 
tential subject thesauri, an investigation of how information in 
automated files on the various collections might be applied to Insti- 
tution-wide needs, and a feasibility study on data processing stand- 
ards. Staff members of the Registrar's Office are active in the Mu- 
seum Computer Network and the Museum Data Bank Committee. 
During the past year they participated in a successful effort to form 
a nationwide organization of museum registrars, and to have it rec- 
ognized officially as the Registrars Committee of the American 
Association of Museums. As a representative from this body, the 
Smithsonian Institution Registrar is serving as chairman of an 
American Association of Museums subcommittee on future objec- 
tives for registrarial personnel in the museum profession. Of par- 
ticular interest at the present time are discussions and proposals 
concerning world and national heritage trusts. In connection with 
the latter of these concepts, the Office submitted a National Heri- 
tage Trust Task Force paper on the essential components of our 
cultural and natural heritages. 

Smithsonian Institution Archives 

During the year much staff time was devoted to the preparation 
of a new Guide to the Smithsonian Archives. Scheduled for publi- 
cation in fiscal year 1978, it contains over 400 entries. Work con- 

154 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

tinued on the records of the National Museum of Natural History 
and the National Museum of History and Technology. A survey of 
the manuscript collections of the National Museum of History and 
Technology was completed, and the results will be published in a 
guide during 1978. A records survey was started in the National 
Air and Space Museum. 

Major accessions were reviewed from the National Museum of 
Natural History, the National Museum of History and Technology, 
the National Museum Act Program, the Interdisciplinary Commu- 
nications Program, and the Bicentennial Coordinator. Other ac- 
cessions of note include the papers of Helmut Buechner, Robert A. 
Brooks, Waldo L. Schmitt, Edward A. Preblem, William Mann, and 
C. B. Wilson. 

The Archives' Oral History Program continued, with emphasis 
on the history of the National Museum of Natural History. Thir- 
teen interviews, totaling over sixteen hours, were conducted. 

Scholars continued to visit the Archives during fiscal year 1977. 
Several recent publications have appeared, based at least in part 
on material in the Archives. Among them are: Curtis M. Hinsley, 
Jr., The Development of a Profession: Anthropology in Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1846-1903, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin 
at Madison, 1976; Arthur P. Molella, "The Electric Motor, the 
Telegraph, and Joseph Henry's Theory of Technological Progress," 
Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 
64 (1976): 1273-1278; and Lester D. Stephens, "Evolution and 
Woman's Rights in the 1890's: The Views of Joseph LeConte," 
The Historian, 38 (1976) : 239-252. 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Nineteen hundred seventy-seven was a year of steady growth for 
the collections, and of consolidation of the outstanding gains of 
recent years, such as the incorporation of the Dibner Library into 
the National Museum of History and Technology Rare Book 
Room; an opened and fully functioning National Air and Space 
Museum Library in its new quarters; increased use of the rapidly 
expanding Ohio College Library Center data base of major re- 

Museum Programs I 155 

searck library holdings for on-line cataloguing, searching and lo- 
cating sources of interlibrary loans; increased products from the 
Libraries' own automated operation, among them the first listing 
of the Libraries' desiderata; a four-year cumulation of the National 
Air and Space Museum Bureau Library index to aeronautical peri- 
odicals; expansion of reader services offered at the Radiation Biol- 
ogy Laboratory, National Zoological Park, and National Museum of 
Natural History; and a significant boost to the Libraries' conserva- 
tion program. 

The increase in numbers of books and journals, while critical to 
make up for past neglect, to allow immediate access to literature 
by the growing number of researchers at the Institution, and to 
accommodate new programs, at the same time compounds the Li- 
braries' most serious problem — inadequate space. This year the 
Libraries attempted to meet this problem in a number of ways. 
Microform sets of journals have been acquired in increasing num- 
bers. In some cases, they have replaced sets on active shelves, and 
those originals with important illustrations have been transferred 
to off-the-Mall shelving where retrieval is possible. The off-the- 
Mall shelving area itself (Smithsonian Institution Service Center) 
has been weeded of little-used materials and completely reorga- 
nized. Released space will accommodate more judiciously selected 
material and ease somewhat the crowded Mall shelves. The move 
of all journals from the fifth floor, National Museum of History and 
Technology Bureau Library, to space on the first floor has reduced 
somewhat the crowding on that Library's main fifth floor. In the 
National Museum of Natural History, the Division of Mammals' 
library collection was given a larger and more convenient area by 
the Museum. At the National Zoological Park, a handsome new 
library in the Administration Building has released library books 
from boxes and offices. 

The crowding of people in unexpanding space has also been 
relieved somewhat in the Libraries' Acquisitions department. A 
study of space utilization and requirements led to a complete reno- 
vation of that office and to the installation of space-saving and 
more efficient equipment. 

In July the Libraries lost its Director of ten years, Russell Shank, 
to the University of California at Los Angeles, where he became 
University Librarian. Under his leadership, the Libraries grew in 

156 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

staff, size of collections, number of Bureau libraries, and in the uses 
of newer, more responsive technologies. Just before his depar- 
ture, Dr. Shank became President-elect of the American Library 

In July Dr. Elaine Sloan, Assistant Director for Management and 
Development, left to become Associate University Librarian for 
Reader Services at the University of California, Berkeley. 

Two in-depth studies were completed during the year: an exam- 
ination of the serial system to improve management of the Libra- 
ries' 25,000 serial titles, and to make access to them easier and 
quicker for the user; and the problem of bibliographic control and 
organization of approximately 200,000 trade catalogues in the 
National Museum of History and Technology, with the aim of 
making this important and valuable source material more easily 
available for research. Recommendations resulting from both stud- 
ies are under review by the Libraries. 

During the year, a statement of present collecting practices for 
all Smithsonian Institution Libraries was compiled. It is the first 
stage in the drafting of a collection development policy. 

The Libraries participated early in the Library of Congress' Co- 
operative Machine Readable Cataloging (comarc) project. For co- 
marc the Smithsonian Libraries, while creating its own biblio- 
graphic record, converts Library of Congress cataloguing to ma- 
chine-readable format, permitting the record to be added to the 
Library of Congress' immense marc data base. 

The temporary facility to house the Dibner Library of the His- 
tory of Science and Technology, in the National Museum of His- 
tory and Technology, and exhibit some of its treasures, was offi- 
cially opened in October 1976. A reception to honor the donor, Dr. 
Bern Dibner, was attended by members and friends of the Dibner 
family. It was also attended by prominent rare-book librarians, 
collectors, dealers, and by Smithsonian representatives. 

Several exhibits of Dibner material through the year featured 
fifteenth- and sixteenth-century editions of works by notable 
Greek scientists of the Athenian and Alexandrian Schools, and 
early illustrated books on chemistry, medicine, and natural history. 

Staff of the National Museum of History and Technology Li- 
brary and of Technical Services are preparing a short-title cata- 
logue of the Dibner Library. This will be computer produced and 

Museum Programs I 157 

allow access to the incunabula and other rarissima of this collec- 
tion from a number of approaches: author, title, printer, date, and 
place of publication, among others. 

The National Air and Space Museum Library completed its first 
year in new quarters. Its staff has answered over 600 inquiries a 
month from the public, as well as from the curatorial and research 
staff. An "open house" was held for librarians and information 
scientists in the Washington and Baltimore areas and tours were 
organized for library-science schools and aerospace educators. The 
Early Birds of Aviation visited the Library during their annual 
meeting in Washington. Charles Dollfus, renowned balloonist, auto- 
graphed the Library's copy of his rare Histoire de I'Aeronautique. 
The Librarian has begun to coordinate the organization and micro- 
filming of the research files. These files contain a wealth of historical 
documents on famous and little-known aerospace personalities; air- 
craft and engine photographs and drawings, space projects and 
vehicles; early ballooning and rocketry; industry histories; and 
other miscellaneous topics relating to aerospace. 

The Bella C. Landauer collection of over 1,500 pieces of aero- 
nautical sheet music was recently catalogued by a volunteer. The 
New York Times staff photographed several pieces of music about 
Charles Lindbergh for the Times Sunday Magazine of May 8, 1977, 
a special commemorative issue on the first transatlantic flight in 
1927. Time/Life Books also photographed other aeronautical music 
for a forthcoming book on flight. 

Mrs. Gardiner Fiske of Southern Pines, North Carolina, donated 
a folio of six hand-colored prints on the "Moon Hoax" designed 
by Italian artists in Naples in 1836. This outstanding gift shows 
the human population of the moon as presumed by Sir John Fred- 
erick William Herschel. Mrs. Fiske also donated a first edition of 
Barthelemy Faujas de Saing-Fond, Description des Experiences de 
la Machine Aerostatique de MM. de Montgolfier, Paris, 1783, 
which had another first edition bound with it: Jean-Claude Pin- 
geron's L' Art de Faire Soi-Meme les Ballons Aerostatiques, Con- 
formes a Ceux de M. de Montgolfier, Paris, [1783]. 

The Radiation Biology Laboratory and National Zoological Park 
Bureau Libraries became fully staffed for the first time. The National 
Zoological Park Library moved to new expanded and attractive 
quarters in the Zoo's Administration Building and assimilated book 

158 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

collections previously housed in various locations. The Library has 
featured some of its rarities in a small exhibit case and is probably 
the only library anywhere to have a bejeweled elephant anklet on 
permanent display. Its collection of "Zooiana" has been organized 
and is beginning to grow again. 

Concurrent with the opening of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum in 
October 1976, the Picture Library reopened to the staff, and to the 
public on an appointment basis after a three-year period of inactiv- 
ity. During the winter, the book collection, which had been in 
storage for four years, was delivered to the new stacks. 

The same week in which the Museum opened, the American 
Society of Interior Designers formally donated to the Museum its 
library of about 2,000 items, along with a contribution for servic- 
ing this collection. House and Garden magazine, in November, 
delivered its Color Archives to the Library. A number of other 
large gifts helped build the collections during 1977, among them a 
donation of books by Alison Harwood, including a copy of A. J. 
Downing's The Architecture of Country Houses, 1850, one of the 
most important works on nineteenth-century American architecture. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

This twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service saw the 1,000th exhibition 
begin its tour. At the same time, special program areas, given im- 
petus during the Bicentennial, were incorporated into sites' regular 
program. The Bicentennial program staff combined with the science 
coordinators to become the American Studies Office. The "Interna- 
tional Salute to the States" program continues extending sites' im- 
portant work with international exhibitions. Physically, sites offices 
were relocated from Barney Studio House to the Arts and Industries 
Building, consolidating the staff on one floor for the first time. 

sites produced twenty-eight new titles, or forty-four new exhi- 
bitions, counting duplicates and additional versions. Of these, 
twelve opened in Washington, D.C., nine of which were shown in 
Smithsonian museums, including "Belgian Gunmaking" at the 
National Museum of History and Technology, "22 Polish Textile 

Museum Programs I 159 

Artists" at the Renwick Gallery, and "Treasures of Cyprus/' "Rails 
of the World: Paintings by J. Fenwick Lansdowne/' and "Locks 
from Iran: Pre-Islamic to Twentieth Century" at the National 
Museum of Natural History. 

Among the new American Studies exhibitions beginning their 
tours in 1977, two were funded from the Smithsonian Institution 
Bicentennial program: "America's First Ladies" and "And Now a 
Message ... A Century of American Advertising, 1830-1930." 
"The Frederick Douglass Years" and "Black Women: Achievement 
Against the Odds" were produced by the Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum with sites staff authoring materials for supplementary 
publications. Other new American Studies exhibitions included 
"Folk Art and Crafts: The Deep South," "North American Indian 
Baskets," and "Space Art from the U.S.S.R." 

Exhibitions from foreign sources accounted for nearly half of 
the new exhibitions in 1977. Among these were "An American 
Inspiration: Danish Modern and Shaker Design," "Hungarian Art 
Nouveau," "The Human Form: Sculpture, Prints and Drawings by 
Fritz Wotruba," and "Salzburger Feltspiele!" New exhibitions in 
the general program included "Bridges : The Spans of North Amer- 
ica," "America Underfoot," "Rails of the World: Paintings by J. 
Fenwick Lansdowne," and "World Print Competition 77." 

At the end of the year, sites was negotiating for thirty-three new 
exhibitions from sources as diverse as various Smithsonian bu- 
reaus, United States museums and private lenders, and foreign gov- 
ernments and museums. Among major exhibitions in the planning 
stages are "Impressions/Expressions: Black American Graphics," 
"Kings, Heroes, and Nomads: Pictorial Rugs from the Tribes and 
Villages of Persia," "Louis M. Eilshemius" in the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum Collection, and "Treasures of Belgian Jewelry." 

sites' annual catalogue of exhibitions, Update, was issued in 
April and listed 113 new exhibitions. A quarterly newsletter, Site- 
line, introduced in January 1977, highlights sites exhibitions and 
their exhibitors. Siteline is mailed out to the 6,000 institutions on 
sites' mailing list. Both Update and Siteline are written, edited, and 
published by sites staff. 

sites' publications program was particularly active. Supplement- 
ing new exhibitions were fourteen publications, including major 
catalogues such as America Underfoot: A History of Floor Cover- 

160 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Canadian Ambassador Jack H. Warren opens Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service's exhibition "Rails of the World: Paintings by J. Fenwick Lans- 
downe" at the National Museum of Natural History while Secretary Ripley looks on. 
Below: Iranian Ambassador Ardeshir Zahedi with the head of the Chinese liaison 
office admires the largest lock in "Locks from Iran" exhibition at the opening at the 
National Museum of Natural History. This is another of the many exhibitions being 
circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

ings from Colonial Times to the Present, The Human Form: Sculp- 
ture, Prints and Drawings by Fritz Wotruba, Locks from Iran: Pre- 
Islamic to Twentieth Century, and Treasures of Cyprus. 

Several innovations were introduced in the educational program. 
Exhibitors scheduled to receive the show were invited to Washing- 
ton, D.C, for a workshop on "Belgian Gunmaking" while the ex- 
hibition was shown at the National Museum of History and Tech- 
nology. A similar workshop was held in relation to "Treasures of 
Cyprus." Roundtable discussion groups consisting of outside ad- 
visors helped sites to plan content for brochures being prepared 
for "America's First Ladies" and "Images of Aging in America." 
Suggestions for curriculum development using sites exhibitions 
with school programs were devised by the Office of American and 
Folklife Studies. 

sites continued its cooperation with George Washington Uni- 
versity's Museum Education program, and staff members attended 
and participated in various national and regional conferences. In 
addition to travels to cities throughout the United States to nego- 
tiate for exhibitions and inspect those on tour, the staff traveled to 
France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy, Canada, Hungary, Fin- 
land, Russia, and Poland, for exhibition development purposes and 
to attend international museum meetings. 

Totals for period October 1, 1976, through September 30, 1977 

Number of bookings 790 

Number of states served 49 

Estimated audience 6,464,000 

Exhibitions (including duplicates) listed in last Update 

(catalogue of sites exhibitions) 213 

Exhibitions produced for tour during the year (includ- 
ing duplicates and additional versions) 44 

Exhibitions beginning tours October 1, 1976, through 
September 30, 1977 

America Underfoot: A History of Floor Coverings from Colonial Times 

to the Present 
America's First Ladies (3 duplicates) 

162 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

An American Inspiration: Danish Modern and Shaker Design 

And Now a Message ... A Century of American Advertising 1830- 

1930 (3 duplicates) 
Arne Jacobsen: Danish Architect and Designer 
Artists, Authors, and Others: Drawings by David Levine 
Belgian Gunmaking and American History 
Black Women: Achievement Against the Odds (4 duplicates) 
Bridges: The Spans of North America 
A Cartoon History of United States Foreign Policy 1776-1976 (3 

Divine Favors, Human Vows: Milagros from Puerto Rico 
Folk Art and Crafts: The Deep South (3 duplicates) 
Folk Woodcuts of Brazil's Northeast 
The Frederick Douglass Years (6 duplicates) 
The Hidden World of Misericords 

The Human Form: Sculpture, Prints and Drawings by Fritz Wotruba 
Hungarian Art Nouveau 
Images of Old Age in America 
Locks from Iran: Pre-Islamic to Twentieth Century 
North American Indian Baskets 
Oliphant: Paintings and Cartoons 

Rails of the World: Paintings by J. Fenwick Lansdowne 
Salzburger Festspiele! 
Space Art from the U.S.S.R. 
Terminal, Station and Depot 
Treasures of Cyprus 
22 Polish Textile Artists 
World Print Competition 77: Selections from the Exhibition 

Museum Programs I 163 

i I *fi 

The Anacostia Neighborhood Museum observed its tenth anniversary on September 
15, 1977. Opening ceremonies ten years earlier, on September 15, 1967, are shown 
above, with Secretary Ripley listening as Alton Jones, head of the Anacostia Mu- 
seum's Advisory Council, addresses the audience. Below. Secretary Ripley addresses 
friends and well-wishers at the Museum's tenth anniversary celebration. 

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Smithsonian Year . 1977 

There have been several organizational changes in Public Service. 
The Folklife Unit, for the past ten years a part of the Division of 
Performing Arts, was reassigned to the Office of American Stud- 
ies, under the Assistant Secretary for History and Art. The Office 
of Public Affairs was moved to the newly created Office of Coordi- 
nator of Public Information. 

A major effort in 1977 was the Publishing Task Force, which 
was set up under the supervision of James Page and charged with 
the responsibility of examining whether it would be feasible for 
the Institution to enter into a serious commitment to the publica- 
tion of books which would appeal to a broad general public. The 
methods used by the Publishing Task Force to accomplish their 
goal included such things as test mailings and market surveys. The 
result to date is the publication of a new book about the Smith- 
sonian called The Smithsonian Experience. The book is being of- 
fered for sale primarily through the National Associates. With over 
300 photographs, many of them in color, and fascinating accom- 
panying text, it will provide enjoyment and enlightenment to thou- 
sands of people. This program is monitored closely by the Regents. 

Another venture of a similar nature is the development and pro- 
duction of a recorded collection of the work of superb jazz per- 
formers and performances; it is the only collection of its kind in 
existence and, thus, has long merited the kind of marketing atten- 
tion it is now receiving. Musical historians and critics, jazz buffs, 
and jazz lovers, as well as people who simply love good music well 
performed and faithfully recorded, have acclaimed this collection. 

Telecommunication has opened new windows to a widespread 
public by laying the groundwork for two possible television series 
to be carried over the Public Television Network. One of these is 


currently being test-marketed, while the other is in a more embry- 
onic stage of development. Much credit is due to the National Asso- 
ciates Board for its supportive interest in this outreach program. 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

On September 15, 1977, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
celebrated its tenth anniversary with a reception held at the Mu- 
seum. Exactly ten years earlier, Secretary Ripley had predicted that 
the opening of the Museum would prove "truly an important event 
in the history of museums. Together," he had said, "we must con- 
tinue to explore the seemingly limitless possibilities that this dis- 
covery calls out to us." On September 15 of this year, with Museum 
Director John R. Kinard and other dignitaries, the Secretary took 
part in the celebration of that exploration. 

Situated in the Anacostia section of southeast Washington, the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum represents the Mall-based Smith- 
sonian Institution to area residents who might otherwise have no 
contact with this aspect of the cultural life of the nation's capital. 
Its programs and exhibitions are designed for the needs and inter- 
ests of the Anacostia community, yet as a museum of the Smith- 
sonian its exhibitions reach national and even international audi- 
ences. Two examples of such exhibits are "Blacks in the Westward 
Movement" and "The Frederick Douglass Years" which, through 
the Smithsonian's Traveling Exhibition Service, have traveled in 
the past two years to museums, libraries, and college galleries in 
over thirty states. A third show, "Black Women: Achievement 
Against the Odds" was designed in the Museum's Exhibits Design 
and Production Center and is also circulated nationally by sites 
and internationally through the United States Information Agency. 

In its effort to establish itself as a center for ethnic studies, the 
Museum has begun an acquisition program in its Research Center. 
The Museum has also encouraged graduate students and scholars 
to participate in its internship programs. In the past year, two stu- 
dents — one from Sierra Leone, West Africa, the other from the 
Texas State Historical Commission — gained practical experience 
and college course credits while working in the Research Center. 

166 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm is the first speaker in the Minority Women Speak 
Lecture Series launched under the auspices of the Anacostia Neighborhood Mu- 
seum's Education Department. Below: Children visiting the Museum intensify that 
learning experience at a learning center operated by the Education Department. 

Believing that the Smithsonian has a significant role to play in 
attracting minorities to employment opportunities in major muse- 
ums around the country, seven trainees have completed the first 
phase of their participation in the Anacostia Neighborhood Mu- 
seum's exhibits training program. Chosen from one hundred appli- 
cants, these seven trainees spent six weeks learning such skills as 
exhibit design and fabrication and silk-screening followed by ten 
weeks of training in other museums of the Institution. They at- 
tended seminars, lectures, and workshops conducted by Institution 
scholars, and other professionals from the private sector. They are 
presently being placed in museum-related jobs in the Washington 
area. Three other trainees received jobs early in the program. In- 
valuable experience was gained as trainees were involved in the pro- 
duction of the Museum's major exhibit for 1977, "The Anacostia 
Story 1608-1930." 

"The Anacostia Story" opened in March 1977. It was accom- 
panied by a 158-page catalogue and narrative history which was 
published by the Smithsonian Institution Press a month earlier. 
Both the exhibit and the catalogue were the culmination of four 
years of effort by the Museum's staff. Members of the Anacostia 
community played an important role in the creation of "The Ana- 
costia Story," donating artifacts, books, photographs, and other 
memorabilia, but, even more importantly, donating their time and 
their memories of Anacostia's rich history. These recollections 
were recorded and now form the nucleus of the Museum's oral 
history archives. Such community involvement in the production 
of a major exhibit distinguishes the Anacostia Neighborhood Mu- 
seum from all other Museums in the Smithsonian complex. 

Still another outgrowth of work on "The Anacostia Story" was 
the development of the Anacostia Historical Society. Composed of 
over two hundred Anacostia residents, during the past year the 
Society has sponsored lectures and other events in an efrort to 
revive old Anacostia's cultural traditions. The Society continues to 
be one of the main links between the Museum and the Anacostia 

Other ties between the Museum and area residents have been 
established by the Education Department, which conducted a varie- 
ty of workshops and seminars during the past year. Audiences for 
both ranged from preschool teachers to college groups to groups 

168 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

of children. The Department launched its "Minority Women Speak" 
lecture series with a presentation by Congresswoman Shirley Chis- 
holm and, with the aid of a museum intern, established a learning 
center for groups visiting the Museum. With the Research Center 
and Exhibits Center, the Education Department continued over the 
past year "to explore the seemingly limitless possibilities" that the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum offers. 

Division of Performing Arts 

To open its eleventh year of presentations, the Division of Per- 
forming Arts (dpa) produced an evening of the music of Duke 
Ellington as part of the United States in the World International 
Conference. Performed by members of the New York Jazz Reper- 
tory Company, the concert featured the Ellington masterpiece, 
Black, Brown and Beige. 

The 1976-1977 winter concerts were organized in eight series: 
Jazz Heritage, Jazz Connoisseur, Country Guitar, The Blues, Amer- 
ican Popular Song, Theater Chamber Players, Music from Marl- 
boro, and a series in conjunction with the Division of Musical In- 
struments (dmi) of the Museum of History and Technology. 

Within these series, artists such as Tony Bennett, Willie Dixon, 
Vic Dickenson and Benny Morton, Art Blakey, Les Paul, Leon 
Fleisher, the Viola Da Gamba Trio of Basel, and some sixty others, 
performed intimate and informal concerts, free workshops, and 
open rehearsals offering a rich sampling of America's diverse mu- 
sical heritage. 

Scaling down from the massive Bicentennial Festival of Ameri- 
can Folklife, the Division turned toward the Museums on the Mall 
to find a new presentational format. 

On the occasion of the 1977 Inauguration of President Carter, 
the Institution was asked to produce events that would contribute 
to the general festivities and that would be free and open to the 
public. The Division of Performing Arts, working with the Mu- 
seum of History and Technology, Museum of Natural History, Air 
and Space Museum, Hirshhorn Museum, National Collection of 
Fine Arts, and National Portrait Gallery, produced eighty-two con- 

Public Service I 169 

certs in five days (January 18-22) that were held in informal spaces. 
The musical range, from the Sambistas de Rio to Japanese koto 
music, from The Seldom Scene (country music) to Sweet Honey in 
the Rock (contemporary Black ballad singing), offered the familiar 
and the exotic. Crowds of over 130,000 attended the events and 
reacted with enthusiasm. Feedback from museum directors and 
staff suggested that the music in the galleries served to enhance 
both the collections and the performances. 

Drawing upon this experience, the Division was asked by the 
Museum of History and Technology to produce live entertainment 
for a two-week Spring Celebration, coinciding with the Easter va- 
cation break and Cherry Blossom season. Performances were held 
at the Mall entrance to the Museum and around the Pendulum 
area, and concentrated on presentations of talent from within the 
Greater Washington area. 

For the Fourth of July weekend, the Division, again working 
with the Museum of History and Technology, offered an old fash- 
ioned Independence Day Celebration, complete with high-wheel 
bike riders, clowns, mimes, brass bands, old-fashioned social danc- 
ing, and a special appearance by Uncle Sam. Press coverage stressed 
the timeliness of such nostalgic presentations. 

Increasingly in the 1976-1977 season, the Division worked with 
other areas of the Institution to present performances and special 
events. Programmatic liaison ranged from producing full events for 
the Museum of History and Technology to producing a special 
weekend of twentieth-century piano music for the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum, to production and publicity support for the National Associ- 
ates' outreach program. Together, the Division of Performing Arts, 
the National Smithsonian Associates, and the Division of Musical 
Instruments produced the tour of the Smithsonian Chamber Players, 
presenting twenty concerts and twenty-one workshops for National 
Associates in Denver, Detroit, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Peoria, 
Portland, and Seattle. 

Such programs have two goals: to add meaning and context to 
the exhibits and special events, and to stimulate public awareness of 
and interest in the traditional activities of the museums. 

The eighth year of the DPA-operated Puppet Theater featured the 
Nicolo Marionettes as the resident company, with productions of 
Around the World in 80 Days, Peter and the Wolf, Beauty and the 

170 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Country, blues, gospel, and American popular songs filled the air at the Museum 
of History and Technology during the Spring Celebration which coincided with 
cherry blossom time in Washington. Here, local songstress Ronnie Wells receives a 
bouquet for her performance. Below, The Smithsonian Chamber Players with James 
Weaver, Director, performed at the Smithsonian and on a National Associate tour 
featuring concerts of American Music of the Federal Period. 

Teachers study colonial objects during Office of Elementary and Secondary Educa- 
tion's workshop on museum teaching methods. Below. Teachers work with natural 
history specimens during a recent methods workshop sponsored by the Office of 
Elementary and Secondary Education. 

Beast, and The Magic Flute, which music critic Irving Lowens re- 
viewed as working better with puppets than with real people. 

The African Diaspora Program, the area of dpa concerned with 
black cultural materials, conducted several educational and cultural 
missions. A project with the Arlington County Humanities Pro- 
gram took stories, songs, and other black American cultural ma- 
terials into fourteen schools in the County. Phase II of this project, 
co-sponsored by the University of Virginia, offered a graduate- 
level course taught by the African Diaspora Staff and Advisory 
Committee on Arts in the Classroom. Dr. Bernice Reagon was pro- 
gram director for a pilot project, a Festival in the Georgia Sea 
Islands, featuring Georgia black American cultural traditions, on 
August 20 and 21. Mrs. Rosie Hooks was a member of the United 
States delegation to the Second World Black and African Arts 
Festival in Lagos, Nigeria, and later was responsible for the Wash- 
ington component of a national tour of a cultural mission from 
Gambia. Dr. Reagon was invited by the Government of Cuba as a 
member of a cultural mission of black artists and scholars, and 
subsequently organized the Smithsonian reception for Los Papines, 
the first cultural group to come from Cuba since the revolution. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

During fiscal year 1977 the Office of Elementary and Secondary 
Education (oese) continued to grow with new programs and in new 

Art to Zoo — a four-page publication to promote the use of mu- 
seums, parks, libraries, zoos, and other community resources — 
was distributed to over eight hundred teachers nationally, and 
prompted many favorable comments from readers. "Art to Zoo is 
just marvelous!" writes a fourth-grade teacher in Pittsfield, Massa- 
chusetts. "Sometimes I feel that I am stuck in a rut and have no 
imagination at all . . . then something like this comes in the mail 
and I feel rejuvenated and alive again." In conjunction with this 
publication, oese's first regional teachers' workshop was offered in 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Over seven hundred teachers from two 
school systems joined oese and thirteen cultural institutions in the 

Public Service I 173 

Lancaster area for a day-long series of workshops, demonstrations, 
and exhibits. During the 1977-1978 school year such workshops 
will continue, and the Art to Zoo mailing list will be increased in 
size to include 30,000 teachers. 

In collaboration with the National Portrait Gallery, oese staff 
worked with four Washington-area schools to help third- through 
sixth-graders set up classroom museums on subjects relating to 
their curriculums. These subjects were: Family History, Greek Art 
and Architecture, The Animals of Maryland, and The Civil War. 
The project has been thoroughly documented; one result will be a 
slide package for national distribution, showing how others can 
create — with maximum educational profit — a full-fledged museum 
in their classrooms from materials readily at hand. 

On the local level, in keeping with its responsibility to encour- 
age cooperation and exchange of information among the Smith- 
sonian education offices, and between those offices and the District 
of Columbia schools, oese continues to offer a number of programs 
that have proven successful in the past. The first of these involves 
two publications designed specifically for a local audience — Let's 
Go (a monthly newsletter) and Learning Opportunities for Schools 
(an annual brochure) — which inform teachers of the ever growing 
variety of Smithsonian services available to young people and 
suggest ways of using museums as educational resources. These 
publications are sent free to over thirteen hundred area schools. 

Also especially for local teachers is "Teacher's Day," held an- 
nually. This year, Teacher's Day brought more than a hundred 
Washington-area teachers and Smithsonian education staff to- 
gether for an informal program of special activities, including an 
introduction to educational materials developed by the Education 
Office at the National Zoo. 

Local teachers are also reached through an oese workshop and 
seminar program, now in its sixth year. During fiscal 1977 approxi- 
mately two thousand teachers participated in OESE-sponsored work- 
shops and seminars, including three summer (1977) courses en- 
abling the development of curriculum units based on Smithsonian 
resources. The workshops vary in length and format, but all are 
designed to help teachers use the Smithsonian and other commu- 
nity resources to maximum advantage in their classrooms. 

As a result of a series of regular meetings with District of Co- 

174 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

lumbia Public Schools' Superintendent Vincent Reed and his staff, 
members of the Smithsonian's education staff are now better able 
to meet the curricular needs of the District Schools. These meet- 
ings, which will continue during the 1977-1978 school year, have 
given the Office an opportunity to expand its programs into adult 
education, special education, and teacher workshops. 

In 1977, oese sponsored its third annual program for summer 
interns. This year Intern '77 brought twenty-six promising high 
school seniors from rural and inner-city communities to the Smith- 
sonian to engage in learning and service projects. The students 
worked under the guidance of curatorial and technical staff mem- 
bers in various parts of the Institution. A grant from the DeWitt 
Wallace/Reader's Digest Scholarship Fund made this effort possible. 

Other important oese activities include: (1) the chairing of a spe- 
cial Smithsonian committee for handicapped individuals, which 
works to promote equal opportunities and access to exhibition gal- 
leries and education programs for handicapped visitors and em- 
ployees; (2) a resource center, which lends to education staff 
throughout the Institution printed and audiovisual materials relat- 
ing to museum education; and (3) a Docent Roundtable, which 
enables volunteer guides (docents) for the various Smithsonian mu- 
seums to learn of the work of their colleagues and to discuss mat- 
ters of common concern. 

The oese staff seeks to expand the scope and understanding of 
the professional museum educator, through participation in na- 
tional and regional conferences and workshops. To this end, pro- 
grams were presented at the Southeast Conference meeting of the 
American Association of Museums, an American Association of 
State and Local History workshop on Museum Education, and the 
Northeast Conference of the National Council for the Social Stud- 
ies, oese staff members also helped to plan and teach seminars on 
Docent Training, Museum/School Relations, and Museum Interpre- 
tation given at the Smithsonian by the Office of Museum Programs. 

Office of Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars 

To the spirited strains of the McLain Family Band of Berea, Ken- 
tucky, playing for the first time in public — in honor of Flag Day — 

Public Service I 175 

H i M 

Facing page, upper: Mrs. Jimmy Carter speaks at the formal opening ceremony 
on June 14, 1977, of "Kin and Communities: The Peopling of America," the 
Smithsonian's sixth international symposium. In the foreground, Alex Haley, 
Dr. Margaret Mead, and Secretary Ripley await their turns to address the audi- 
ence. Facing page, lower: Secretary Ripley and Senator Humphrey respond to 
enthusiastic applause after presentation of the Smithsonian's Joseph Henry 
Medal. Below: Members of the McLain Family Band, one of the nation's fore- 
most bluegrass groups, which has toured the world playing to the delight of 
capacity crowds in some forty-five countries and which played at the opening 
of the symposium "Kin and Communities: The Peopling of America." 

their rendition of The Stars and Stripes Forever, the Institution's 
sixth international symposium was inaugurated on June 14, 1977, 
at the Kennedy Center's Eisenhower Theater. Mrs. Jimmy Carter, 
Mrs. Walter Washington, Alex Haley, and Dr. Margaret Mead 
addressed a capacity audience prior to Secretary Ripley's presen- 
tation of the Joseph Henry Medal to Senator Hubert H. Humphrey 
for distinguished service to the Smithsonian as a former Regent. 
These opening ceremonies officially ushered in a sequence of events 
in connection with which Dr. Mead, the symposium's chairperson, 

"Families always have been part of some kind of larger com- 
munity, and only rarely could they exist alone for any length 
of time. Is there any viable alternative to the family as a set- 
ting in which children can be reared successfully to become 
capable and responsible adults? Should we aim at some wholly 
new social invention?" 

This was the issue addressed by the "Kin and Communities: 
The Peopling of America" program, spanning several years of de- 
velopment as an educational adjunct of the total Bicentennial pe- 
riod (1976-1979), wherein discovery and rediscovery of personal 
roots will help redefine one's own American experience. High- 
lighted in the formal souvenir program to the symposium were 
articles by Eli N. Evans, "How To Interview Your Grandparents," 
and by James W. Symington, "A Tale of Two Families (And One 
City)," to illustrate the living growth of American culture and how 
it has influenced our common history. Distinguished contributors 
to the symposium, in addition to the foregoing, included authors 
Elizabeth Janeway, Man's World, Woman's Place; Amaury de 
Riencourt, Sex and Power in History; Wyatt Cooper, Families: A 
Memoir and A Celebration; Edward B. Fiske, education editor for 
the New York Times; Bernard Bailyn; John Demos; and many 
others. In addition to the larger sessions at which formal papers 
were presented, there were colloquia, public panels, workshops, 
and working groups. Materials from all the meetings will be incor- 
porated into a formal published volume to be edited by Allan J. 
Lichman and Joan Challinor, both of the Department of History, 
American University. A committee of some thirty national advisors 
served as counsel to the office in developing the overall activities. 

178 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

The symposium week closed with an old-fashioned family-style 
picnic at the National Zoo, during which even a thunderous down- 
pour could not dampen the spirits of those enjoying the evening's 

Supplementing the office's responsibilities on the Mall, the Di- 
rector, Dr. Wilton Dillon, represented the Smithsonian at the con- 
ference on "Science and World Affairs" sponsored by the Pugwash 
Movement in August 1977 at Munich. Throughout the year Dr. 
Dillon also spoke before other outside groups, among them Teach- 
ers College, Columbia University, on behalf of the Institution and 
his own anthropological research into intergenerational education 
and the human life cycle. 

Office of Telecommunications 

In its first full year as a separate unit, the Office of Telecommuni- 
cations, as the responsible division for all Smithsonian activities in 
television, radio, and films, moved forward on a number of projects. 
The Office developed and produced a new official film overview of 
the Smithsonian with Secretary Ripley as the host/narrator, and 
completed, in the role of co-producer, a film dealing with the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History with Orson Welles as narrator. 
Also, the Office assisted in the production of a CBS-TV network 
special on the Pyramids, and negotiated rebroadcast for the NBC- 
TV network of the popular Smithsonian Special of the previous 
year, Monsters! Mysteries or Myths? 

Two major projects designed for public television progressed to 
the point where one of them, a new version of What in the 
World, moved into the videotape pilot phase; and the other, 
Smithsonian World, a monthly television magazine, is in the stage 
of seeking an underwriter. 

Among other activities, the Office produced a new 30-second 
television public service announcement patterned after last year's 
prize-winning Bicentennial "spots" for nationwide distribution; 
filmed and recorded for archival purposes many Smithsonian events; 
and fulfilled numerous requests from television, film, and radio pro- 
ducers for assistance with coverage of happenings throughout the 

Public Service I 179 

Institution. Radio Smithsonian, the Institution's national weekly 
radio program, continued its growth with a revised, expanded for- 
mat, at the same time increasing its coverage to more than fifty 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

During the year the Smithsonian Institution Press published 203 
publications with federal appropriations totaling $354,981.34, in- 
cluding such notable books as The Thomas Eakins Collection of the 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Gardens; Americas: Decorative 
Arts in Latin America in the Era of the Revolution; Perfect Likeness; 
The Art Crusade; The Musical Instruments of Joseph Haydn: An 
Introduction; and The Anacostia Story. Among the significant scien- 
tific monographs published by the Press were The Walakpa Site, 
Alaska: Its Place in the Birnik and Thule Cultures; Traditional Pot- 
tery Techniques of Pakistan: Field and Laboratory Studies; Science 
and Instrument-makers : Michelson, Sperry, and the Speed of Light; 
and Comparative Ethology of the Large-spotted Genet (Genetta 
tigrina) and Some Related Viverrids. In addition, the Press pub- 
lished The Red Alga Polysiphonia (Rhodomelaccae) in the Northern 
Gulf of California and is awaiting delivery from the printer of Astro- 
naut Observations from the Apollo-Soyuz Mission, the first publi- 
cations of the two new "Smithsonian Contributions" series which 
were initiated in fiscal year 1977 — "Smithsonian Contributions to 
the Marine Sciences," and "Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space." 
The Press and the Superintendent of Documents shipped, on order 
and to subscribers a total of 167,000 publications including books, 
art catalogues, brochures, and miscellaneous items; 100 records 
were distributed. 

In addition to these, the Press published and marketed nine trade 
books during the year, bringing its total inventory to 168,561 books 
valued at $290,437 published with Smithsonian trust funds. Smith- 
sonian best sellers in 1977 were Zoobook, Rauschenberg, Washing- 
ton on Foot, The Golden Door, Peoples and Cultures of Ancient 
Peru, and America as Art. 

External arrangements of interest have included a contract with 
Macmillan of Canada to distribute Smithsonian Institution Press 

180 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

books in that country, an agreement with British Museum Publica- 
tions Ltd. to co-publish a book on George Catlin's artistic and 
scholarly interest in American Indian pipes, acceptance by both the 
Book-of-the-Month Club and the Playboy Book Club of the Press' 
forthcoming The Smithsonian Collection of Newspaper Comics as 
one of their alternate selections, and selection by the National Wild- 
life Federation of Zoobook for their Christmas 1977 catalogue. 

Noteworthy Press activities within the Smithsonian family have 
included publications for the Woodrow Wilson International Center 
for Scholars of the first of an important series, Scholars' Guide to 
Washington, D. C. for Russian/ Soviet Studies, and substantial 
progress toward editorial and design completion of the Archives 
of American Art's massive Bibliography of the Arts in America, a 
unique scholarly achievement for which the manuscript alone will 
exceed 20,000 pages. A rewarding collaboration between the Press 
and the National Capital Planning Commission resulted in a publi- 
cation of unusual significance — Worthy of the Nation: The History 
of Planning for the National Capital. This book, written by Fred- 
erick Gutheim, is the culmination of many years of preparation by 
the National Capital Planning Commission as one of its major 
Bicentennial projects. 

A continuing flow of awards attested to the quality of Smith- 
sonian and Smithsonian Institution Press books. Most notable was 
selection of America as Art as one of five finalists in the History 
Division of the prestigious National Book Awards. In addition, two 
Smithsonian Institution Press editors received 1977 National Asso- 
ciation of Government Communicators Blue Pencil Awards, while 
two Press books, The Golden Door and The Edge of the Forest, 
were among the thirty university press books accepted on the 
basis of excellence in design for the Association of American Uni- 
versity Presses' 1977 Bookshow, which is exhibited nationwide; 
Zoobook was awarded a gold medal. 

Smithsonian Magazine 

The official magazine of the Institution continued, in its seventh 
year, with increasing financial and critical success, to follow the 

Public Service I 181 

original instructions of the Secretary, which were to publish mate- 
rial in which the Smithsonian Institution is interested or might be 
interested. What follows are the important areas of subject matter 
with examples of outstanding articles. 

Science (hard and natural): traveling faster than light; a two-part 
article on the nature and activities of the controversial Corps of 
Engineers; limb regeneration; the fight to save the porpoise; South- 
ern Hemisphere telescopes which widen the field of astronomy; 
space shuttle; life in a DNA lab; articles (coal, water power, and 
solar cells) in three successive issues on vitally needed energy; a 
two-part article on the indispensible biosphere and the link, in the 
Western Hemisphere, between the Amazon and Mckenzie basins. 

Art: national tour of King Tut exhibit; Alexander Calder, Amer- 
ica's Matisse/ Picasso; Thracian gold; France's new national mu- 
seum, the Pompidou. 

History: Joseph Needham's monumental series on China; two- 
part article on Supreme Court (living history); Pevsner's great 
mansions of England; construction of Lincoln statue; two-part 
article on Brady, the first great war (Civil) photographer. 

A new circulation guarantee of 1,500,000 was established on 
March 1, 1977, up from a previous guarantee of 1,000,000 and an 
Audit Bureau of Circulation figure of 1,250,000 for June 1976. Ad- 
vertising pages increased to 775 pages for the year ending June 30, 
1977, as compared to 730 for the preceding year. Gains, not yet 
computed, were maintained up to the end of the new fiscal year, 
September 30. That Smithsonian magazine distribution is nation- 
wide is shown by the fact that there are more Associate members in 
California than there are in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. 
Figures on magazine profits were released by the Secretary: more 
than $2.9 million for fiscal year 1976. 

The magazine became an integral part of the Cooper-Hewitt 
membership organization as it had previously become a benefit of 
Resident Association membership. It gave substantial assistance to 
the new Woodroiu Wilson Quarterly. It cooperated with other di- 
visions and departments in calling the attention of its public to the 
products of the Division of Performing Arts, Photographic Serv- 
ices, the Air and Space Museum, the Museum Shops, and the 
Smithsonian Press. 

182 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Smithsonian Resident Associates 

The Smithsonian Resident Associate Program was established in 
1965 by Secretary Ripley to provide the opportunity for residents 
of the greater Washington area to participate actively in the life of 
the Institution. The Program seeks to achieve this goal through an 
extensive range of quality educational activities that are consonant 
with the research, collections, and exhibitions of the Institution. 
These activities include classes in the arts, sciences, humanities, 
and studio arts; study tours within the Smithsonian bureaus and 
nearby complementary facilities, as well as pertinent overnight 
tours, lectures, symposia, seminars, film series, exhibition previews, 
outdoor festivals, art poster projects, and performing arts events. 

The Program's focus throughout fiscal year 1977 was on main- 
taining the quality of its educational offerings and continuing to 
ensure efficient and thoughtful service to members. While no 
growth was sought, and no membership promotions utilized, the 
number of memberships rose to 44,000 as of September 1977, a net 
gain of about 3,500 over the previous summer. (Memberships may 
be categorized as individual, double, family, and contributing.) 

The year was marked by an intensification of cooperation with 
Smithsonian bureaus as the Program sought to enhance the knowl- 
edge and appreciation of the Institution's collections, exhibitions, 
research, and curatorial interests. For example, the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts was host to two member openings during the 
year: the walkthrough of the "Robert Rauschenberg Retrospec- 
tive," and a preview of the exhibition "Painting and Sculpture in 
California: The Modern Era." 

In addition to cooperating with Washington organizations, the 
Program works to foster civic awareness and interest in the im- 
mediate community of which the Smithsonian is part. One of the 
Program's long-range goals has been to engage the interests of a 
broader spectrum of Washingtonians and to make the Program 
accessible to a wider range of age, interest, and ethnic groups. The 
Young Associate scholarship program, now funded directly out of 
the Program's budget, enables some one hundred and fifty inner- 
city youngsters from thirty D.C. schools to participate tuition-free 

Public Service I 183 

Resident Associates tour historic Congressional Cemetery, where composer John 
Philip Sousa, Civil War photographer Matthew Brady, and seventy-five Congress- 
men and fifty-six Senators are buried. Historian Ruth Ann Overbeck led the walk- 
ing tour. Below, left: Students in a Resident Associate studio art class learn tech- 
niques of figure drawing from life with instructor Ann Purcell (standing far right). 
Right: Kite flyers at the Resident Associate Program's Annual Smithsonian Kite 
Festival pose with a tetrahedral kite of the type with which Alexander Graham Bell 

in Young Associate classes and programs each year. The Program 
is also currently working with the District of Columbia Board of 
Recreation to allocate tuition-free scholarships to Resident Asso- 
ciate adult classes for Washington residents who are now taking 
part in adult education classes in the public school system. In an 
effort to attract more blacks and more Spanish-speaking members, 
the Program has engaged Charles Hobson, Program Director, 
WETA radio, to develop programs and activities geared to minority 

The Young Associate Program extends the resources of the Insti- 
tution to members' children (as well as scholarship children) 
through classes and special events. The Program offers learning 
experiences appropriate to specific age groups, ranging from four 
to eighteen. This year membership was extended to young people 
up to age twenty-one to enable college age dependents to attend 
family activities without the necessity of individual memberships. 

There are almost six thousand family memberships, and special 
activities are regularly geared to family participation. The annual 
Zoo nights, the Boomerang and Kite Festivals, which were particu- 
larly well-attended this year, are family highlights, in addition to 
farm excursions, train trips, fossil digs, and canal trips. Over thirty 
family activities were scheduled in fiscal year 1977, not including 
special activities for the children of family members. As an exam- 
ple of the seriousness with which Young Associate courses are 
now regarded in the city, George Washington University extended 
course credit to students in a class on "Community Resources" for 
their participation as interns in Resident Associate classes for 
young people. 

Over two hundred and fifty volunteers work for the Resident 
Associate Program on a regular basis, assisting at special events, 
monitoring classes, and performing office duties. The Program's vol- 
unteers frequently offer their time to other Smithsonian bureaus, as 
they did in June when they served as monitors for the Office of 
Smithsonian Symposia and Seminars' symposium on "Kin and 
Communities: The Peopling of America." Over one hundred and 
forty-five volunteers have been presented with certificates of ap- 
preciation, signed by Secretary Ripley, to offer further thanks for 
special help. 

Public Service I 185 

Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center 

The Visitors Information and Associates' Reception Center, now 
in its seventh year, continues to expand its role of providing infor- 
mation and service to the Institution, the public, and Associate 

Notable achievements in fiscal year 1977 include: the approval 
of the Center as the Institution-wide central registration point for 
behind-the-scenes volunteers; and the acceptance by the Museum 
of History and Technology administration of a proposal to appoint 
department/division public inquiry liaisons. 

Increases in all visitor services provided by the Center are attrib- 
uted to delayed Bicentennial visitations and the expanding popu- 
larity of Smithsonian attractions and activities. 

Information Volunteers, currently numbering 350, continue to 
provide the human interface between the Smithsonian and visitors 
to the National Collections. Desk coverage in museums and gal- 
leries served by the Information Volunteer Program, between the 
hours of 10 and 4, seven days a week, netted 32.9 thousand hours 
of volunteer service. Orientation services were provided in the As- 
sociates' Lounge for approximately 135,000 members. 

The "Castle" Docent Program has realized much of its potential 
this year in cooperation with the Associates' Travel Program. 
Weekly Sunday morning tours were offered to 2,100 participants in 
"Washington Anytime" weekend. Further expansion of the Program 
now enables the addition of tours for special events, when docents 
are assigned to each of the featured rooms in the "Castle." "A Vic- 
torian Evening at the Smithsonian," presented for the Contributing 
Membership on the first Sunday in May, was the first such event for 
the period-costumed docents. 

Completing its second official year of operation, the Public In- 
quiry Mail sector experienced a 30 percent growth factor. The fifty- 
to-fifty ratio between public and member requests remains con- 
stant, as does the diversity of information sought. Information sys- 
tems and ready reference files have been expanded and updated. 
Closer curatorial contacts were established to facilitate public 
queries regarding collections and exhibits, and the mail operations 
of other major institutions were examined and evaluated for future 

186 ' Smithsonian Year 1977 

application. New informational preprints were developed for re- 
sponse to frequently asked questions, allowing more time to proc- 
ess special requests. Through the hard work and dedication of staff 
and volunteers alike, the Institution's image as a reliable and 
thorough source of information continues to be reinforced through 
the mail, thus adding a new dimension to the understanding and 
knowledge of thousands of persons. 

The Independent Volunteer Placement Service maintained a ros- 
ter of staff projects and an active referral service for prospective 
volunteers. Some 24,000 hours of service were contributed by vol- 
unteers placed through this program in fiscal year 1977. Adults 
provide the primary resource of volunteer assistance, with a grow- 
ing number of students assigned to short-term projects. Future 
plans for this program include specialized projects designed to 
provide broader service to the Institution. 

From the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum to the National 
Zoological Park, Smithsonian volunteers continue to personify the 
diversity and richness of the National Collections. 

The Smithsonian is indeed indebted to the 2,352 devoted indi- 
viduals who have given so generously of their time and talents this 
past year. Together, some 216,985 hours of service have been 
amassed by these volunteers, working as docents, information spe- 
cialists, and behind-the-scene staff assistants. The Smithsonian 
recognizes and commends this volunteer corps whose contribution 
so significantly amplifies the Institution's credo — "the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge." 

Public Service I 187 

Kjell Sandved, photographer with the National Museum of Natural History, demon- 
strates his camera equipment during a photography techniques session at the Denver 
Museum of Natural History, held under the auspices of the Smithsonian National 
Associate Program. (Photo by Ronda Barlow, Denver Museum of Natural History) 

Smithsonian Year . 1977 


The institution's membership program of the Smithsonian Associ- 
ates was essentially designed for Washington area residents, until 
the spring of 1970 when publication of the Smithsonian Magazine 
began. As a principal benefit of membership, the monthly magazine 
so stimulated interest in the program as to increase the Smithsonian 
Associates to nearly 1,600,000 members across the country. 

National Board of the Smithsonian Associates 

The National Board of the Smithsonian Associates provides leader- 
ship to the National Associates Program, and constitutes an impor- 
tant network of informed leaders who care about and work for the 
Smithsonian Institution in communities all around the country. 
Under the leadership of its Chairman, Ambassador George C. Mc- 
Ghee, the Board met in Washington in the fall of 1976, and in 
Minneapolis in the spring of 1977. 

Five new members were elected to the Board this year: Mrs. 
Jackson Burke, the Honorable William T. Coleman, Jr., and Messrs. 
Gaylord Donnelley, James M. Kemper, Jr., and Vernon Taylor, Jr. 
In addition, Mrs. Karl G. Harr joined the Board (ex officio) follow- 
ing her election as the new Chairman of the Smithsonian Women's 
Committee. To honor the nine original members of the Board, a new 
category — Honorary Membership — was created. The persons who 
will be so honored are Messrs. Richard P. Cooley, Joseph F. Cullman 
III, Leonard K. Firestone, Alfred C. Glassell, Jr., William A. Hewitt, 
Lewis A. Lapham, Francis C. Rooney, Jr., Merritt K. Ruddock, and 


Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Subsequently, Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson and 
the Honorable Nelson A. Rockefeller were also elected Honorary 
Members because of their frequent service to the Institution. 

The remaining members of the National Board of the Smith- 
sonian Associates are the Honorable George C. McGhee, Chairman, 
Mr. Robert O. Anderson, Mr. William S. Anderson, Mr. Harry Hood 
Bassett, Mr. Henry C. Beck, Jr., Mr. Keith S. Brown, Mr. Thomas M. 
Evans, Mr. Charles T. Fisher III, Mrs. David L. Guyer, Mr. Henry J. 
Heinz II, the Honorable John N. Irwin II, Mrs. Robert A. Magowan, 
Mrs. Robert S. McNamara, Mr. Scott McVay, Dr. Ruben F. Mettler, 
Mr. John R. Norton III, Mr. Charles M. Pigott, Mr. George S. Pills- 
bury, Mr. Arthur A. Seeligson, Jr., and Mr. James O. Wright. 

Regional Program 

As the Institution's membership program spread beyond the con- 
fines of the Mall to Associates who receive the magazine through- 
out the country, the vehicle for additional member involvement has 
been the Regional Program. This program offers a series of activities 
representing Smithsonian research and educational interests in se- 
lected cities across the country. During the past year, programs of 
up to two weeks in length were scheduled in Peoria, Milwaukee, 
Detroit, Seattle, Portland, Denver, and Minneapolis-Saint Paul. 
Approximately 157,000 Associates and members of local museums 
in these localities received invitations. Over 157 lectures, perform- 
ances, exhibitions, and workshops were offered for which 34,000 
members requested tickets. 

The educational goal of the program, stressing a greater partici- 
pation of members in museum activities around the country, was 
undertaken with the assistance of fifteen bureaus of the Institution 
and twenty-one co-sponsoring local organizations. Meaningful ex- 
periences were provided through innovative program formats, sup- 
plemental educational materials, and reading lists developed by the 
lecturers and the National Associate Program. 

Two of the most successful programs were the Smithsonian 
Chamber Players performing for sellout audiences; and Kjell Sand- 
ved, National Museum of Natural History, presenting a research 
film on animal motility to "standing room only" audiences. 

190 / Smithsonian Year 19~7 

The impact of the program was felt locally, where as many as 
400 new members were added to co-sponsors' organizations as a 
result of the program. A post-tour survey in one host city indicated 
that 98 percent of those questioned intended to return to the local 
museums, more than 35 percent planned to join the local museum, 
and over 84 percent felt that they had a greater understanding of 
the work and collections of the Institution. 

The shared concern for an active, nationwide, museum-going 
populace, has fostered a strong cooperative spirit between the 
Smithsonian and local museums. As the outreach program has 
grown, the interplay between museums has encouraged the regional 
hosts to enhance Smithsonian offerings with locally planned special 
events and follow-up programs, using the Smithsonian program 
concept to provide continuing educational benefits for local mem- 

Additionally, the program has utilized the talents of its speakers 
not only for lectures to members, but also in dialogues with other 
museum professionals. During part of their visit the Smithsonian 
staff consulted with scientists in like disciplines, sharing ideas and 
discussing developments in their respective fields. 

Associates Travel Program 

During 1977, the Domestic Study Tours staff continued to provide 
members with educational travel experiences. Visits were made to 
such places as the Colorado River to study natural history, New 
Mexico to study the Pueblo Indian cultures, and Alaska to enjoy 
the wildlife of Mount McKinley. On all tours, small groups of 
members were accompanied by a Smithsonian representative and a 
curator who is a specialist in the topic of the tour. 

More than 2,000 members participated in the popular "Washing- 
ton Anytime" weekend during the year. Designed to give National 
Associates an opportunity to visit Washington and the Smithsonian 
any weekend during the year, the program, assisted by the Visitor 
Information and Associates' Reception Center, responded to a large 
number of members who wished to enjoy the city following the 
Bicentennial activities. 

Membership and Development I 191 

The new Foreign Charter Program, which is dedicated to the goal 
of providing educational and culturally oriented tours to a broad 
base of the Associates membership, continues to be successful. Each 
charter tour provides educational travel opportunities for 172 mem- 
bers. The tour is divided into six small groups of 28 or 29 members, 
each accompanied by a Smithsonian representative and a tour 
leader. Participating members receive educational tour bulletins, 
recommended reading lists, books, maps, special publications, and 
helpful information prior to departure. An optional two-day Pre- 
departure Program is also available. The program offers an orienta- 
tion to the Institution, social events for meeting fellow travelers, 
and a series of lectures by curators and visiting specialists on his- 
tory, culture, political and social life, and art and architecture of 
the country to be visited. Last year visits were made to England, 
Australia, Siberia, Mexico, Russia, Poland, and Turkey. 

Contributing Membership Program 

Contributing Members of the Smithsonian National Associates sup- 
port the Institution's work through annual contributions of $50, 
$100, and $500. In the past year, the membership doubled from 
885 to 1,616 and maintained a renewal rate of 85 percent. Special 
events for Contributing Members included a "Private Viewing of 
the Treasures of Tutankhamun" in November and a "Victorian 
Evening at the Smithsonian" in May. 

The James Smithson Society was created in 1977 to encourage 
and recognize major gifts to the Smithsonian Institution. This So- 
ciety, which is the highest order of Contributing Membership, is 
comprised of two membership categories. Annual members are 
individuals who make unrestricted contributions of $1,000 to 
$24,999 in a given year. Life Members are those who give $25,000 
or more, either in monetary gifts or additions to the collections. 

The first year of the James Smithson Society was extremely suc- 
cessful, with ninety-seven Annual and eighteen Life members. The 
Annual membership made possible the acquisition of Rembrandt 
Peale's important painting, The Roman Daughter, for the National 

192 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Collection of Fine Arts, and twenty summer intern scholarships for 
high school students through the Office of Elementary and Second- 
ary Education. Life members' gifts covered a wide range of signifi- 
cant objects and collections to five Smithsonian bureaus, including 
ancient glass, gems, jade carvings, jewelry, paintings, drawings, 
stoneware, porcelain, a silver teapot, a nineteenth-century steam 
engine and monetary contributions. 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges the gene- 
rous support of the James Smithson Society 1977 Annual Members, 
Life Members, and the Contributing Members of the Smithsonian 
Associates, who are listed in Appendix 8. 

Membership and Development I 193 

Statue of Joseph Henry silhouetted against the towers and turrets of the Smith- 
sonian Institution's first building, which was designed by James Renwick, Jr., and 
was built between 1847 and 1855. Joseph Henry was the Institution's first Secretary 
and served in that capacity from 1846 until 1878. 

Smithsonian Year . 1977 

In may 1977, the audit review committee of the Board of Regents 
engaged the services of Phillip S. Hughes to study certain aspects 
of the Institution's management, and to provide the study, with his 
recommendations, to the Committee. Mr. Hughes, a distinguished 
civil servant and a former Deputy Director of the Office of Man- 
agement and Budget, submitted his report to the Audit Committee 
on September 1, 1977. 

The Hughes Report recommended the following: that the Insti- 
tution provide more information to the Congress regarding the 
former's future plans for federal and trust funds; that it establish a 
five-year planning process; that, corollary to this, the Institution 
develop a comprehensive, descriptive list of its activities; that it 
establish and issue policies for the use of its trust funds; and that 
the position of Under Secretary, vacant since the death in 1976 of 
Robert A. Brooks, be filled. The Report was adopted by the Board 
of Regents, and implementation is currently underway. 

On July 11, 1977, Lawrence E. Taylor assumed the newly estab- 
lished position of Coordinator of Public Information, reporting 
directly to the Secretary. Mr. Taylor is responsible for all aspects 
of public information, Congressional relations, and special events, 
functions which previously had been assigned among several other 

financial Management 

The Treasurer and his staff continued their oversight and adminis- 
tration of the financial assets of the Institution in addition to imple- 

Administration I 195 

meriting several important new programs designed to improve finan- 
cial reporting, and budgetary and expenditure controls. 

The Treasurer, working closely with the Investment Policy Com- 
mittee of the Board of Regents, oversees the management of the 
endowment funds of the Institution by three professional advisory 
firms. Details on these funds and other financial resources of the 
Institution can be found in the Financial Report shown in the State- 
ment by the Secretary. The Investment Accounting Division assists 
the Treasurer with the monitoring of the endowments and is also 
responsible for the short-term investment of current funds excess 
to immediate operating needs. This is accomplished through daily 
cash management and forecasting procedures to insure the highest 
possible return. The Division maintains various automated systems 
for the tabulation of investment data, performance evaluations of 
the three investment managers, and distributions of earned interest 
of funds of bureaus of the Institution. 

During the year, the Office of Programming and Budget devel- 
oped and implemented the Institution's first "zero-base" budget for 
fiscal year 1979, following the Office of Management and Budget's 
general guidelines. Each of the Institution's museums, bureaus, or 
offices receiving an annual appropriation reviewed its programs 
rigorously and assessed the impact of funding at various resource 
levels. A noteworthy feature of the zero-base budgeting system 
involved ranking of the Institution's programs in priority order 
across program lines. 

The Accounting Division developed and instituted for fiscal year 
1977 a new accounting system utilizing a greatly expanded key-to- 
disc data-entry system. One major contribution of this system is 
the consolidation of federal and trust processing. Until this year, 
separate systems were used to accomplish functions such as pre- 
paring vouchers, disbursing checks, and recording cash receipts. 
Centralization, in this case, has eliminated duplication of work 
effort, reduced numerous manual accounting functions, and has 
standardized the internal reporting process. 

The Grants and Insurance Administration Division continued to 
provide administrative, management, and financial services to 
Smithsonian researchers receiving funds from granting agencies 
and to ensure that expenditures are in accord with the terms of the 
grants and applicable regulations. In addition, the Division was 

196 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

active during the year in the administration of the Institution's 
comprehensive fine arts insurance coverage and in implementing 
new procedures to reduce losses. 

Fiscal year 1977 saw greatly increased emphasis on control in the 
Museum Shops. New systems were implemented for providing bet- 
ter information to management and for controlling inventory. 
Financial results for the year were very satisfactory, making it 
possible for the Museum Shops to continue to share a portion of 
their revenue with various museums of the Institution. A new 
thirty-two-page catalogue, offering items representing or relating 
to the museum collections, was mailed to all Smithsonian Associates 
in September 1977, and early response looks extremely favorable. 
A new and highly sophisticated computer system has been devel- 
oped to process incoming orders expeditiously. 

The Product Development Program originated in 1972 as a means 
for visitors and nonvisitors as well to see and acquire various inter- 
pretations and copies of items in the Smithsonian. As part of this 
program, an agreement was reached during the past year with Im- 
perial Glass, a division of the Lenox China Company, under which 
Imperial will develop several glass reproductions based on Smith- 
sonian collections. 

Under another agreement the Stieff Company introduced in fiscal 
year 1977 the "Susan B. Anthony gavel," a reproduction of the 
original in the Smithsonian. They also completed development of 
the "Adams Silverware," inspired by the dinner setting used by 
John Quincy Adams and his family. 

The Belmont Conference Center, a 240-year-old manor house, 
with 365 surrounding acres of lawns, forests, and fields, located 
between the District of Columbia and Baltimore near Interstate 95, 
provides an attractive, secluded, and gracious retreat unusual in the 
Eastern Corridor. Since its opening in 1967, conference operations 
have been directed toward the needs of small groups which require 
a location unencumbered by the normal intrusions associated with 
offices. Belmont can accommodate twenty-four in-house residents, 
with facilities for ten to twelve additional guests, speakers, or ob- 
servers for meals and meeting sessions. This limiting size factor 
ensures that each conference has the undivided and individual atten- 
tion of the entire staff, as well as the opportunity for unusually 
close interaction within the meeting group itself. Of the eighty or 

Administration I 197 

so meetings which Belmont hosts in a year, approximately 60 per- 
cent are from federally-funded agencies; the balance include those 
from foundations, universities, and other philanthropic organiza- 
tions as well as private industry. 

Support Activities 

During the past year, significant improvements were made to pro- 
vide timely administrative support throughout the Institution. 

The Office of Computer Services installed a new computer system 
to meet the growing demand for additional capabilities. 

The Equal Opportunity program, now including provisions for the 
handicapped, continued to emphasize the Institution's commitment 
to equality in all employment practices. The Civil Service Commis- 
sion approved the Smithsonian's 1977 Affirmative Plan of Action as 
well as the Upward Mobility Program. In addition, the Smithsonian 
received special recognition by the Civil Service Commission for 
timely processing of discrimination complaints. 

The Office of Facilities Planning and Engineering Services com- 
pleted 158 projects, valued at 3.8 million dollars, and initiated 100 
other projects, which will be completed as funds become available. 
Longer range planning continues to be emphasized. 

The United States Patent Office assumed responsibility for the 
international transfer of patent specifications, a task performed by 
the International Exchange Service (ies) for many years. This trans- 
fer has enabled ies to devote more time to other important priorities. 

The Office of Personnel Administration completed the Trust 
Fund Personnel Handbook during the year, and it is now approach- 
ing final stages of review by key Smithsonian officials. The hand- 
book is the first compilation of policies regarding Trust Fund per- 
sonnel management. 

The Office of Plant Services continued to make progress toward 
energy conservation and reduction and employed an energy con- 
servation officer to implement an effective utilities conservation 

The Office of Printing and Photographic Services improved the 
overall quality of photographic and duplicating support throughout 

198 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

the Institution, upgraded original photographic work produced in 
the studios, and modernized and upgraded its laboratory facilities 
in the National Museum of History and Technology. Greater em- 
phasis was given to producing photographic materials for the pub- 
lic, including slide sets and original photography of key museum 

The Office of Protection Services' three years of study, planning, 
and preliminary work culminated in July 1977 in the establishment 
of the Smithsonian's own control center for monitoring fire and 
burglar alarms at Smithsonian's facilities in the Washington, D.C., 
area. The new center, located in the original Smithsonian Institution 
Building and staffed twenty-four hours a day, assumes and expands 
the functions formerly performed by an outside organization at a 
remote location and outside the Institution's control. 


The Smithsonian Institution Women's Council continues to bring 
women into the mainstream of Smithsonian activities. During the 
past year, members participated in various training and career de- 
velopment programs, including time management, labor-manage- 
ment relations, and employee-performance evaluation. 

The Programs Committee sponsored a variety of films and semi- 
nars on topics such as women's history, obtaining a credit rating, 
and rape crisis, and held the first in a series of panel discussions 
highlighting the unique careers of women in the Smithsonian. The 
Publicity Committee was instrumental in preparing a photographic 
exhibit in the Employee Gallery of the National Museum of Natural 
History based on past and present activities of the Women's Council. 

In an effort to improve communications within the Smithsonian, 
the Women's Council began distributing a periodic newsletter about 
training, career opportunities, personnel and Civil Service Commis- 
sion regulations and policies, and committee activities and accom- 

Administration I 199 

France's Fernand Braudel, one of the world's great historians and a Wilson 
Center Fellow, chatting with Director James Billington. (Photo by The New 
York Times) 

Smithsonian Year • 1977 





Approaching its seventh anniversary, the Woodrow Wilson Inter- 
national Center for Scholars, recognized throughout the nation and 
the world as a scholarly institution of major importance, has become 
a distinctive, living memorial to a former president. 

The Center continued to commemorate, through its residential 
fellowship program of advanced research and communication, both 
the intellectual depth and the public concerns of Woodrow Wilson. 

The Fellows 

The thirty-five fellows conducting individual research are the core 
of the Center. The quality and diversity of the fellows and their 
published works continue to grow. The number of applications from 
across the United States and around the world increases each year. 
As of September 1977, 236 fellowships had been awarded in open 
international competition since the Center was established — about 
60 percent to American scholars, the rest to applicants from some 
thirty-eight foreign countries. All told, the fellows have come from 
some 115 different universities and scholarly institutions. 

The new head of the Agency for International Development (aid) 
John Gilligan; the new head of our country's Law of the Sea nego- 
tiating team, Elliot Richardson; the new superintendent of West 


Point, Andrew Goodpaster; and the new head of the Environmental 
Protection Agency, Douglas Costle, were all Wilson Center fellows. 
Other fellows this past year included a former head of state from 
Latin America, a deputy head of state from Africa, and close ad- 
visers to the prime ministers of England and Japan. Fernand Brau- 
del of France, one of the world's greatest historians, made his first 
visit to America in many years as a Center fellow in 1976. Mexico's 
distinguished writer, Carlos Fuentes, was a fellow. The famed Rus- 
sian poet Andrei Voznesensky arrived in late 1977, to work on 
recent American poetry. Last year, the equally diversified group of 
American fellows included thirty-one American college professors 
from a variety of departments in twenty-five different universities. 
All are at the Center to produce a major publishable scholarly work. 
The year also produced a marked increase in applications and a 
doubling of selections from beyond the Boston-Washington cor- 

The Program 

The Board of Trustees has consistently felt that the Center would 
profit from having some special areas of emphasis that would pro- 
vide focus within its overall program without tying it into the rigidi- 
ties of departmental structures or a permanent faculty. As a result, 
the Center currently has small special programs in Russian and 
Soviet Studies, Latin American Studies, International Security Stud- 
ies, and Resources and Environment. 

The Center is unique among institutes for advanced study in its 
commitment to communicate between "the world of learning and 
the world of public affairs." Accordingly, it sponsors an extensive 
program of meetings, informal discussions, formal colloquia on 
work in progress, and evening dialogues. Most of these are open to 
the concerned public affairs community. During the two years that 
the Russian program has been functioning, for instance, there have 
been 20 conferences attended by a total of more than 1,000 people. 
The Latin American program, which began earlier this year, has 
already had twelve meetings of different kinds. 

The Center thus offers public officials and others, on occasion, a 

202 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

chance to take a step back from today's immediate crisis to join 
with scholars in supplying perspective and wisdom. 

The Center recently added a special series of dialogues on such 
subjects as the relationship of religion and politics — which will lead 
to a series of meetings involving members of Congress — and on 
national educational policy, which has brought the last five United 
States Commissioners of Education together periodically at the 
Center. The Center also organizes special events such as the recent 
national conference on government reorganization that brought 124 
participants from state and local governments and universities all 
over the country to discuss the question of government reorganiza- 
tion with such speakers as Richard Pettigrew and Jack Watson from 
the White House, United States Representative John Brademas, and 
former Health, Education and Welfare Secretary Caspar Wein- 
berger, as well as co-chairmen Governor Dan Evans of Washington 
and Mayor Kenneth Gibson of Newark. 

Another part of the Center's "switchboard" function involves 
bringing people in touch with scholarly materials they might not 
otherwise know about. The Center has undertaken a series of 
scholars' guides to the immense archival resources of the Washing- 
ton area. The first of these volumes, a comprehensive guide to the 
resources for Russian and Soviet studies in Washington, is sched- 
uled for issuance in October 1977. Work is currently progressing 
on similar guides for the study of Latin America, Africa, East Asia, 
and film and television resources. 

Most important has been the establishment of the Wilson 
Quarterly, a national review which digests and presents in plain 
English to a broad, lay audience some of the more important in- 
sights and ideas, not just of the Center but of the entire world of 
higher scholarship. Within one year, it has become perhaps the most 
widely read quarterly in the English-speaking world with close to 
90,000 paid subscribers. 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars I 203 

President Carter, Ambassador Andrew Young, and Roger L. Stevens at the dedication 
of the Kennedy Center African Room, April 1977. (Photo by Richard Braaten) 

Smithsonian Year • 1977 



In providing for the establishment of the National Cultural Cen- 
ter, which subsequently became the John F. Kennedy Center for 
the Performing Arts, Congress specified that the institution should: 

1. Present classical and contemporary music, drama, dance, and 
poetry from the United States and abroad; 

2. Present lectures and other programs; 

3. Develop programs for children, youth, and the elderly, spe- 
cifically for their participation, education, and recreation; and 

4. Provide facilities for civic activities. 

Implicit was the desire that the Center serve not only the na- 
tion's capital, but the entire country as a national showcase and a 
force for arts advancement and general enrichment. 

In six years of operation, the Kennedy Center has become one 
of the most active arts institutions in the world. More than 6,100 
performances have been presented to a total audience of 9.6 million 
people. Comprehensive educational and public-service programs 
have been developed for the Washington community and the nation 
as a whole. And, as a national memorial, the Center has welcomed 
nearly 20 million visitors. 

The 1976-1977 season was marked by a continued commitment 
to the artistic excellence of performance programming and by sig- 
nificant expansion of the Center's public-service emphasis. 


Performing Arts Programming 

The Kennedy Center's three major auditoriums, the 2,750-seat 
Concert Hall, the 2,300-seat Opera House and the 1,150-seat 
Eisenhower Theater, were kept in full operation throughout 1976- 
1977 and audience attendance for the year's 1,000 performances of 
dance, music, drama, and musical comedy totaled nearly 1.6 million. 
In addition, the 224-seat American Film Institute (afi) Theater pre- 
sented more than 650 films to an audience of 100,000. 


During the Center's first six seasons, 3,444 performances of drama 
and musical comedy have been presented in the Eisenhower The- 
ater and Opera House. Of the 107 productions staged, 68 have 
been produced, coproduced or made possible financially by the 
Center itself. 

The 1976-1977 theater season featured 512 performances of 16 
major productions and attracted a total audience of 625,000. Drama 
productions included William Luce's The Belle of Amherst, starring 
Julie Harris; the American premiere of Harold Pinter's No Man's 
Land, with Sir John Gielgud and Sir Ralph Richardson; Tom Stop- 
pard's Dirty Linen: G. B. Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra, starring 
Rex Harrison and Elizabeth Ashley; the American premiere of 
Stoppard's Travesties, with John Wood; Hal Holbrook's Mark 
Twain Tonight; the world premiere of Arthur Miller's The Arch- 
bishop's Ceiling, with John Cullum and Bibi Andersson; Henrik 
Ibsen's The Master Builder, starring Richard Kiley and Jane Alex- 
ander; Alan Ayckbourn's Absent Friends, with Anne Jackson and 
Eli Wallach; and the American premiere of Aleksei Arbuzov's Do 
You Turn Somersaults?, with Mary Martin and Anthony Quayle. 

Complementing the season of Western drama was the Septem- 
ber engagement of the Grand Kabuki of the National Theatre of 
Japan. The company, foremost conservator of Kabuki's more than 
350-year-old tradition, presented excerpts from Yoshitsune Senbon 
Zakura and Kurozuka, both featuring Ennosuke Ichikawa III, 
Japan's leading Kabuki actor. 

Completing the season were productions of five musicals — 
Pippin, which originated in the Opera House in 1972, Shenandoah, 

206 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

and three new works: Music Is, by George Abbott, Richard Adler 
and Will Holt; The Baker's Wife, by Joseph Stein and Stephen 
Schwartz; and Annie, by Thomas Meehan, Charles Strouse, and 
Martin Charnin. 

Annie, in which the Center participated as a co-producer, played 
four weeks to capacity Eisenhower Theater audiences before mov- 
ing to Broadway where it received seven Tony Awards, including 
"Best Musical," and the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award, 
"Best Musical, 1976-77." 


The 1967-1977 dance series brought to the Opera House thirteen 
weeks of dance by three of the world's most acclaimed companies: 
The New York City Ballet; the Stuttgart Ballet; and the Center's 
official company, the American Ballet Theatre. Audience attend- 
ance for the season's 104 performances exceeded 216,000, an av- 
erage of 94 percent capacity. 

Included in the New York City Ballet's nineteen-work repertory 
were Washington premieres of George Balanchine's Union Jack 
and Jerome Robbins' The Cage and Other Dances. Among the 
Stuttgart productions were American premieres of The Sleeping 
Beauty, William Forsythe's Daphne, and Kenneth MacMillan's 

Highlighting the dance year was the American Ballet Theatre 
world premiere of Mikhail Baryshnikov's staging of The Nut- 
cracker, with Baryshnikov in the role of Nutcracker/Prince and 
Marianna Tcherkassky as Clara. 

The Stuttgart Ballet was presented at the Center and in New 
York; Philadelphia; Homedale, New Jersey; and Chicago as the 
pilot project of a new partnership agreement between the Center 
and the Metropolitan Opera. Under the agreement, the Center and 
the Metropolitan will jointly manage American engagements of 
major foreign companies. During 1978, the partnership will pre- 
sent the Ballet Nacional de Cuba with Alicia Alonso, director and 
prima ballerina, and the London Festival Ballet with Rudolph 

Under the sponsorship of the Washington Performing Arts So- 
ciety, the Martha Graham Dance Company made its first Opera 
House appearance during 1976-1977, and the Alvin Ailey City 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 207 

Center Dance Theatre returned for its sixth Center engagement. 
The Performing Arts Society also presented an eight-performance 
international folk-dance series in the Concert Hall. 


The September 1976 engagements of La Scala and the Paris Opera 
(detailed in Smithsonian Year, 1976) continued the Center's com- 
mitment to presenting the finest opera companies from around the 

During 1977, the Center presented 63 performances of 9 operas, 
and audience attendance totaled nearly 100,000. In May, the New 
York City Opera brought to Washington productions of Carmen, 
Turandot, Die Vled.erm.aus, La Traviata, Mefistofele, The Pirates of 
Penzance, and a gala // Barbiere di Siviglia, conducted by Sarah 
Caldwell, with Beverly Sills as Rosina. 

Two Houston Grand opera productions, Carlisle Floyd's Of Mice 
and Men and George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, played the 
Opera House for six weeks during June and July. Porgy and Bess 
was coproduced by the Houston Grand Opera and Sherwin M. 

The Center's fifth music festival devoted specifically to the 
works of an individual composer saluted the genius of George 
Frideric Handel. The Festival, directed by Stephen Simon and 
jointly sponsored by the Center and the Friends of Handel, Inc., 
featured the oratorios, Saul and Solomon, and a concert staging of 
the opera, Rinaldo. 

During September, the Center presented the first section of a 
Brahms-Beethoven Cycle, with the Cleveland Orchestra and solo- 
ists Isaac Stern, Misha Dichter, Rudolf Firkusny, Janos Starker, and 
Daniel Majeske performing the complete Brahms symphonies, 
piano concerti, and other works over a seven-day period. The 
Cycle included a performance of Ein Deutsches Requiem, with 
Fay Robinson, Thomas Stewart, and the Choral Arts Society of 
Washington. The Concertgebouw of Amsterdam will perform the 
Beethoven Cycle during May 1978. 

Each year, a number of performances are presented in the Con- 
cert Hall and Opera House by the Center's affiliate organizations. 
During 1976-1977, the Washington Opera, under the artistic direc- 

208 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

tion of George London, produced Verdi's Attila, Puccini's Madama 
Butterfly, and Massenet's Werther. The Paul Hill Chorale, the Ora- 
torio Society, and the Choral Arts Society of Washington pre- 
sented twelve choral concerts. The Washington Performing Arts 
Society brought to the Concert Hall twenty-three major orchestras 
and thirty recital artists. 

The resident National Symphony Orchestra performed 119 con- 
certs before a total audience of nearly 265,000. Antal Dorati, who 
had served as Music Director since 1971, left the orchestra at the 
close of the 1976-1977 season to become Director of the Detroit 
Symphony. Mstislav Rostropovich was named to succeed to the 
position, beginning in 1977-1978. 


The afi Theater has presented more than 2,400 different motion 
pictures to an audience of nearly 500,000 since its opening in April 
1973. Operated by the American Film Institute, which maintains its 
national headquarters within the building, the theater's programs 
have ranged from silent films to avant-garde American and foreign 
productions. Showings regularly include rare archival works — 
many saved from destruction by the afi's preservation program — 
and film classics seldom available for general distribution. 

Among the 1976-1977 film series were a tribute to rko Radio 
Pictures, retrospective salutes to Katherine Hepburn, Buster Kea- 
ton, Bette Davis, and Fred Astaire, "Love Stories: A Hundred 
Movie Romances," "The Lubitsch Touch," and classic and con- 
temporary films of Sweden, Finland, India, and the Soviet Union. 

In November 1977, the Film Institute will celebrate its tenth an- 
niversary with a major film festival that will utilize virtually all of 
the Center's projection capability. More than 160 different films 
and tapes are scheduled to be shown in the afi Theater and Screen- 
ing Room and the Eisenhower Theater over a twelve-day period. 
Participating guests will include Gene Kelly, Elizabeth Taylor, 
Irene Dunne, Michael Cacoyannis, and Bernardo Bertolucci. The 
anniversary celebration will conclude on November 17 with an 
Opera House Gala saluting America's most memorable films. The 
evening's program will be taped for nationwide television broad- 
cast on November 21. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 209 

Educational and Public Service Programming 

In response to its congressional mandate and in keeping with the 
concept of a living memorial, the Kennedy Center has undertaken 
extensive educational and public service programming. During fis- 
cal year 1977, an estimated 414,000 people, nearly 9 percent of all 
those who visited the Center, attended 595 free events, including 
special performances, symposia, lectures, and exhibitions, of which 
491 were presented by the Center itself and 104 by constituent or- 
ganizations and other public service groups. In addition, this year 
the Center developed major programs to further extend its out- 
reach and to foster new talent, new works, and new audiences 
throughout the country. 


Since its opening in 1971, the Center has maintained a Specially 
Priced Ticket Program, through which 15 percent of tickets for 
regular Center performances are made available at half-price to 
students, the handicapped, senior citizens, low-income groups, and 
military personnel in grades E-l through E-4. The Program is de- 
signed to make the Center's performances accessible to everyone, 
regardless of economic circumstances. Attendant costs, in terms of 
reduced revenue potential and administrative overhead, are borne 
by the Center itself without public subsidy. 

In fiscal year 1977, 114,847 tickets for Center-produced or Center- 
presented attractions were sold at half-price through the Program. 
The Center also requires that independent producers participate in 
the Program by making a percentage of their tickets available for 
half-price sale. During the year, combined half-price ticket sales for 
the Center's own attractions and those of independent producers 
totaled 137,927 representing a total price reduction of $760,142. 


The Alliance for Arts Education (aae) is a joint project of the Ken- 
nedy Center and the United States Office of Education committed 
to making the arts a basic part of the educational experience of 
every child. Operating at both the state and national level, the aae 
seeks to identify and support exemplary arts-education programs 

210 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

and to promote greater cooperation between arts organizations and 
educational institutions by serving as a public forum and a channel 
of information. As one part of its national commitment, the aae 
recognizes and supports the work of its member organization, the 
National Committee, Arts for the Handicapped, an affiliate of the 
Kennedy Center. 

Within the Center, the aae produces children's programming 
designed to serve as a practicable model for other arts institutions. 
During 1976-1977, the Center offered, for the first time, a contin- 
uing series of children's programs scheduled throughout the school 
year. The twenty-seven week series featured 117 free performances 
of music, theater, dance, poetry, and puppetry by performing groups 
from around the country and attracted more than 36,000 young 

The series culminated in the Center's first National Children's 
Festival, a week-long "Imagination Celebration," with 29 free per- 
formances attended by 18,000 children, parents, and teachers. 
Commissioned for the Festival were three new theater works for 
children: Light Sings, a multi-media production devised by Patricia 
Birch and Doris Chase, in cooperation with Will Holt and Gary 
William Friedman; Jim Thorpe, All American, by Saul Levitt and 
Harrison Ficher; and Sir Cawain and the Green Knight, written by 
Dennis Scott and performed by the Little Theatre of the Deaf. 


The American College Theatre Festival, presented annually by the 
Kennedy Center and the Alliance for Arts Education, recognizes 
America's 2,300 college and university theaters and the more than 
150,000 students enrolled in formal theater classes. Each year, more 
than 10,000 productions are staged on college and university cam- 
puses, and the Festival seeks to honor the best efforts, strengthen 
the rest, and encourage all students to take an active role in their 
theaters as writers, designers, performers, directors, and audiences. 
During 1976-1977, 400 schools participated in 13 regional fes- 
tivals, from which 8 productions were selected for presentation in 
noncompetitive showcase at the Center in April: Historias Para ser 
Contadas, Texas A&I University; Meg, Cornell University; Lear, 
University of Alabama; Hay Fever, Webster College; Upstream 
Toward Lethe, University of California, Los Angeles; Who's Happy 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 211 

Mikhail Baryshnikov in the world premiere of his production of The Nut- 
cracker, December 1976. Facing page, upper: Winter twilight view of the John 
F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. (Photo by Richard Braaten) 
Lower: El Ballet Folklorico de Tourismo from the Dominican Republic per- 
forming in the Grand Foyer during the 1977 Spring Festival. (Photo by Rich- 
ard Braaten) 

■ - 

Now?, Midwestern State University; Waiting for Godot, Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute and State University; and Round Trip Ticket, 
Mankato State University. 

The Festival program also included a series of awards for indi- 
vidual excellence in performing and playwriting. In its ninth year, 
the Festival was sponsored by the American Oil Company and 
produced by the American Theatre Association. 


In 1966, the Center's Board of Trustees established as its official 
auxiliary the Friends of the Kennedy Center, and for eleven years, 
the Friends have provided invaluable assistance to a wide range of 
Center projects and program activities. 

Through the Friends, the Center currently presents free weekly 
symposia focusing on all areas of the performing arts and drawing 
upon the expertise of such visiting artists as Marcel Marceau, 
Mary Martin, Isaac Stern, and Marcia Haydee. The Friends also 
help to present an ongoing program of free organ demonstrations 
that explain the workings of the Concert Hall's Filene Memorial 
Organ and feature recitals by Washington-area organists. 

Within the Friends membership, which now numbers nearly 
8,000, are 275 active volunteers whose combined contribution to 
the Center totaled more than 63,000 hours during fiscal year 1977. 
The Volunteer Office, which functions as an information and as- 
sistance center for visitors and performance-goers, is staffed 365 
days a year from 9:00 a.m. until 9:00 p.m. Each day, more than 
1,000 visitors participate in tours conducted by volunteer guides, 
and for the benefit of foreign visitors, volunteers have prepared tour 
scripts in Spanish, German, Dutch, French, Italian, Hebrew, and 

The Friends also aid in the administration of the Specially Priced 
Ticket Program, manage souvenir sales, help to coordinate special 
arrangements for the handicapped, and assist the Center's mail- 
order department. 

Proceeds from Friends' memberships and the sale of souvenirs 
help to underwrite the Center's educational and public-service pro- 
gramming. The Friends have recently embarked upon a national 
membership drive designed to generate new funds for expanded 
educational activities over the next several years. 

214 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

The Friends work closely with the National Park Service, which 
is responsible for maintaining the Center as a presidential memo- 
rial, and from October 1, 1976, through September 30, 1977, the 
Friends and Park Service personnel offered information, assistance, 
and hospitality to nearly 4.8 million visitors. 

Activities of the Friends are guided by Mrs. Polk Guest, who 
has served as chairman continuously since 1968. 


As a national institution, the Kennedy Center is dedicated to in- 
volving all segments of society in its programming activities. To 
assess and increase its effectiveness with respect to the black com- 
munity and, in so doing, to develop methods potentially beneficial 
to other minority groups, the Center has established the National 
Commission to Expand the Scope and Constituency of Black Par- 
ticipation at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 

The Commission, composed of performers and national leaders in 
the arts, education, and business, began in March to forge program 
recommendations to increase black awareness, interest, and in- 
volvement in the Center and the performing arts, locally and across 
the nation. 

Participating as Commission members are: Kathryn Bloom, Di- 
rector, Arts and Education Program, JDR III Fund; Shirley Trusty 
Corey, Supervisor, Office of Cultural Resources, New Orleans 
Public Schools; Matiwilda Dobbs, opera singer, Professor of Voice, 
University of Georgia; Katherine Dunham, dancer, composer, ac- 
tress, Director, Performing Arts Training Center, Southern Illinois 
University; John M. Ehle, novelist; Roberta Flack, singer; James O. 
Gibson, Public Policy Analyst, Potomac Institute; Jesse Hill, Presi- 
dent, Atlanta Life Insurance Company; Marvin Holloway, Insti- 
tute for Policy Studies, Washington, D.C.; Thomas Hoving, Direc- 
tor, Metropolitan Museum of Art; Quincy Jones, arranger, com- 
poser; Jack Morrison, Executive Director, American Theatre Asso- 
ciation; Budd Schulberg, author, screenwriter; Elie Siegmeister, 
composer; Ellen Stewart, Executive Director, La Mama Experimen- 
tal Theatre Company, New York; Billy Taylor, jazz pianist; Nancy 
Wilson, singer. Dr. Archie L. Buffkins, Assistant Dean of Gradu- 
ate Studies, University of Maryland, serves as President of the 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 215 


The American musical theater is suffering the effects of spiraling 
production costs, and, as a result, fewer and fewer musicals are 
mounted each year. In an effort to reverse the trend and to ensure 
the survival of this country's most unique contribution to the per- 
forming arts, the Kennedy Center joined with the Stuart Ostrow 
Foundation this year to create within the Center the Musical 
Theatre Laboratory. 

The Laboratory, which occupies a 10,000-square-foot area of the 
Roof Terrace level, is designed to enable authors, composers, lyri- 
cists, choreographers, directors, and actors to develop new musi- 
cals, without the commercial pressures of full-scale productions, 
through a work-in-progress process. By reducing to a minimum 
such production elements as sets and costumes, full time and at- 
tention is focused on the works themselves. 

The Laboratory's first season included four new musicals: Hot 
Grog, by Jim Wann and Bland Simpson; Neverland, by Jim Stein- 
man; Amerika, by Yoram Porat and Shlomo Gronich, from the 
novel by Franz Kafka; and Up from Paradise, by Arthur Miller 
and Stanley Silverman. 

Basic to the development process is the opportunity to perform 
each work before public audiences. The Laboratory seats 100, and 
all performances are free. 


As a part of its commitment to the encouragement of American 
performers and composers, the Center has participated in the estab- 
lishment of two new award programs. 

The John F. Kennedy Center-Rockefeller Foundation Interna- 
tional Competitions for Excellence in the Performance of American 
Music are intended to call attention to skilled performers of recital 
music written by American composers since 1900. Pianists will be 
eligible to participate in the 1978 competition, and, in subsequent 
years, instrumentalists and singers will compete on an alternating 
basis. It is hoped that the program will stimulate greater interest 
in the large body of American recital music. The Competitions 
will be made possible by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. 

The Kennedy Center Friedheim Awards will annually recognize 

216 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

outstanding American achievement in the composition of orches- 
tral and chamber music. Entries will be judged by a panel of music 
critics, and the works of the five finalists will be performed each 
year at the Center. The award program is named in honor of the 
late pianist, Arthur Friedheim, and is sponsored by a grant from 
the Eric Friedheim Foundation. 


The Bicentennial Parade of American Music, sponsored by the 
National Music Council and funded by a grant from exxon, con- 
cluded on December 31, 1976, with a concert tribute to John Philip 
Sousa. The Parade program, which was administered by the Na- 
tional Federation of Music Clubs, brought to the Center more than 
6,000 performers in a year-long series of free State Day concerts 
celebrating music written by composers from each of the fifty 
states and the District of Columbia. 

The Center's Bicentennial Exhibition, America on Stage: 200 
Years of Performing Arts, continued through January 23, 1977. 
Sponsored by ibm Corporation, America on Stage occupied nearly 
20,000 square feet of the Roof Terrace and traced the history of 
the American performing-arts experience from the colonial period 
to the present. Attendance at the twelve-month long, admission- 
free exhibition totaled more than 800,000. 


The Center's 1976 Holiday Festival featured 25 free performances, 
including Foyer "Rug Concerts," daily puppet shows, and the 
annual "Messiah Sing-Along." The Festival also brought to the 
Concert Hall six performances of the Emmett Kelly Circus and 
a New Year's Eve "Night in Old Vienna," available to the public 
at a modest admission charge. 

The Spring Festival, sponsored for the third year by McDonald's 
Corporation, saluted the music of the Western Hemisphere with 
thirty-five performances by artists from nine Latin American coun- 
tries, the United States, and Canada. The Festival, presented in 
association with the Organization of American States, opened with 
a concert by the Curtis Institute Orchestra dedicated to the mem- 
ory of Pablo Casals and concluded six days later with a day-long 
band and folk-dance concert in the Grand Foyer. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 217 

Building Repairs 

On June 8, 1977, Congress authorized an appropriation of $4.7 
million to the National Park Service for repair, renovation, and 
reconstruction necessitated by serious water leaks from the Cen- 
ter's terraces, East Plaza Drive, kitchen, and roof. During fiscal 
year 1977, roof repairs were undertaken and completed, and re- 
maining repairs are scheduled over a period of eighteen to twenty- 
four months. 

Studio Theater /Recital Hall — 
Performing Arts Library Complex 

The Center's Studio Theater/ Recital Hall, left unfinished during 
original construction for lack of funds, is scheduled to be com- 
pleted during 1978 as the result of a three-million-dollar Bicenten- 
nial gift to the United States from Japan. The 500-seat facility, de- 
signed by Philip Johnson, will be located on the Roof Terrace level 
and used for drama, chamber music, poetry readings, films, lec- 
tures, children's programming, and experimental works. 

A performing-arts library is scheduled to be constructed in the 
North Gallery, adjacent to the new theater. The library, created 
under the joint sponsorship of the Center and the Library of Con- 
gress, will function as a research facility for Center performers and 
artistic staff and the general public. A core of reference materials 
will be supplemented by a computer link to the vast resources of 
the Library of Congress. The facility will also house the Center's 
archives and periodic performing-arts exhibitions. 

National Gifts 

A Kennedy Center African Room has been created on the Box 
Tier of the Opera House through the generosity of African na- 
tions which have contributed more than $80,000 for its construc- 
tion and decoration. 

218 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Developed by Kenneth B. Walker and Frank Sanchis, the African 
Room features slanted, textured walls decorated with African tex- 
tiles and handicrafts. President Carter and United Nations Ambas- 
sador Andrew Young participated in dedication ceremonies on 
April 24, 1977. 

During 1976-1977, the Center also received individual gifts from 
the following countries: Bulgaria — sculpture, Maritsa River, by 
Professor V. Minekov; Luxembourg — sculpture, Ascension by Lu- 
cien Wercollier; Malaysia — shadow-puppets from the Ramayana 


The Kennedy Center receives no federal funding for its performing- 
arts programming and administrative expenses. In addition, its edu- 
cational and public service programs are carried out largely without 
public subsidy. The single exception is an annual congressional 
appropriation to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare 
for the Alliance for Arts Education, a joint project of the Center and 
the United States Office of Education. While aae funds partially 
subsidize children's programming and the American College Theatre 
Festival, they are supplemented substantially by funds raised by 
the Center from private sources. 

During this fiscal year, the Center's operating budget exceeded 
$16 million, and, in meeting its budget obligations, the Center was 
almost entirely dependent upon revenue from theater operations, 
concession income, and private contributions. 

The Center reimburses the National Park Service a pro-rata 
share of annual maintenance costs on the basis of a formula de- 
vised by independent accountants for the House Public Works 
Committee. Reimbursement payments totaled $563,325 for fiscal 
year 1977. 

Lacking an endowment fund, the Center must look each year to 
the national community for the financial support necessary to 
carry out its programming activities. Since the Center opened in 
1971, individuals, foundations, and corporations have contributed 
a total of more than $8.6 million. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 219 

In recognition of the Center's national significance and to stim- 
ulate needed funding continuity, a number of America's business 
leaders this year formed the Corporate Fund for the Performing 
Arts and projected an annual goal of $1 million from the business 
community for Center programming. 

Participation in the Corporate Fund is open to any business en- 
terprise which makes an annual contribution of $5,000 or more to 
the Center. Four classes of participation have been established: 
Corporate Leadership Circle — $50,000 or more; Corporate Patron 
— $25,000 or more; Corporate Sponsor — $10,000 or more; Corpo- 
rate Donor — $5,000 or more. 

During fiscal year 1977, contributions were received from the 

Corporate Leadership Circle 

at&t, Atlantic Richfield Company, exxon Corporation, ibm, Mobil Oil 
Corporation, Prudential Insurance Company of America. 

Corporate Patrons 

cbs, Inc., Canteen Corporation, E. I. DuPont de Nemours, General Elec- 
tric Company, General Motors Corporation, Reynolds Industries, Inc., 
United States Steel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation. 

Corporate Sponsors 

Amerada Hess, Anheuser-Busch, Chrysler Corporation, Coca Cola Com- 
pany, Ford Motor Company, Gulf Oil Company, Hoffman-LaRoche, Inc., 
mca, Inc., Merck & Company, Metropolitan Life Insurance, Philip Morris, 
Reynolds Metals Company, Rockwell International, Sears Roebuck & 
Company, Shell Oil Company, Texaco, Inc., and United Technologies 

Corporate Donors 

Allbritton Foundation, Allied Chemical Foundation, American Can Com- 
pany, American Security Bank, Arthur Anderson & Company, Ashland 
Oil Company, C&P Telephone Company, Celanese Corporation, Dresser 
Industries, Federated Department Stores, Fruehauf Corporation, Getty 
Oil, Haskins & Sells, International Paper Company, Johnson & Higgins, 
S. C. Johnson and Company, Kellogg's, Kerr-McGee, LTV Corporation, 
Martin Marietta Corporation, National Geographic Society, Neiman 
Marcus, pepco, Inc., Perpetual Federal Savings & Loan Association, 
Phelps-Dodge Corporation, Price, Waterhouse & Company, Riggs Na- 
tional Bank, Sun Company, Inc., Textron, Union Carbide Company, 
Washington Post Company. 

220 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Board of Trustees 

Although organizationally a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, 
the Kennedy Center is administered separately by a forty-five- 
member Board of Trustees composed of thirty members appointed 
by the President of the United States to ten-year overlapping terms 
and fifteen members ex-officio from pertinent government agen- 
cies, the Senate, and the House of Representatives. 

Members of the Kennedy Center Board of Trustees are as fol- 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 

Mrs. Howard H. Baker, Jr. 

Daniel J. Boorstin 

Ernest Boyer 

J. Carter Brown 

Joseph A. Califano, Jr. 

Robert S. Carter 

Mrs. Edward Finch Cox 

Mrs. J. Clifford Folger 

Abe Fortas 

Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

J. William Fulbright 

Leonard H. Goldenson 

R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 

Orval Hansen 

Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 

Mrs. Paul H. Hatch 

William K. Hitchcock 

Mrs. Bob Hope 

Frank Ikard 

Edward M. Kennedy 

Thomas H. Kuchel 

Melvin R. Laird 

Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield 
Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 
Robert I. Millonzi 
Ronald H. Nessen 
Charles H. Percy 
Mrs. Donna Stone Pesch 
Albert H. Quie 
S. Dillon Ripley II 
Teno Roncalio 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Mrs. Jean Kennedy Smith 
John G. Spatuzza 
Henry Strong 
William H. Thomas 
Frank Thompson, Jr. 
Benjamin A. Trustman 
Jack J. Valenti 
Walter E. Washington 
Lew R. Wasserman 
William J. Whalen 
Harrison A. Williams, Jr. 
Mrs. Jack Wrather 
Mrs. George A. Garrett, 
Honorary Trustee 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts I 221 

An appreciative audience reading their new RIF books, 
proving once again that Reading Is FUNdamental. 

Smithsonian Year • 1977 


In a period which has seen the trial and failure of countless pre- 
scriptions for literacy, Reading Is Fundamental, Inc., (rif) has 
passed all tests since 1966, emerging as a recognized and much 
honored leader in the campaign to give each American child the 
right to read, rif was organized in the Washington, D.C., public 
schools by Mrs. Robert McNamara and took up residence in the 
Smithsonian Institution in 1968. There are now over 700 reading 
motivation programs, operating in 48 states, in communities both 
large and small, each introducing children to the joy of selecting 
and keeping their own books. Using fiscal 1976 funds, rif expects 
to distribute about 9 million inexpensive paperback books to ap- 
proximately 1.8 million children — a long way indeed from the days 
when a single pilot program served District of Columbia school 

rif recognizes that effective teaching is indispensable, but it also 
recognizes one thing more: without the will to read, even the most 
imaginative teaching cannot coax a child into literacy, rif aims to 
develop the desire to read by circling exciting reading activities 
around book distributions, occasions when children freely choose 
paperback books and keep them for their own. 

The success of Reading Is Fundamental's method has been widely 
acclaimed. In September 1976, rif distinguished itself by winning 
a contract with the United States Office of Education Right to Read 
Program, assuming the responsibility to administer the Federal In- 
expensive Book Distribution Program. This contract marks a mile- 
stone in rif's history. Local reading motivation programs which 
formerly depended on local funds may now apply to rif for federal 
funds to match each locally raised dollar one for one. The combined 
attraction of federal funds and rif's reputation has sparked an im- 


pressive response. In the first year of its operation, thousands of 
inquiries about the Inexpensive Book Distribution Program have 
been received by rif. The national office reviewed over 800 pro- 
posals to establish reading motivation programs and approved 
nearly 650. 

Leaders in business, education, and government have joined pri- 
vate citizens in supporting rif. Secretary of Health, Education and 
Welfare Joseph A. Califano, Jr., has endorsed rif's efforts. For the 
second consecutive year, Reading Is Fundamental has won the 
United States Office of Education Literacy Day Award. United 
States Commissioner of Education Ernest L. Boyer has written, "I 
endorse wholeheartedly the remarkable private volunteer effort that 
Reading Is Fundamental has become. ... I commend it to educators 
everywhere for their cooperation and support." 

Other organizations have cooperated in the rif effort. The Asso- 
ciation of Library Services for Children of the American Library 
Association (formerly the Children's Services Division) publicly 
endorsed rif, urging local libraries to establish reading motivation 
programs in their communities. The Boys Clubs of America have 
similarly endorsed the program, rif has worked with dozens of 
other organizations, including the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs, the International Reading Association, the Educational 
Paperback Association, the National School Volunteer Program, the 
National Association of Elementary School Principals, the Chief 
State School Officers, and the National Urban League. 

The children's publishing community has also supported Reading 
Is Fundamental. Nearly 150 publishers and distributors — major 
houses and small presses and distributors — have qualified to supply 
books to the Inexpensive Book Distribution Program. The indus- 
try's trade magazine, Publishers Weekly, has willingly publicized 
the new federal program, as have such magazines as the School 
Library Journal. And rif enjoys the friendly cooperation of the 
Association of American Publishers and prominent figures in the 
children's book world. 

In addition to organizing a network of programs, Reading Is 
Fundamental has researched the theory and practice of reading 
motivation and forged the results into tools for volunteers. With a 
grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, rif produced a series of 
tapes and a manual to guide intensive volunteer training sessions. 

224 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

rif created the film Read, Read, Read to dramatize the rif concept, 
as well as a training manual and periodic bulletins to refine volun- 
teer skills. Through its ability to translate research into tools, rif 
has made a major contribution to the education and recruitment of 
America's volunteer movement. 

rif's volunteers are the brightest token of its success. In 1976, 
alone, over 25,000 people were actively engaged in rif programs. 
For those who rely, as rif does, on the common sense and dedica- 
tion of private citizens, the support of these volunteers is the clear- 
est, most telling evidence of the program's practical ability to con- 
vince children of all backgrounds, from every region of the coun- 
try, that reading is a joy worth pursuing. 

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. I 225 

- r.iar. I Uon. 

James Renwick, Jr., who designed the original Smithsonian Building, also de- 
signed this gateway that was to open into a garden on the south side of the 
building. Last year the garden became a reality. This charming print is from 
Hints on Public Architecture by Robert Dale Owen, 1849. 

Smithsonian Year • 7977 


The range of activities and programs of the Smithsonian Science 
Information Exchange, Inc., developed in a significant way this year 
in the following three major areas. 

First, the scientifically related subject indexing which has been 
developed and applied to projects by the scientific staff, predomi- 
nantly for the purposes of retrieving projects from the data base, 
has been utilized in a new way which should have far-reaching im- 
plications for those who require a better basis for monitoring and 
evaluating program progress in scientific research, both within and 
outside the federal structure. 

Second, the Exchange has continued to expand the availability 
and usefulness of the basic source document of the Exchange, the 
Notice of Research Project (nrp), by its increased interactions with 
government agencies and individual users. 

A third significant feature of this year's activities included a spe- 
cial project to solicit and organize for publication a directory of 
worldwide ongoing research information systems in cooperation 
with unesco, unisist and with the support of the National Science 
Foundation. This project represents the Exchange's continuing role 
in the area of international activities directed toward improving the 
development and exchange of ongoing research information. 

The first area of development in the new application of scientific 
subject indexing applied to project abstracts in support of program 
planning and evaluation efforts depends on a statistical analysis of 
the index points applied to a group of projects defined by subject 
or administrative limits. The unique hierarchial structure of the 
indexing and the consistency of its application allow a meaningful 
statistical analysis of the total set of index points on any defined 


groups of projects, which provides a basis for expert panels to more 
reliably identify the components of scientific activity contributing 
to a program or research objective. Analyzed on a year-to-year 
basis, or across program components, this approach will provide an 
improved method to identify areas of over- or under-emphasis 
which will allow research programs to be better balanced and indi- 
cate areas where additional support may be needed to ensure a high 
probability of success for completion or breakthrough in major 
scientific or technological endeavor. Further testing of this ana- 
lytical approach will be made in the coming year. 

The Exchange has continued a number of programs which have 
evolved in several ways to meet user needs. A major program, the 
Current Cancer Research Project Analysis Center (ccrespac), has 
continued in its third year. In addition to providing retrospective 
searches of the data base on highly specialized topics of cancer 
research, the Exchange has also provided searches which help three 
cidac Centers of the National Cancer Institute's (nci) International 
Cancer Research Data Bank (icrdb) Program to define the scope of 
certain areas of cancer research and identify the recipients of re- 
search grants in these areas in order to locate articles in the pub- 
lished literature on cancer. 

During the year the Exchange completed the preparation for 
publication of sixty Special Listings of Current Research Topics in 
selected areas of cancer research. These publications included all 
ongoing research registered with the Exchange and were distributed 
by the National Cancer Institute worldwide to principal research 
investigators whose work was included in the Exchange's data base. 

The year also saw the further development of the cancerproj 
on-line file through cancerline, sponsored by nci through the Na- 
tional Library of Medicine. This computerized file has approxi- 
mately 17,000 current research projects, 3,000 of which are from 
sources other than the United States. 

This year also marked the second full year on the preparation 
and publication of the Directory of Toxicology Research in Prog- 
ress. In an effort to make the publication of these directories more 
useful to those concerned with scientific research in toxicology, a 
new format for the directory was evolved for the new year includ- 
ing publication on a monthly rather than quarterly basis. 

The Exchange continued to prepare and provide information for 

228 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

publications of ongoing research in aerospace research, dental re- 
search, and international energy research. 

The Exchange has seen a dramatic increase in the use of its data 
base which has now been available for on-line use for the past two 
years. Use in the current year was almost double that of the pre- 
vious year. The data base will be available in the fall of 1977 
through another commercial system thus allowing users a choice 
of on-line systems. 

Significant improvements were made in the data-processing area 
during the year to add additional information to be included in the 
research projects which will increase the usefulness of the Ex- 
change's data base and provide greater flexibility to the Exchange 
in responding to user needs. A recent study of a sampling of the 
Exchange's users carried out by the Denver Research Institute for 
the ssie has provided new insight into users' needs and the way in 
which on-going research information is used. This information is 
expected to play a significant role in the development of new out- 
put products and services developed in the coming year. 

Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, Inc. I 229 





David and Saul with the Head of Goliath, by Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, 
new addition to the print collection of the National Gallery of Art made pos- 
sible by the Andrew W. Mellon Purchase Fund. 

Smithsonian Year • 1977 



The national gallery of art, although formally established as 
a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and 
separately administered organization. It is governed by its own 
Board of Trustees, the statutory members of which are the Chief 
Justice of the United States, Chairman; the Secretary of State; the 
Secretary of the Treasury; and the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, all ex officio; and five general trustees. Paul Mellon 
continued in 1977 as president of the Gallery and John Hay Whit- 
ney as vice president. The other general trustees continuing to 
serve were Carlisle H. Humelsine, Dr. Franklin D. Murphy, and 
John R. Stevenson. 

During the year, the Gallery counted 3,083,920 visitors. Attend- 
ance at the exhibition "The Treasures of Tutankhamun" during its 
seventeen-week run was 835,924. 

A number of important works of art were acquired. Notable 
paintings donated were Gauguin's The Invocation, a Rothko, and 
a seminal work by Andrew Wyeth entitled Snow Flurries. An early 
still life, Flowers in an Urn, by Jan van Huysum was purchased. 

Of the twenty-one works of sculpture added to the collection 
during the year, twenty postdate the year 1900, dramatically en- 
hancing the Gallery's twentieth-century sculpture holdings. In- 
cluded among them are six Giacomettis and a Henry Moore. 

Acquisitions of works of graphic art included nineteen draw- 
ings, among them several important drawings illustrating the early 
development of Dutch landscape, and a Longhi portrait. Signifi- 
cant additions to the print collection were The Letter "Y," by Mas- 
ter ES; an enormous woodcut, Fall of the Giants, by Coriolano; and 


a monotype by Castiglione, David and Saul with the Head of Go- 
liath. Castiglione invented the process of monotype and was the 
only important old master to practice it. 

Ten exhibitions were offered by the Gallery during the year. 
Overshadowing the others was the "Treasures of Tutankhamun" 
displaying fifty-five of the most precious and artistic objects found 
in the boy-king's tomb. This exhibition, arranged by a high-level 
agreement between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the United 
States, had its inaugural run at the Gallery and will have been dis- 
played in six other American museums by 1979. Another notable 
though briefer exhibition was that of No Robes and Masks used 
during the three centuries of Shogunate rule in Japan. It marked 
the first time this collection, owned by the Tokugawa family, had 
been seen in the United States. Other exhibitions included "Morris 
Louis: Major Themes and Variations" and six exhibitions devoted 
to graphics from Titian and sixteenth-century Venice to twentieth- 
century France. 

The Gallery made loans to forty-three exhibitions at fifty-six 
institutions including fifteen abroad. Among the objects lent were 
seventy-six paintings, three sculptures, and fifty-three graphics. 

The Department of Extension Programs, relocated in new quar- 
ters in the connecting link, completed a program of refurbishing, 
revising, and repackaging all existing programs some of which 
were originally prepared more than twenty years earlier. Four new 
programs consisting of color slides, audio cassettes and printed 
text were issued, and six new films on major artists. A new com- 
pletely revised illustrated catalogue vividly presents the range and 
diversity of the free-loan materials available. Total bookings were 
29,984, witnessed by an aggregate estimated audience of 2,370,000. 

Total attendance at talks given by the Gallery's Education De- 
partment and at the programs presented in the auditorium was 
153,298. These included the regularly scheduled auditorium lec- 
tures and films; the Introduction to the Collection, the Tour of the 
Week and Painting of the Week talks; as well as special introduc- 
tory presentations keyed to four of the exhibitions. There were 
thirty-one guest lecturers including the twenty-fifth annual An- 
drew W. Mellon Lecturer in the Fine Arts, Andre Chastel, the 
eminent French authority on the Italian Renaissance whose lec- 
tures analyzed the causes and events of the Sack of Rome in 1527 

232 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

by the army of the Emperor Charles V and the resultant diaspora 
of the art and artists of that city. Other distinguished scholars who 
lectured included Wolfgang Lotz, Kress Professor-in-Residence; 
Michael Jaffe, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge; 
and David Rosand of Columbia University. 

The Conservation staff, preparing to move into its new labora- 
tory space in what was the old cafeteria, has been expanded to 
nine professionals compared to just three part-timers five years 
ago. During the year, it completed major restoration on 8 paintings 
and did minor work on 134 others. The paper conservator per- 
formed major treatment on 6 works of graphic art and under her 
supervision more than 2,000 works were mounted, framed, or 
given limited restoration. The new conservation scientist directed 
her attention primarily to investigations attending the removal of 
the dark varnish from Rembrandt's The Mill and took on the in- 
house portion of continuing research into artists' pigments and 
other materials. 

The Library staff, preparing to move into larger and far more 
efficient space in the East Building, increased its professional staff 
to nineteen compared to twelve in 1972. During the year, over 
6,000 items were received including several important encyclope- 
dias to build up the reference collection. The Photographic Ar- 
chives added more than 130,000 photographs, most of them pur- 
chased with funds provided by the Kress Foundation. 

The sales facilities, augmented for the "Treasures of Tutank- 
hamun" exhibition, handled 375,122 over-the-counter orders and 
5,114 mail orders. 

The Music Program consisted of forty Sunday evening concerts 
in the East Garden Court, two string recitals at exhibition open- 
ings, and, by means of a special grant from Exxon Corporation, a 
marathon of rotating string performances during the last eight 
days of the Tutankhamun exhibition for the benefit of those wait- 
ing in line. 

By the end of September, the Concourse connecting the original 
building with the new East Building had been occupied for fifteen 
months and the Cafe/Buffet eating facilities that virtually fill the 
public space therein served 1,127,740 patrons. The East Building 
has reached 96 percent completion and is scheduled for dedication 
and opening to the public on June 1, 1978. 

National Gallery of Art I 233 


Morris Louis: Major Themes & Variations 

Continued from the previous fiscal year through January 9, 1977. 
Titian and the Venetian Woodcut 

October 30, 1976, through January 2, 1977. 
Treasures of Tutankhamun 

November 17, 1976, through March 15, 1977. 
Seventeenth Century Dutch Drawings from American Collections 

January 28 through March 13, 1977. 
The Tokugawa Collection: No Robes and Masks 

April 10 through May 22, 1977. 
Paper in Prints 

May 1 through July 31, 1977. 
Prints of Paris: The 1890s 

May 1 through July 31, 1977. 
Accessible Arts (Photo exhibit on handicapped persons and the arts) 

May 20-22, 1977. 
Henri Matisse Paper Cut-outs 

September 10, 1977, to the end of the fiscal year. 
French Prints By 20th-century Masters 

September 11, 1977, to the end of the fiscal year. 



The Chief Justice of the United States 

Warren E. Burger, Chairman 
The Secretary of State 

Cyrus R. Vance 
The Secretary of the Treasury 

W. Michael Blumenthal 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

S. Dillon Ripley 


Carlisle H. Humelsine 
Paul Mellon 
hranklin D. Murphy 
John R. Stevenson 
John Hay Whitney 

234 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Smithsonian Year • 7977 

Organization Chart page 236 

1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, 238 
Boards, and Commissions, September 30, 1977 

2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program 244 
Research Supported in Fiscal Year 1977 

3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded in 247 
Fiscal Year 1977 

4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration, 251 
and Renovation 

5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution 252 
Press in Fiscal Year 1977 

6. Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 264 
and Its Subsidiaries in Fiscal Year 1977 

7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 330 

8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution 343 
in Fiscal Year 1977 

9. List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution 367 
in Fiscal Year 1977 

10. Visitors to the Smithsonian Institution, October 1, 1976, 428 
through December 31, 1977 

11. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution and Its Subsidiaries, 429 
September 30, 1977 







Administration • Science 

History and Art • Public Service 

Museum Programs 












Chesapeake Bay Center for 

Environmental Studies 
Fort Pierce Bureau 
National Air and Space Museum 
National Museum of Man 

Center for the Study of Man 
National Museum of Natural History 
Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center 
National Zoological Park 
Office of International Programs 
Radiation Biology Laboratory 
Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Smithsonian Tropical Research 



Archives of American Art 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum of 

Design and Decorative Arts 
Freer Gallery of Art 
Hirshhorn Museum and 

Sculpture Garden 
Joseph Henry Papers 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 

Renwick Gallery 
National Museum of History 

and Technology 
National Portrait Gallery 
Office of Academic Studies 
Office of American and 

Folklife Studies 


Conservation Analytical Laboratory* 
National Museum Act Programs 
Office of Exihibits Central 
Office of Horticulture 
Office of Museum Programs 
Office of the Registrar 
Smithsonian Archives 
Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
Smithsonian Institution 

Traveling Exhibition Service 

Under Separate Boards of Trustees: 






L i 





Advisory Board of the 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum of 
Design and Decorative Arts 

Advisory Council for the 
National Museum Act 

Archives of American Art 
Board of Trustees 

Freer Visiting Committee 

Hirshhorn Museum and 
Sculpture Garden 
Board of Trustees 

National Air and Space Museum 
Advisory Board 

National Armed Forces 
Museum Advisory Board 

National Board of the 
Smithsonian Associates 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Portrait Gallery 

Smithsonian Council 


Foreign Currency Program 

Advisory Councils 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
Division of Performing Arts 
Office of Elementary and 

Secondary Education 
Office of Smithsonian Symposia 

and Seminars 
Office of Telecommunications 
Smithsonian Resident Associates 
Smithsonian Institution Press 
Smithsonian Magazine 
Visitors Information and 

Associates Reception Center 



Business Management 

Belmont Conference Center 
Product Development Program 
Smithsonian Museum Shops 

Grants and Insurance 

Investments Accounting 

Programming and Budget 


Computer Services 
Equal Opportunity 
Facilities Planning 

and Engineering Services 
International Exchange Service 
Management Analysis 
Personnel Administration 
Plant Services 
Printing and Photographic 

Protection Services 
Supply Services 
Travel Services 

APPENDIX 1. Members of the Smithsonian Council, Boards, 
and Commissions, September 30, 1977 

Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, Chancellor 

Walter F. Mondale, Vice President of the United States 

Henry M. Jackson, Member of the Senate 

Barry Goldwater, Member of the Senate 

Claiborne Pell, Member of the Senate 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of Representatives 

Elford A. Cederberg, Member of the House of Representatives 

Corinne C. Boggs, Member of the House of Representatives 

J. Paul Austin, citizen of Georgia 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Murray Gell-Mann, citizen of California 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of the District of Columbia 

A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., citizen of Pennsylvania 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., citizen of Connecticut 

James E. Webb, citizen of the District of Columbia 

Executive Committee, Board of Regents 

Warren E. Burger, Chancellor (Board of Regents), ex officio 

William A. M. Burden 

Caryl P. Haskins 

James E. Webb (Chairman) 

The Smithsonian Council 

Roger D. Abrahams 
George A. Bartholomew 
Milton W. Brown 
Reid A. Bryson 
Frederick H. Burkhardt 
Archie F. Carr, Jr. 
Carl W. Condit 
Mrs. Camille W. Cook 
Miss Anne d'Harnoncourt 
Richard M. Dorson 
A. Hunter Dupree 
Fred R. Eggan 
Murray Gell-Mann 
Frank B. Golley 

Stephen Jay Gould 
David C. Hawkins 
August Heckscher 
Nathan Huggins 
George F. Lindsay 
Giles W. Mead 
Ruth Patrick 
Gordon N. Ray, (Chairman 

of the Smithsonian Council) 
Harold Rosenberg 
Carl E. Sagan 
Andre Schiffrin 
Barbara W. Tuchman 

238 / Smithsonian Year 1Q77 


H. Harvard Arnason 
Muriel M. Berman 
Herman R. Branson 
Donald 5. Farner 
Anthony N. B. Garvan 
Peter C. Goldmark 
Philip Handler 
Jan LaRue 
James Liverman 
Clifford L. Lord 

Charles D. Michener 
Peter M. Millman 
Philip C. Ritterbush 
George C. Seybolt 
Cyril S. Smith 
John D. Spikes 
Stephen E. Toulmin 
William von Arx 
Warren H. Wagner, Jr. 
Rainer Zangerl 

Board of Academic Studies 

Ira Rubinoff, Chairman 
Brooke Hindle 
Porter M. Kier 
Abram Lerner 

W. Shropshire, Jr. 
Charles Blitzer, ex officio 
David Challinor, ex officio 

Archives of American Art Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, Chairman 
Irving F. Burton, President 
Gilbert H. Kinney, Vice President 
Mrs. Nancy B. Negley, Vice President 
Mrs. E. Bliss Parkinson, Vice President 
Mrs. Dana M. Raymond, Secretary 
Henry de Forest Baldwin, Treasurer 
Edwin A. Bergman 
Mrs. John L. Bradley 
Joel S. Ehrenkranz 
Mrs. Walter B. Ford II 
Joseph Hirshhorn 
Milka Iconomoff 

Howard W. Lipman 
Harold O. Love 
Russell Lynes 
Richard Manoogian 
Porter A. McCray 
Abraham Melamed 
Mrs. William L. Mitchell 
Frederic A. Sharf 
Mrs. Louise Talbot Trigg 
Edward M. M. Warburg 
George H. Waterman III 
S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 
Charles Blitzer, ex officio 


Lawrence A. Fleischman 

Mrs. Edsel B. Ford 

E. P. Richardson 


Mrs. William L. Richards 

National Museum of Man, Center for the Study of Man 
National Anthropological Film Center Advisory Council 

Margaret Mead 
Mrs. Roma S. Crocker 
William H. Crocker 
Gordon D. Gibson 
Edward T. Hall 
Paul Hockings 
Matthew Huxley 

Mrs. Constantine B. Mellon 

Jay W. Ruby 

George D. Spindler 

Mrs. Marion Stirling 

Sol Tax 

E. Fuller Torrey 

Carroll W. Williams 


Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards and Commissions I 239 

Advisory Board of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
of Design and Decorative Arts 

Thomas E. Murray II, Chairman 
Albert I. Edelman, Vice Chairman 
Mrs. Miles Pennybacker, Secretary 
Sidney Gruson, Treasurer 
Cass Canfield, Jr., Member 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs, Member 
Robert C. Weaver, Member 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, 

Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

honorary member Mrs. Margaret Carnegie Miller 

Freer Visiting Committee 

Mrs. Jackson Burke 
Kwang-Chih Chang 
Marvin Eisenberg 
Mrs. Katherine Graham 
Charles Greenfield 

John M. Rosenfield 
Hugh Scott 
Laurence Sickman 
John Thacher 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Board of Trustees 

Daniel P. Moynihan, Chairman 1 Thomas M. Evans 

Leigh B. Block, Vice-Chairman Sydney Lewis 

H. Harvard Arnason Dorothy C. Miller 

Anne d'Harnoncourt Jerome Greene 2 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 

Horticultural Advisory Committee 

S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio 
James R. Buckler 
Robert Baker 
Jimmie L. Crowe 
Mrs. Belva Jensen 


James R. Buckler 
Edward Ayensu 
Paul Desautels 

Carlton B. Lees 

Donald Parker 

Mrs. Frances Patteson-Knight 

Robert Read 

Russell Seibert 

Lauranne C. Nash 

Robert Read 

Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 

National Air and Space Museum Advisory Board 


S. Dillon Ripley 

Jefferson W. Cochran 

Brigadier General James L. Collins 

Lieutenant General Thomas E. Miller, Jr. 

Major General William C. Morris 
Herbert J. Rowe 
Rear Admiral James S. Gracey 
Vice Admiral Frederick C. Turner 


Mrs. O. A. Beech 

Lieutenant General Elwood R. Quesada, US AT (Ret) 

1 Reelected at meeting of Board of Trustees, June 21, 1977. 

2 Elected at meeting of Board of Trustees, June 21, 1977. 

240 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

National Air and Space Museum Visiting Committee 

Alexander H. Flax 
Gerard K. O'Neill 
Russell L. Schweickart 

Lyon T. Silver 

Lieutenant General James T. Stewart, USAF (Ret) 

Richard Y. Whitcomb 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

Clifford L. Alexander, Jr., Secretary of the Army 

W. Graham Claytor, Secretary of the Navy 

John C. Stetson, Secretary of the Air Force 

Fred L. Dixon 

William I. Greener, Jr. 

William H. Perkins, Jr. 


Theodore Ropp 
James M. Stone, Sr. 

Harold Brown, Secretary of Defense 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

Advisory Council for the National Museum Act 

Robert Feller 
Russell Fridley 
Bonnie Pitman Gelles 
Julia Hotton 
Philip S. Humphrey 
Thomas W. Leavitt 

Joseph Veach Noble 
Richard H. Randall 
Mitchell Wilder 
Vernal L. Yadon 
Paul N. Perrot, Chairman 

National Board of the Smithsonian Associates 

William S. Anderson 
Harry Hood Bassett 
George C. McGhee, Chairman 
Robert O. Anderson 
Henry C. Beck, Jr. 
Keith S. Brown 
Mrs. Jackson Burke 
William T. Coleman, Jr. 
Gaylord Donnelley 
Thomas M. Evans 
Charles T. Fisher III 
Mrs. David L. Guyer 
Mrs. Karl G. Harr, Jr. 


Richard P. Cooley 
Joseph F. Cullman 3rd 
Leonard K. Firestone 
Alfred C.Glassell, Jr. 
William A. Hewitt 

Henry J. Heinz II 
John N. Irwin II 
James M. Kemper, Jr. 
Mrs. Robert A. Magowan 
Mrs. Robert S. McNamara 
Scott McVay 
Ruben F. Mettler 
John R. Norton III 
Charles M. Pigott 
George S. Pillsbury 
Arthur A. Seeligson, Jr. 
Vernon Taylor, Jr. 
James O. Wright 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 
Lewis A. Lapham 
Nelson A. Rockefeller 
Francis C. Rooney, Jr. 
Merritt Kirk Ruddock 
Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

National Collection of Fine Arts Commission 

George B. Tatum, Chairman 
Otto Wittmann, Vice Chairman 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 
Mrs. Elizabeth Brooke Blake 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards and Commissions I 241 

en ,4,„or David Lloyd Kreeger 
Thomas S. Buechner ' 

Lloyd Goodrich Abram L, rner 

Walker Hancock Mrs. Robert A. Magowan 

R. Philip Hanes, Jr. Mrs. Hiram W McKee 

Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. Harold Rosenberg 

August Heckscher Charles . H Sawyer 

Thomas C. Howe Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 
Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 


Martin Friedman Stow Wengenroth 

Henry Mcllhenny Alexander Wetmore 

Paul Mellon Andrew Wyeth 

National Portrait Gallery Commission 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman E. P. Richardson 

Ralph Ellison Robert Hilton Smith 

David E. Finley » Katie Louchheim 

Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis 2 Barry Bingham, Sr. 

Robert L. McNeil, Jr. Joe L. Allbritton 3 

Andrew Oliver 

Warren E. Burger, Chief Justice of the United States, ex officio 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, ex officio 
J. Carter Brown, Director, National Gallery of Art, ex officio 

Office of International Programs, 

Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Advisory Councils 


Esin Atil Daniel H. H. Ingalls 

Daniel G. Bates Thomas Jacobsen 

George F. Dales John Yellen (observer) 
George Hughes 


Felix Chayes William Melson 

Henry Faul Thornton Page 

George Field Victor Szebehely 

Paul Hodge Louis Walter 
William H. Klein 


D. A. Livingstone Herbert H. Ross 

Robert P. Mcintosh (observer) R- Ruibal 

Robert Ornduff Richard W. Thorington, Jr. 

Norman D. Newell 

1 Deceased February 1, 1977. 
■ Resigned August 25, 1976. 
3 Appointed January 24, 1977. 

242 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 
Board of Trustees 

William J. Baroody, Chairman 

Paul W. McCracken, Vice Chairman 

James A. Baker III, Houston, Texas 

Daniel J. Boorstin, Librarian of Congress 

Robert H. Bork, New Haven, Connecticut 

Joseph A. Califano, Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare 

Bryce N. Harlow, Washington, D.C. 

A. James Reichley, Yardley, Pennsylvania 

James B. Rhoads, Archivist of the United States 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

Dean Rusk, Athens, Georgia 

Cyrus R. Vance, Secretary of State 

Rawleigh Warner, Jr., New York, New York 

Kennedy Center Board of Trustees 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 

Mrs. Howard H. Baker, Jr. 

Daniel J. Boorstin 

Ernest Boyer 

J. Carter Brown 

Joseph A. Califano, Jr. 

Robert 5. Carter 

Mrs. Edward Finch Cox 

Mrs. J. Clifford Folger 

Abe Fortas 

Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 

J. William Fulbright 

Leonard H. Goldenson 

R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 

Orval Hansen 

Mrs. Rebekah Harkness 

Mrs. Paul H. Hatch 

William K. Hitchcock 

Mrs. Bob Hope 

Frank Ikard 

Edward M. Kennedy 

Thomas H. Kuchel 

Melvin B. Laird 

Mrs. Michael J. Mansfield 

Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

Robert I. Millonzi 

Ronald H. Nessen 

Charles H. Percy 

Mrs. Donna Stone Pesch 

Albert H. Quie 

S. Dillon Ripley II 

Teno Roncalio 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Mrs. Jean Kennedy Smith 

John G. Spatuzza 
Henry Strong 
William H. Thomas 
Frank Thompson, Jr. 
Benjamin A. Trustman 
Jack J. Valenti 
Walter E. Washington 
Lew R. Wasserman 
William J. Whalen 
Harrison A. Williams, Jr. 
Mrs. Jack Wrather 
Mrs. George A. Garrett, 
Honorary Trustee 

National Gallery of Art Board of Trustees 


The Chief Justice of the United States Warren E. Burger, Chairman 

The Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance 

The Secretary of the Treasury W. Michael Blumenthal 

The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution S. Dillon Ripley 


Carlisle H. Humelsine 
Paul Mellon 
Franklin D. Murphy 

John R. Stevenson 
John Hay Whitney 

Appendix 1. Smithsonian Council, Boards and Commissions I 243 

APPENDIX 2. Smithsonian Special Foreign Currency Program 
Research Supported in Fiscal Year 1977 


American Institute of Indian Studies, Chicago, Illinois. Continued support 
for administration; research fellowships; Center for Art and Archeology. 
American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Operation of 
Center in Cairo; fellowship program in the study of archeology and related 
disciplines in Egypt; survey of Arabic scientific manuscripts in Cairo; the 
Middle Commentaries on Aristotle's Organon by Averroes; continuation of 
the architectural and epigraphic survey of Egypt; excavation at the site of 
Mendes in the Nile delta; an archeological map of the Theban necropolis; 
preparation for publication of a manuscript by the lates Georges Legrain on 
Egyptian sculpture from Karnak in the Cairo Museum; archeological research 
at the site of Hierakonpolis (Nekhen) in Edfu District; a historical and archi- 
tectural study of the Bayt al-Razzas; electronic survey at Tell Es-Shugafiya. 

American Schools of Oriental Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Excava- 
tion in salient areas of Punic and Roman Carthage (Tunisia). 

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Epigraphic recording and archi- 
tectural survey of the pharaonic and prepharaonic remains at Gebel es- 
Silsilah (Egypt). 

Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington, D.C. A corpus 
of the mosaics of Tunisia. 

Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Studies on the art of the Mamluks 

Herbert H. Lehman College, Bronx, New York. The long-range effects of 
resettlement and economic expansion in an Egyptian delta village. 

Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture, New York, New York. 
Indo-U.S. Fellowship Program. 

National Anthropological Film Center, Washington, D.C. Pan-Pashtoon no- 
mad studies (India). 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. A metallurgical site 
survey of the Western Chagai District (Pakistan). 

Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Excavation of the 
foundations of some of the monuments of Philae (Egypt). 

Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. Prehistory of the Western 
Desert, Egypt. 

State University of New York, Buffalo, New York. Investigation on the Neo- 
lithic sites in southeastern Poland. 

244 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky. Exploration of an early Me- 
dieval settlement complex in the Kujawy Region in Poland. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. Contemporary South Asian 
civilization films (India). 

Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Prehistoric studies of 
northern Egypt. 


Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Distribution, lar- 
val ecology and population balance in Polish water frogs (the Rana esculenta 

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California. Systematic studies 
on scorpion fishes (India). 

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Anthropological and paleonto- 
logical on the fossil anthropoid sites of the Egyptian oligocene. 

Howard University, Washington, D.C. Fossil Cenozoic mammals of Pakistan. 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Biological produc- 
tivity in some tropical lakes of South India, biosystematic studies of the 
insects of Ceylon; gene pools for Indian plants of economic value; revision of 
Trimen's Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon; and, the natural history of ground 
beetles at a temperate forest site, Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland. 

National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C. Cooperative zoo exchanges 

Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. Forage potential of arid-zone halo- 
phytes (Egypt). 

University of California, Berkeley, California. Stratigraphic and paleobio- 
logy investigations of fossil anthrapoid sites in Burma. 

University of California, Riverside, California. Cytotaxonomy of the Yugo- 
slavian flora. 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Fossil mammals in Paleocene 
and Eocene continental sediments of Pakistan; and, molluscan genus Bulinus, 
intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium (Egypt). 

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Desert rodent ecology 

University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio. Limnological investigations of Lake 
Ohrid (Yugoslavia); and limnological investigations of Polish freshwaters. 
University of Washington, Pullman, Washington. United States participation 
in the First International Symposium on Avian Endocrinology (India). 

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Limnological investigations 
of Skadar Lake (Yugoslavia). 

Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Systems analysis of the pre-Saharan 
ecosystem of Southern Tunisia. 

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Paleonthropology, paleontology, 
and stratigraphy of Neogene deposits in Pakistan. 

Appendix 2. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program I 245 


National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C. Desert erosion and sand 
movement in Egypt. 

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Gravity survey of 
the Lonar Impact Crater, India. 

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Absolute energy distribution of 
giant red stars (Poland). 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Continu- 
ation of operation of Uttar Pradesh State Observatory/Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observing Station, Naini Tal, India. 

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Nucleosynthesis and the advanced 
stages of stellar evolution (Poland). 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado. Geochronology of Upper Creta- 
ceous to Upper Miocene marine and continental sediments (Poland). 

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Geochronology of 
the alkaline complexes of the Southeastern Desert of Egypt; laboratory studies 
of Libyan Desert silica glass (Egypt). 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. Geodynamic evolution of 


American Research Center in Egypt, Princeton, New Jersey. Luxor Museum 
multilingual catalog and labeling (Egypt). 

Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Plant Prep- 
arator Training Seminar (India). 

Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The History of American In- 
dustrial Technology exhibition (India). 

Maryland Institute, College of Art, Baltimore, Maryland. Polish posters and 

National Museum of History and Technology, Washington, D.C. Cooperative 
museum exchange (India). 

National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C. United States 
participation in unesco/icomos meeting on inventory of cultural property sys- 
tems (Poland). 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C. Fel- 
lowship travel support (Poland and India). 

246 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

APPENDIX 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded 
in Fiscal Year 1977 


The American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee. 

The Hawaii Museums Association, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

The Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation, Winterthur, Dela- 

The Pacific Regional Conservation Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

The Oakland Museum Association, Oakland, California. 

The Norwegian-American Museum, Decorah, Iowa. 

The State Historical Society of Colorado, Denver, Colorado. 

The New England Aquarium Corporation, Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Association of Science-Technology Centers, Washington, D.C. 


Miss Julia Seton, The University of London Institute of Archaeology, London, 

Mr. Alexander W. Katlan, Rosary College Graduate School of Fine Arts, Flor- 
ence, Italy. 

Miss Mayda S. Goodberry, The Philadelphia College of Textiles and Science, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Miss Margaret J. Hoffman, The University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 

Mr. Harry J. Hunderman, The United States National Committee of the Inter- 
national Council of Monuments and Sites, Washington, D.C. 

Miss Amy Hecker, The University of York, Heslington, York, England. 

Miss Rhoda J. R. Komuro, Honolulu Academy of Arts, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Miss Lisa Minette Morriss, The Textile Conservation Centre Limited, East 
Molesey, Surrey, England. 

Miss Linda Ellen Pillers, The Textile Conservation Centre Limited, East Mo- 
lesey, Surrey, England. 

Mr. Geoffrey Martin, College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts. 

Mrs. Lilly Hollander, New York Public Library, New York, New York. 

Mr. Gary Stewart, The University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota. 

Miss Marlys Franc Thurber, School of Architecture and Planning, University 
of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

Appendix 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded I 247 

Miss Kendra D. Lovette, Missouri Botanical Garden, Saint Louis, Missouri. 

Miss Stephanie Weinreich, Kelsey Museum, The University of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Michigan. 

Miss Lorena Orvananos, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Abilene, 

Mr. Rodney Slemmons, International Museum of Photography, Rochester, 
New York. 

Miss Christine Leback, The University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 


Cooperstown Graduate Programs, Cooperstown, New York. 

The Museum of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. 

Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut. 

The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

The University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 

The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 

The Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Winston-Salem, North Caro- 

The University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 

Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York, New York. 

The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

The University of Denver, Denver, Colorado. 

The University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. 


Cooperstown Graduate Programs, Cooperstown, New York. 

The University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware. 

The Pacific Regional Conservation Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

The Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut. 

The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, New York. 


Miss Ellen Jacobowitz, The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Penn- 

Miss Marjorie Swain, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Mr. C. Tung Wu, The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts. 

248 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Mr. Frederick Lamp, The Museum of African Art, Washington, D.C. 

Miss Patricia Kane, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Mr. David Park Curry, The University of Kansas, Museum of Art, Lawrence, 


Miss Susan Ferleger, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New 

Mr. Michael L. Mock, California Museum of Science and Industry, Los An- 
geles, California. 

Mr. Terrell Hillebrand, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, Cali- 

Mr. Charles Thomas Bargeron, Georgia Agrirama Development Authority, 

Tifton, Georgia. 

Miss Barbara J. Burgan, Sedgwick County Zoological Society, Inc., Wichita, 

Mrs. Jacqueline Y. Miller, Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida. 

Miss Linda D. Marschner, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 

Miss Janet A. Kamien, The Children's Museum, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Robert A. Whyte, The San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, Cali- 

Miss Yin-wah Ashton, The Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington. 

Miss Judith Sims, The Laguna Gloria Art Museum, Austin, Texas. 

Mr. Alan H. Shoemaker, The Columbia Zoological Park, Columbia, South 

Miss Joy Dell Mastrogiuseppe, Marion Ownbey Herbarium, Washington State 
University, Pullman, Washington. 

Miss Eileen K. Schofield, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 

Mr. Carney E. S. Gavin, Harvard University Semitic Museum, Cambridge, 


The Historical Society of York County, York, Pennsylvania 

The Conservation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York, New York. 

The University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, 

Los Angeles, California. 

The North Carolina State University, School of Textiles, Raleigh, North 

The University of California, Riverside, California. 


The American Association of Museums, Washington, D.C. 

The National Conservation Advisory Council, Washington, D.C. 

Appendix 3. National Museum Act Grants Awarded I 249 

The American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, Tennessee. 

The New England Regional Conference of the American Association of Mu- 
seums, Lincoln, Massachusetts. 

The Alaska State Museum, Juneau, Alaska. 

The Contemporary Arts Museum of Houston, Houston, Texas. 

The National Bureau of Standards/The University of Pennsylvania. 

The Johnstown Flood Museum, Johnstown, Pennsylvania. 

250 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

APPENDIX 4. Progress on Building Construction, Restoration 
and Renovation 

Arts and Industries Building. Design and engineering for the major phase of 
roof repair have been completed. Construction work will be initiated in fiscal 
year 1978. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. Construction of a new 
laboratory facility will begin in early fiscal year 1978. In addition, a new 
sewage-treatment plant is being developed for the cbces site. 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design and Decorative Arts. Major restoration 
was completed in fiscal year 1977. Exterior repairs, canopy installation, a fire- 
detection system, fourth-floor decoration, and several other projects will be 
addressed in the coming year. 

History and Technology Building. Design of the sixth-floor addition is 95 
percent complete. Congressional appropriations have not yet been provided 
for construction. Plans and specifications for major repairs to the terrace are 
in progress. 

National Zoological Park. In addition to the new lion-tiger facility, polar-bear 
and bear exhibits, and the new education-administration building, wheel chair 
ramps in various buildings were constructed, and extensive sidewalk improve- 
ments were made. A glockenspiel dedicated by the Pelzman Foundation was 
erected. Restaurant and other food service locations were improved. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The Tivoli Building restoration has 
been completed. Furnishing and equipping will be accomplished in fiscal year 
1978. The initial phase of library facility started in fiscal year 1977. Scheduled 
completion of design is fiscal year 1978. 

Appendix 4. Progress on Building Construction I 251 

APPENDIX 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 
in Fiscal Year 1977. 



Agnes Chase. First Book of Grasses: The Structure of Grasses Explained for 
Beginners. 127 pages, 94 black-and-white illustrations. Third edition. Reissued 
February 23, 1977. $6.95. 

Frederick Gutheim. Worthy of the Nation: The History of Planning for the 
National Capital, xvii + 417 pages, 22 black-and-white illustrations. Septem- 
ber 16, 1977. Cloth: $22.50. Paper: $8.95. 

Allan A. Hodges and Carol A. Hodges, Editors. Washington on Foot. 208 
pages, 124 black-and-white illustrations. Revised edition. May 20, 1977. Paper: 


Cynthia J. McCabe. The Golden Door: Artist-Immigrants of America, 1876- 
1976. 432 pages, 39 color and 243 black-and-white illustrations. October 1, 
1976. $25.00. 

Lillian B. Miller. "The Dye Is Now Cast . . ." : The Road to American Inde- 
pendence, 1774-1776. xvi + 328 pages, 166 black-and-white illustrations. Re- 
print. January 3, 1977. $25.00. 

National Collection of Fine Arts. Robert Rauschenberg. 218 pages, 21 color 
and 259 black-and-white illustrations. March 29, 1977. $25.00. 

Phyllis D. Rosenzweig. The Thomas Eakins Collection of the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum and Sculpture Garden. 300 pages, 6 color and 246 black-and-white illus- 
trations. September 30, 1977. $25.00. 

Susanne Steinem Patch. Blue Mystery: The Story of the Hope Diamond. 64 
pages, 4 color and 24 black-and-white illustrations. November 4, 1976. $6.95. 

Jan E. Skrentny. Zoobook. 80 pages, 104 color and 42 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. December 13, 1976. Cloth: $8.95. Paper: $3.95. 


American Historical Association. Annual Report, 1975. viii + 175 pages. 
November 23, 1976. Paper: $1.65. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. Annual Report, 1976. 16 
pages. August 16, 1977. 

National Zoological Park. Three-Year Report, January 1, 1973-December 31, 
1975. 138 pages, 22 black-and-white illustrations. July 1, 1977. 

Smithsonian Institution International Exchange Service. Annual Report, 1976. 
9 pages. March 1, 1977. 

252 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Year, 1976. Report of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the Period July 1, 1975, through September 30, 1976. viii -f 540 
pages, 125 black-and-white illustrations. August 30, 1977. Paper: $6.80. 

. Statement by the Secretary. The Smithsonian Institution, 1976. "The 

Attic Refurbished" by S. Dillon Ripley and "Financial Report" by T. Ames 
Wheeler. 75 pages, 17 black-and-white illustrations. January 25, 1977. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Annual Report, 1976. 20 pages, black- 
and-white illustrations. June 15, 1977. 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, Smithsonian Institution, September 1967/ 
1977. 42 pages, 122 black-and-white illustrations. September 15, 1977. 

The Anacostia Story, xxviii + 158 pages, 4 color and 116 black-and-white 
illustrations, 12 maps. March 3, 1977. Paper: $8.95. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Andrew Hudson. 14 Canadians: A Critic's Clioice. 80 pages, 14 color and 28 
black-and-white illustrations. February 3, 1977. Paper: $3.25. 

Phyllis D. Rosenzweig. The Thomas Eakins Collection of the Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum and Sculpture Garden. 240 pages, 5 color and 250 black-and-white illus- 
trations. May 23, 1977. Paper: $8.25. 

The Photography of Leland Rice. 12 pages, 1 color and 7 black-and-white illus- 
trations. June 13, 1977. Paper: $.55. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Jacob Kainen: Prints, a Retrospective. 96 pages, 2 color and 152 black-and- 
white illustrations. November 19, 1976. Paper: $4.00. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

The Designs of Raymond Loeioy. 56 pages, 29 black-and-white illustrations. 
Reprint. October 1, 1976. Paper: $2.50. 

The Object as Poet. 85 pages, 6 color and 58 black-and-white illustrations. 
December 30, 1976. Paper: $5.00. 

Paint on Wood. 36 pages, 14 color and 19 black-and-white illustrations. May 
11, 1977. Paper: $2.25. 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

Anthony N. Landreau. America Underfoot: The History of Floor Coverings. 
ix + 76 pages, 8 color and 84 black-and-white illustrations. October 12, 1976. 


Hirshhorn Mriseum and Sculpture Garden 

The Arthur B. Carles Collection of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden. 4 pages, 7 black-and-white illustrations. August 18, 1977. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 253 

E. £. Cummings: The Poet as Artist. 16 pages, 71 black-and-white illustrations. 
November 23, 1976. 

Peter Plagens: Works on Paper. 8 pages, 1 color and 4 black-and-white illus- 
trations. November 23, 1976. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

The Art of Poetry. 16 pages, 10 black-and-white illustrations. November 23, 

Arthur Wesley Dow. 10 pages, 3 black-and-white illustrations. July 25, 1977. 

China Revisited: Ink Paintings by Thomas George. 12 pages, 6 black-and-white 
illustrations. February 17, 1977. Paper: $1.25. 

John White Alexander, 1856-1915. 16 pages, 9 black-and-white illustrations. 
March 4, 1977. 

Painting and Sculpture in California: The Modern Era. 23 pages, July 1, 1977. 

Raices y Visiones/Roots and Visions. 16 pages, 10 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. July 8, 1977. 


Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 

Zora Martin Felton. A Walk through "Old" Anacostia. iv -f- 44 pages, 34 
black-and-white illustrations. Reprint. October 1, 1976. 

National Museum of Natural History 

J. Meester and H. W. Setzer, Editors. The Mammals of Africa: An Identifica- 
tion Manual. Fascicle V of V. Parts 1, 3.1, 6.8, 8, Conclusion, and Index. Loose- 
leaf inserts. August 11, 1977. $5.00. 

Office of Academic Studies 

Smithsonian Opportunities for Research and Study in History, Art, Science. 
152 pages. September 15, 1977. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

David L. Correll, John L. Edwards, and W. Shropshire, Jr. Phyto chrome: A 
Bibliography. 411 pages. July 27, 1977. 

Solar Radiation Measurements/1975-1976. 56 pages. October 1, 1976. 

Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies 

Paul Meadows, Mark LaGory, Linda Leue, and Peter Meadows. Recent Immi- 
gration to the United States: The Literature of the Social Sciences. 112 pages. 
October 22, 1976. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Elizabeth Wilder Weismann. Americas: The Decorative Arts in Latin America 
in the Era of the Revolution. 80 pages, 4 color and 71 black-and-white illus- 
trations. October 12, 1976. Paper: $6.80. 

254 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

Bibliography of Research Conducted at the Chesapeake Bay Center for En- 
vironmental Studies, 1968-1976. 9 pages. February 15, 1977. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Wiley Post's "Winnie Mae." Reprint. March 31, 1977. 
The Wright Brothers. Reprint. January 15, 1977. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Education Programs. 18 pages, 6 black-and-white illustrations. Revised reprint. 
October 22, 1976. 

Information for Docents. 17 pages. Reprint. March 15, 1977. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Rita J. Adrosko and Grace R. Cooper. Spinning and Weaving. 11 pages, 27 
black-and-white illustrations. January 15, 1977. $.85. 

Don H. Berkebile. Horse-Drawn Vehicles. 12 pages, 30 black-and-white illus- 
trations. June 9, 1977. $.85. 

Franklin Burns. American Stamps. 12 pages, 58 black-and-white illustrations. 
June 9, 1977. $.85. 

Tobia Frankel. Steam Engines and Turbines. 16 pages, 40 black-and-white 
illustrations. June 9, 1977. $.85. 

Paul V. Gardner. American Class. 11 pages, 34 black-and-white illustrations. 
January 15, 1977. $.85. 

David A. Hounshell. Telegraph, Telephone, Radio and Television. 16 pages, 
36 black-and-white illustrations. June 9, 1977. $.85. 

Peter Marzio. Perfect Likenesses. 28 pages, 2 illustrations. April 4, 1977. 

Reidar Norby. Foreign Stamps. 12 pages, 75 black-and-white illustrations. June 
9, 1977. $.85. 

Eugene Ostroff. Photography. 16 pages, 32 black-and-white illustrations. Feb- 
ruary 11, 1977. $.85. 

Carl Scheele. American Post Offices. 12 pages, 39 black-and-white illustrations. 
June 9, 1977. $.85. 

The Doll's House. 32 pages, 48 black-and-white illustrations. Revised reprint. 
March 31, 1977. 

Pochoir. 22 pages, 5 color and 8 black-and-white illustrations. September 26, 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Let's Co to the Smithsonian: Learning Opportunities for Schools, 1977-1978. 
28 pages, 44 black-and-white illustrations. August 5, 1977. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 255 

Office of Museum Programs 

The Museum Support Center. 16 pages, 30 black-and-white illustrations. March 
11, 1977. 

National Museum Act Guidelines for 1978 Grant Programs. 32 pages. July 5, 

Office of Public Affairs 

Smithsonian Institution Welcome (In French, German, Spanish, and Japanese). 
17 pages, 3 color illustrations. July 29, 1977. 

Smithsonian Institution Welcome. 16 pages, 3 color illustrations. September 
29, 1977. 


Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies. 6 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. December 23, 1976. 

Microtrails/Macrotrails. 6 black-and-white illustrations. December 23, 1976. 

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Reprint. July 13, 1977. 

National Air and Space Museum 

Amelia Earhart. Reprint. March 30, 1977. 

Charles A. Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis. Reprint. June 10, 1977. 

National Air and Space Museum (In French, German, and Spanish). April 5, 

North American P-51 Mustang. Reprint. June 9, 1977. 

Otto Lilienthal and Octave Chanute. Reprint. June 9, 1977. 

The T-2 Airplane and the First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight. Reprint. April 
15, 1977. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

From the Left Bank to Soho: Interactions in American Art and Literature, 
1920-1970. March 15, 1977. 

Inventory of American Paintings Executed before 1914. Revised reprint. March 
15, 1977. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

The Honey Bee. Reprint. January 15, 1977. 

Welcome to the National Museum of History and Technology. Reprint. Janu- 
ary 15, 1977. 

256 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

National Museum of Natural History 

Indian Pipes by George Catlin. 4 color and 3 black-and-white illustrations. 
April 4, 1977. 

National Museum of Natural History. February 21, 1977. 

National Portrait Gallery 

The Catalog of American Portraits. February 4, 1977. 
Smithsonian Institution National Speakers Bureau. June 28, 1977. 

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education 

Art-to-Zoo (Newsletter). Published several times during the year. 
Let's Co to the Smithsonian. Published several times during the year. 

Office of Museum Programs 

Smithsonian Institution Office of Museum Programs Workshop Series, April- 
September, 1977. January 21, 1977. 

Smithsonian Institution Office of Museum Programs Workshop Series, October 
1977-April 1978. June 30, 1977. 

Office of Public Affairs 
The Smithsonian Institution. 15 black-and-white illustrations. August 9, 1976. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 
Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts. Reprint. May 2, 1977. 

Smithsonian Associates 

Smithsonian Institution (Building Guide in French, German, Spanish, and 
Japanese). Reprint. August 5, 1977. 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Revised reprint. March 1, 1977. 

Smithsonian Institution Peace Corps Environmental Program. April 15, 1977. 

Office of Academic Studies 

Smithsonian Institution 1977-78 Programs in Higher Education and Research 
Training in: American History and Material Culture, Earth Sciences, Biological 
Sciences, Anthropology, Science and Technology, History of Art, and the 
Epply Smithsonian Fellowships. August 1, 1977. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 257 


Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Thomas Eakins Collection of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 
April 20, 1977. 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

Arthur Wesley Dow. July 7, 1977. 

The Art of Poetry. October 23, 1976. 

Daniel Chester French: An American Sculptor. January 13, 1977. 

High School Graphics V: Through the Eyes of New Printmakers. May 2, 1977. 

Jacob Kainen: Prints, a Retrospective. October 19, 1976. 

Mauricio Lansansky. March 1, 1977. 

Painting and Sculpture in California. April 1, 1977. 

Raices y Visiones/Roots and Visions. June 9, 1977 

Raphael Soyer. September 8, 1977. 

Robert Rauschenberg. October 1, 1976. 

25th National Exhibition of Prints. May 5, 1977. 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Fine Arts 

Grass. July 11, 1977. 

The Object as Poet and Stitch Pictures by Ethel Mohamed. November 11, 1976. 

Paint on Wood. February 23, 1977. 

22 Polish Textile Artists. May 27, 1977. 

Smithsonian Associates 

Treasures of Tutankhamun. October 28, 1976. 
A Victorian Evening. April 15, 1977. 

Smithsonian Institution Press 
Worthy of the Nation. August 24, 1977. 


National Air and Space Museum 
To Fly. January 1977. 

National Museum of History and Technology 

Everyday Life of a Soldier and Ben Franklin's Experiments with Electricity. 
October 15, 1976. 

National Museum of History and Technology (Exterior building inscriptions). 
July 25, 1977. 

258 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Renwick Gallery of the National Collection of Tine Arts 

Americas: As Artes Decorativas na America Latina na Era da Revolucao. 
October 10, 1977. 

Las Americas: las artes decorativas en America Latina en la era de la Revo- 
lution. October 10, 1976. 

Anacostia Neighborhood Museum 
Certificate of Distinguished Achievement. September 15, 1977. 

Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies 
Cover for Work-Learn Programs in Environmental Studies. December 12, 1976. 

National Collectio7i of Fine Arts 
Portfolio Jacket for Docent Information. March 15, 1977. 
Labels for pictures of the Collection. March 15, 1977. 

National Zoological Park 
Cards requesting that visitors not feed the animals. July 8, 1977. 
Trail Map of the Zoo. July 8, 1977. 

Office of Plant Services 
Smithsonian Institution Telephone Directory. February 3, 1977. 



20. Dennis J. Stanford. "The Walakpa Site, Alaska: Its Place in the Birnirk 
and Thule Cultures." 226 pages, 29 figures, 119 plates, 10 tables. December 1, 

21. Owen S. Rye and Clifford Evans. "Traditional Pottery Techniques of Pakis- 
tan: Field and Laboratory Studies." 283 pages, 38 figures, 82 plates, 15 tables. 
November 1, 1976. 


33. Mason E. Hale, Jr. "A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Parmelina Hale 
(Parmeliaceae)." 60 pages, 21 figures. October 22, 1976. 

36. F. Raymond Fosberg and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Flora of Micronesia, 3: 
Convolvulaceae." 34 pages, 1 figure. February 2, 1977. 

37. Joan W. Nowicke and John J. Skvarla. "Pollen Morphology and the Rela- 
tionship of the Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Primulaceae to the Order 
Centrospermae." 64 pages, 200 figures, 5 tables. August 18, 1977. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 259 


18. Arthur Roe and John S. White, Jr. "A Catalog of the Type Specimens in 
the Mineral Collection, National Museum of Natural History." 43 pages. 
November 22, 1976. 

19. Brian Mason, editor. "Mineral Sciences Investigations 1974-1975." 125 
pages, 48 figures, 37 tables. March 9, 1977. 


1. George J. Hollenberg and James N. Norris. "The Red Alga Polysiphonia 
(Rhodomelaceae) in the Northern Gulf of California." 21 pages, 10 figures. 
August 25, 1977. 


30. Porter M. Kier. "Triassic Echinoids." 88 pages, 16 figures, 21 plates, 2 
tables. January 28, 1977. 

31. Martin A. Buzas, Roberta K. Smith, and Kenneth A. Beem. "Ecology and 
Systematics of Foraminifera in Two Thalassia Habitats, Jamaica, West Indies." 
139 pages, 38 figures, 8 plates, 34 tables. July 11, 1977. 

33. Richard H. Benson. "Evolution of Oblitacythereis from Paleocosta (Ostra- 
coda: Trachyleberididae) during the Cenozoic in the Mediterranean and At- 
lantic." 47 pages, 11 figures, 4 plates. August 29, 1977. 


219. Louis S. Kornicker and I. G. Sohn. "Phylogeny, Ontogeny, and Mor- 
phology of Living and Fossil Thaumatocypridacea (Myodocopa: Ostracoda)." 
124 pages, 93 figures, 14 tables. December 20, 1976. 

221. Kristian Fauchald. "Polychaetes from Intertidal Areas in Panama, with a 
Review of Previous Shallow-Water Records." 81 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables. 
April 25, 1977. 

226. Daryl P. Domning. "Observations on the Myology of Dugong dugong 
(Miiller)." 57 pages, 54 figures, 2 tables. January 5, 1977. 

227. Ginter Ekis. "Classification, Phylogeny, and Zoogeography of the Genus 
Perilypus (Coleoptera: Cleridae)." 138 pages, 386 figures, 2 tables. March 31, 

228. Ned E. Strenth. "A Review of the Systematics and Zoogeography of the 
Freshwater Species of Palaemonetes Heller of North America (Crustacea: 
Decapoda)." 27 pages, 6 figures, 1 table. October 22, 1976. 

232. William D. Field and Jose Herrera. "The Pierid Butterflies of the Genera 
Hypsochila Ureta, Phulia Herrich-Shaffer, Infraphulia Field, Pierphulia Field, 
and Piercolias Staudinger." 64 pages, 198 figures, 5 maps. April 25, 1977. 

235. Herbert Friedmann, Lloyd E. Kiff, and Stephen I. Rothstein. "A Further 
Contribution to Knowledge of the Host Relations of the Parasitic Cowbirds." 
75 pages. February 17, 1977. 

237. Robert H. Gore and Lawrence G. Abele. "Shallow Water Porcelain Crabs 
from the Pacific Coast of Panama and Adjacent Caribbean Waters (Crustacea: 
Anomura: Porcellanidea)." 30 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables. October 22, 1976. 

260 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

238. A. G. K. Menon. "A Systematic Monograph of the Tongue Soles of the 
Genus Cynoglossus Hamilton-Buchanan (Pisces: Cynoglossidae)." 129 pages, 
48 figures, 21 plates. April 25, 1977. 

239. Christen M. Wemmer. "Comparative Ethology of the Large-spotted Genet 
(Genetta tigrina) and Some Related Viverrids." 93 pages, 37 figures, 18 tables. 
August 10, 1977. 

240. H. H. Hobbs III and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "On the Troglobitic Shrimps 
of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (Decapoda: Atyidae and Palaemonidae)." 
23 pages, 8 figures, 2 maps. October 22, 1976. 

241. Louis S. Kornicker and Francisca Elena Caraion. "West African Myodo- 
copid Ostracoda (Cyprindinidae, Philomedidae)." 100 pages, 52 figures, 28 
plates, 1 table. March 31, 1977. 

242. W. Ronald Heyer. "Studies in Larval Amphibian Habitat Partitioning." 
27 pages, 3 figures, 14 tables. October 29, 1976. 

243. Arthur G. Humes. "Pseudanthessiid Copepods (Cyclopoida) Associated 
with Crinoids and Echinoids (Echinodermata) in the Tropical Western Pacific 
Ocean." 43 pages, 25 figures. January 21, 1977. 

244. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., H. H. Hobbs III, and Margaret A. Daniel. "A Re- 
view of the Troglobitic Decapod Crustraceans of the Americas." 183 pages, 70 
figures, 1 table. May 31, 1977. 

246. Roman Kenk. "Freshwater Triclads (Turbellaria) of North America, IX: 
The Genus Sphalloplana." 38 pages, 62 figures, 1 table. February 2, 1977. 

247. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., and Daniel J. Peters. "The Entocytherid Ostracods 
of North Carolina." 73 pages, 33 figures, 3 tables, 12 maps. February 17, 1977. 

248. Robert P. Higgens. "Redescription of Echinoderes dujardinii (Kinorhyn- 
cha) with Descriptions of Closely Related Species." 26 pages, 31 figures, 2 
tables. May 17, 1977. 

252. Victor G. Springer, C. Lavett Smith, and Thomas H. Fraser. " Anisochro- 
mis straussi, New Species of Protogynous Hermaphroditic Fish, and Synonymy 
of the Anisochromidae, Pseudoplesiopidae, and Pseudochromidae." 15 pages, 
2 figures, 4 tables. August 25, 1977. 


34. Peter C. Marzio. "The Art Crusade: An Analysis of American Drawing 
Manuals, 1820-1860." 94 pages, 47 figures. October 27, 1976. 

35. Thomas Parke Hughes. "Science and the Instrument-makers: Michelson, 
Sperry, and the Speed of Light." 18 pages, 9 figures, 2 tables. October 5, 1976. 

38. Helen R. Hollis. "The Musical Instruments of Joseph Haydn: An Intro- 
duction." 33 pages, 18 figures. May 23, 1977. 


192. A. Binion Amerson, Jr., and Philip C. Shelton. "The Natural History of 
Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean." xix + 479 pages, 117 figures, 91 
tables. December 1976. 

193-205. In one volume, as follows. Febuary 1977. 

193. Edward A. Drew. A Photographic Survey Down the Seaward Reef-Front 
of Aldabra Atoll, ii + 17 pages, 6 figures, 3 plates. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 261 

194. Carden C. Wallace and E. R. Lovell. "Topography and Coral Distribu- 
tion of Bushy and Redbill Islands and Surrounding Reef, Great Barrier Reef, 
Queensland." 27 pages, 3 figures, 3 plates. 

195. P. G. Flood. "Coral Cays of the Capricorn and Bunker Groups, Great 
Barrier Reef Province, Australia." 24 pages, 8 figures, 10 plates. 

196. Lee C. Gerhard. "Submarine Cementation of Grainstone Fabric, St. Croix, 
U.S. Virgin Islands. 9 pages, 5 figures. 

197. Mark J. Valencia. "Christmas Island (Pacific Ocean) : Reconnaissance Geo- 
logic Observations." 17 pages, 5 figures. 

J 98. Roger B. Clapp. "Notes on the Vertebrate Fauna of Tongareva Atoll." 8 
pages, 1 table. 

199. Mary E. Gillham. "Observations on Vegetation of Blue-Faced Booby 
Colonies on Cosmoledo Atoll, Western Indian Ocean." 11 pages. 

200. Mary E. Gillham. "Vegetation of Sea and Shore-Bird Colonies on Al- 
dabra Atoll." 19 pages, 1 table. 

201. C. B. Frith. "Life History Notes on Some Aldabran Land Birds." 17 
pages, 1 figure. 

202. D. R. Stoddart and L. U. Mole. "Climate of Aldabra Atoll." 27 pages, 6 
figures, 15 tables. 

203. Gerard Faure. "Annotated Check List of Corals in the Mascarene Archi- 
pelago, Indian Ocean." 26 pages, 1 table. 

204. Gerard Faure. "Annotated Check List of Octocorallia in the Mascarene 
Archipelago, Indian Ocean." 13 pages. 

205. A. J. Bruce. "The Hosts of the Coral-Associated Indo-West-Pacific Pon- 
toniine Shrimps." 19 pages with frontispiece. 

206-207. In one volume, as follows. May 1977. 

206. Roger B. Clapp and Eugene Kridler. "The Natural History of Necker 
Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." iv + 102 pages, 16 figures, 25 tables. 

207. Roger B. Clapp, Eugene Kridler, and Robert R. Fleet. "The Natural His- 
tory of Nihoa Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands." v + 147 pages, 32 
figures, 34 tables. 

208-219. In one volume, as follows. May 1977. 

208. Wm. Randolph Taylor. "Notes on Plants on the Genus Caulerpa in the 
Herbarium of Maxwell S. Doty at the University of Hawaii." 17 pages. 

209. Wm. Randolph Taylor. "Marine Algae of the Te Vega 1965 Expedition in 
the Western Pacific Ocean." 16 pages. 

210. H. E. Hackett. "Marine Algae Known from the Maldive Islands." 32 
pages, 2 figures. 

211. Judith L. Connor and Walter H. Adey. "The Benthic Algal Composition, 
Standing Crop, and Productivity of a Caribbean Algal Ridge." 40 pages, 17 
figures, 5 tables. 

212. Roy T. Tsuda, Steven S. Amesbury, and Steven C. Moras. "Preliminary 
Observations on the Algae, Corals, and Fishes Inhabiting the Sunken Ferry 
'Fujikawa Maru' in Truk Lagoon." 6 pages. 

213. A. Donaldson and B. A. Whitton. "Chemistry of Freshwater Pools on 
Aldabra." 28 pages, 9 figures, 7 tables. 

262 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

214. B. A. Whitton and M. Potts. "Observation of Redox Potential in Fresh- 
water Pools on Aldabra." 6 pages, 1 table. 

215. A. Donaldson and B. A. Whitton. "Algal Flora of Freshwater Habitats 
on Aldabra." 26 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables. 

216. B. A. Whitton and A. Donaldson. "Terrestrial and Freshwater Algae of 
Three Western Indian Ocean Islands (Astove, Farquhar and St. Pierre)." 8 
pages, 1 table. 

217. B. A. Whitton, A. Donaldson, D. J. Bellamy, and C. Sheppard. "Terres- 
trial and Swamp Algae from Three Islands in the Chagos Archipelago, Indian 
Ocean." 9 pages, 5 tables. 

218. Walter H. Adey, Patricia J. Adey, Randolph Burke, and Leslie Kaufman. 
"The Holocene Reef Systems of Eastern Martinique, French West Indies." 40 
pages, 14 figures, 4 tables. 

219. "Island News and Comment." 30 pages. 

Appendix 5. Publications of the Smithsonian Press I 263 

APPENDIX 6. Publications of the Staff of the Smithsonian 

Institution and Its Subsidiaries in Fiscal Year 1977 

Publications are by staff members unless otherwise noted. 



National Anthropological Film Center 

Sorenson, E. Richard. "Growing Up As A Fore Is To Be 'In Touch' And Free." 

Smithsonian Magazine, May 1977. 

Sorenson, E. Richard. "Growing Up As A Fore Is To Be 'In Touch' And Free." 
culturation: A Preliminary Report." In Enculturation in Latin America: An 
Anthology, edited by Johannes Wilbert. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin Ameri- 
can Center Publications, 1976. 

Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic Studies 

Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., and Stephen R. Couch, editors. Exploratory Fieldwork 
on Latino Migrants and Indochinese Refugees. Washington, D.C. : Smith- 
sonian Institution, 1976. 

Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., and Delores M. Mortimer, editors. Caribbean Immigra- 
tion to the United States. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 

Hune, Shirley. Pacific Migration to the United States: Trends and Themes in 
Historical and Sociological Literature. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian In- 
stitution, 1977. 

Meadows, Paul, Mark LaGory, Linda Leue, and Peter Meadows. Recent Im- 
migration to the United States: The Literature of the Social Sciences. 
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 


Allan, J. David, Thomas G. Kinsey, and Melody C. James. "Abundances and 

Production and Copepods in the Rhode River Subestuary of Chesapeake 

Bay." Chesapeake Bay Science, volume 17, number 2 (1976), pages 86-92. 
Atterbury, G. E. "'CBCES': Help for Bay Communities." Chesapeake Bay 

Magazine, volume 6, number 4 (1976), pages 20-21. 
Beane, Marjorie. "Forest Fragmentation Leads to a Decline in Bird Species 

Diversity." Research Reports, Smithsonian Institution, Summer 1977, pages 

. Assessing Non-Point Source Pollution: A Detailed Study of a Rural 

Watershed in the Coastal Plain of Maryland. Washington, D.C. : Smith- 
sonian Institution, 1977. 
. The Effects of Land Use on Water Quality: A Summary of Research 

Findings on Non-Point Source Pollution. Washington, DC: Smithsonian 

Institution, 1977. 

264 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. Environmental Cornmunications and the Information Transfer Proc- 
ess: A Model Approach for the Chesapeake Bay Region. Washington, D.C. : 
Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Branscomb, E. S. "Proximate Causes of Mortality Determining the Distribu- 
tion and Abundance of the Barnacle Balanus improvisus Darwin in Chesa- 
peake Bay." Chesapeake Bay Science, volume 17, number 4 (1976), pages 

Carney, J. F., and R. R. Colwell. "Heterotrophic Utilization of Glucose and 
Glutamate in an Estuary: Effect of Season and Nutrient Load." Applied 
and Environmental Microbiology, volume 31, number 2 (1976), pages 227- 

Chirlin, Gary R. Non-Point Source Studies on Chesapeake Bay: IV. Weekly 
Surface Hydrology of Seven Sub-Basins within the Rhode River Watershed, 
Calendar Years 1974-76. Chesapeake Research Consortium, publication 
number 57, 1977. 

Chirlin, Gary R., and D. L. Correll. "A Linear Approach to the Calculation of 
Area Yield Coefficients Based on Land Use." In Watershed Research in 
Eastern North America. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Chirlin, Gary R., and R. W. Schaffner. "Observations on the Water Balance 
for Seven Sub-Basins of the Rhode River, Maryland." In Watershed Re- 
search in Eastern North America. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, 1977. 

Correll, D. L., "The Relative Contribution of Point and Non-Point Sources of 
Nutrients and Pathogens." In Water Quality Coals for Chesapeake Bay — 
What Are They and How Can They Be Achieved? Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute and State University, publication number 708, pages 19-31. Blacks- 
burg, Virginia, 1976. 

Correll, D. L. and J. J. Miklas. "Phosphorus Cycling in a Maryland Deciduous 
Forest Subjected to Various Levels of Mineral Nutrient Loading." In Min- 
eral Cycling in Southeastern Ecosystems, edited by F. G. Howell, J. B. Gen- 
try, and M. H. Smith, erda Symposium Series Conference — 740513. 1976. 

Correll, D. L., E. S. Friebele, and J. Miklas. Non-Point Source Studies on 
Chesapeake Bay: II. Nutrients in Land Runoff from Rhode River Water- 
sheds in 1975 and 1976. Chesapeake Research Consortium, publication 
number 55, 1977. 

Correll, D. L., J. W. Pierce, and M. A. Faust. "A Quantitative Study on the 
Nutrient, Sediment and Coliform Bacterial Constituents of Water Runoff 
from the Rhode River Watershed." In Proceedings of a Southeastern Re- 
gional Conference on Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution. Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute and State University, pages 131-143. Blacksburg, Virginia, 

Correll, D. L., T. L. Wu, E. S. Friebele, and J. Miklas. "Nutrient Discharges 
from Rhode River Watersheds and Their Relationship to Land Use Pat- 
terns." In Watershed Research in Eastern North America. Washington, 
DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Drake, B. J. "Estimating Water Status and Biomass of Plant Communities by 
Remote Sensing." Ecological Studies, 19 pages. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 

. "Seasonal Changes in Reflectances and Standing Crop Biomass in 

Three Salt Marsh Communities." Plant Physiology, volume 58 (1976), pages 

Falk, J. H. "The Frenetic Life Forms that Flourish in Suburban Lawns." 
Smithsonian, April 1977, pages 90-86. 

Faust, M. A. "Coliform Bacteria from Diffuse Sources as a Factor in Estuarine 
Pollution." Water Research, volume L0 (1976), pages 619-627. 

. Non-Point Source Studies on Chesapeake Bay: I. Bacterial Contami- 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 265 

nation from the Rhode River Watershed, Concentrations and Survival Stud- 
ies in the Estuary. Chesapeake Research Consortium, publication number 
53, 1976. 

Faust, M. A., and D. L. Correll. "Comparison between Bacterial and Algal 
P-Uptake in an Estuarine Environment." Marine Biology, volume 34 (1976), 
pages 151-162. 

. "Autoradiographic Study to Detect Metabolically Active Phytoplank- 

ton and Bacteria in the Rhode River Estuary." Marine Biology, volume 41 
(1977), pages 293-305. 

Faust, M. A., and N. M. Goff. "Basin Size, Water Flow and Land Use Affects 
on Fecal Coliform Pollution from a Rural Watershed." In Watershed Re- 
search in Eastern North America. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, 1977. 

Faust, M. A., N. M. Goff, and A. C. Jackson. Non-Point Source Studies on 
Chesapeake Bay: III. Relationship between Bacterial Contamination and 
Land Use in the Rhode River Watershed, and Survival Studies of Strepto- 
coccus Faecalis in the Estuary. Chesapeake Research Consortium, publica- 
tion number 56, 1977. 

Miklas, J., T. L. Wu, A. Hiatt, and D. L. Correll. "Nutrient Loading of the 
Rhode River Watershed via Land Use Practice and Precipitation." In Water- 
shed Research in Eastern North America. Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian 
Institution, 1977. 

Pierce, J. W. Non-Point Source Studies on Chesapeake Bay: IV. Particulates. 
Chesapeake Research Consortium, publication number 59, 1977. 

Pierce, J. W., and F. T. Dulong. "Dischcharge of Suspended Particulates from 
Rhode River Subwatersheds." In Watershed Research in Eastern North 
America. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Roberts, W. P., and J. W. Pierce. "Deposition in the Upper Patuxent Estuary, 
Maryland, 1968-69." Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, volume 4 
(1976), pages 267-280. 

Wu, T. L., and M. Hoopes. "Land Utilization and Metals Discharge from 
Rhode River Watersheds." In Watershed Research in Eastern North Amer- 
ica. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

. Non-Point Source Studies on Chesapeake Bay: VII. Cations. Chesa- 
peake Research Consortium, publication number 60, 1977. 

Wu, T. L., and N. Mick. "Runoff Studies of the Agricultural Herbicides, 
Alachlor and Atrazine from Rhode River Watershed during the 1976 Grow- 
ing Season." In Watershed Research in Eastern North America. Washing- 
ton, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 


Collins, Michael. "Showing Lindbergh the Air and Space Museum." Saturday 

Review, April 1977. 

. "The Space Shuttle." Smithsonian, May 1977. 

Zisfein, M. B. "The National Air and Space Museum." Museum, Summer 


Center for Earth and Planetary Studies 

Andre, C. G., I. Adler, R. W. Wolfe, J. R. Weidner, and J. A. Philpotts. 

"Chemical Character of the Partially Flooded Smythii Basin from Al/Si 

Orbital X-ray Data." [Abstract] Lunar Science VIII, Lunar Science Institute, 

Houston, Texas, pages 37-39. 1977. 
D'Alli, R. E. "The Significance of Bright Spots Observed During the 1971 

Martian Dust Storm." Icarus, volume 31 (1977), pages 146-156. 

266 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

El-Baz, Farouk. "Evolution of the Lunar Crust: The Stratigraphic Approach." 
[Abstract] In Chemical Evolution-Comparative Planetology, College Park 
Colloquium (September-October 1976), University of Maryland, page 21. 

. "Dirasat Al-Ard min Al-Fada (Study of the Earth from Space, in 

Arabic)." From the Fruits of Thought, The First Cultural Season — 1976, 
Qatar National Press, Doha, Qatar, pages 85-97. 

"Lunar Stratigraphy." In The Moon — A New Appraisal from Space 

Missions and Laboratory Analyses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal 
Society, London, England. A 285 (1977), pages 549-553. 

"Dune Migration on Earth and Mars." Internet Reports, number 75. 

Concord, Massachusetts: Internet, 1977. 

"La recolte 'Apollo' sur la lune (Results of the Apollo Lunar Missions, 

in French)." Journal D'Egypt, February 1977, pages 4-6. 

"Harvest of Apollo Science." Education, Qatar National Commission 

for Education, Culture and Science, Number 19 (February 1977), pages 

"Al-Tarikh Al-Geology le Sath Al-Qamar wa Elm Muqgaranat Al- 

Kawakib (The Geologic History of the Moon and Comparative Planetology, 
in Arabic)." Al-Elm (Science), Cairo, Egypt, volume 13 (March 1977), pages 

"Risala (A Message, in Arabic)." [Introduction] Al-Shabab ela ayn 

(Youth), by H. Tantawi, pages 11-14. Cairo: Dar El-Shab Press, 1977. 

-.[Review] Space Geology: An Introduction, by Elbert A. King. EOS, 

Transcripts of the American Geophysical Union, volume 58, number 3 
(1977), page 133. 

"NASA-Lunar Polar Orbiter." Witness Testimony before the Sub- 

committee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 
95th Congress, First Session. Department of Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment — Independent Agencies Appropriations for 1978, Part 7, pages 289- 
291, 1977. 

"Expanding Desert Creates Grim Beauty But Also Threatens Crucial 

Cropland." Smithsonian, volume 8, number 3 (June 1977), pages 34-41 and 

"Onslaught on the Nile: Shifting Dunes Threaten Egypt's Breadbas- 

ket." [Also published in French, Spanish, Russian, German, Arabic, Japa- 
nese, Italian, Hindi, Tamil, Hebrew, Persian, Dutch, Portugese, Turkish, 
and Urdu translations] The UNESCO Courier, July 1977, pages 23-24 and 

El-Baz, F., and D. E. Wilhelms. Geologic Map of the East Side of the Moon. 
Map 1-948. Washington, D.C: U.S. Geological Survey, 1977. 

Head, J. W., and A. W. Gifford. "Lunar Mare Domes: Classification and 
Modes of Origin." In Lunar Science VIII, Lunar Science Institute, Houston, 
Texas, pages 418-420. 1977. 

Maxwell, T. A. Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Southeastern Serenitatis. [Ph.D. 
Dissertation] Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah, 1977. 

Maxwell, T. A., and F. El-Baz. "Mare Stratigraphy of Southeastern Sereni- 
tatis." In Lunar Science VIII, Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Texas, pages 
631-633. 1977. 

Maxwell, T. A., P. L. Strain, and F. El-Baz. "Analysis of Low Altitude X-Ray 
Fluorescence Data From Mare Crisium and Mare Smythii." In Lunar Sci- 
ence VIII, Lunar Science Institute, Houston, Texas, pages 634-636. 1977. 

Strain, P. L., and F. El-Baz. "Topography of Sinuous Rilles in the Harbinger 
Mountains Region of the Moon." The Moon, volume 16 (1977), pages 221- 

Wolfe, R. W., and F. El-Baz. "Photogeology of the Multi-Ringed Crater Hal- 
dane in Mare Smythii." In Proceedings of the Seventh Lunar Science Con- 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 267 

ference, [Supplement 7, Geochim. et Cosmoshim. Acta], volume 3, pages 
2903-2912. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press, 1976. 

Department of Aeronautics 

Boyne, Walter J. "The New National Air and Space Museum." Aviation 

Quarterly, volume 2, number 3. 
. "The Gallery of Air Transportation." Aviation Quarterly, volume 2, 

number 4. 

"Aircraft — Great and Not So Great." Aviation Quarterly, volume 3, 

number 1. 

"Howell Miller and the Gee Bee Story." Aviation Quarterly, volume 

3, number 2. 

. "Renaissance at Silver Hill." Airpower, January 1977. 

. "The Custer Channel Wing." Airpower, May 1977. 

. "Odd Aircraft." Airpower, May 1977. 

. "The Hughes D-2." Wings, June 1977. 

— . "The Next 50 Years." Pan American Clipper, July 1977. 
"The Hughes H-l." Wings, September 1977. 

Casey, Louis S., and John Batchelor. Naval Aircraft 1911-1938. London: 
Phoebus Publishing Co., 1977. 

. "Naval Aircraft 1911-1945. London: Hamlyn Publishing Co., 1977. 

Mikesh, Robert C. Japanese Cockpit Interiors, Part 1. Monogram Books, 1976. 

. "Bicentennial Warhawk." Wings, October 1976. 

. "Restoring the P-40." Koku Fan, October 1976. 

. "Emily: She Was No Lady." Air Classics Quarterly, November 1976. 

. "Tachikawa's Flying Gas Tanks." Koku Fan, December 1976. 

. "Japan's Exported War Booty." Koku Fan, February 1977. 

. "00," Year of the Tiger. Airpower, March 1977. 

. "The Smithsonian's Zero," Part I. Koku Fan, March 1977. 

. "The Smithsonian's Zero," Part II. Koku Fan, April 1977. 

. "The Japanese 'Gooney'." Air Line Pilot, April 1977. 

. "How England's Canberra Joined the USAF." Wings, August 1977. 

. "Building the Canberra, Part II of the B-57 Story." Airpower, Sep- 
tember 1977. 

Department of Astronautics 

Crouch, Tom D. "Americans and the Airplane, part 3." Aviation Quarterly, 

volume 2, number 3 (Third Quarter 1976). 
. Americans and the Airplane, part 4." Aviation Quarterly, volume 3, 

number 4 (Fourth Quarter 1976). 

-. Washington Harrison Donaldson: Aerial Showman." Aviation Quar- 

terly, volume 4, number 1 (First Quarter 1977). 
Durant, F. C, III. "Wernher von Braun — In Memoriam." Astronautics and 

Aeronautics, volume 15, number 7 (July-August 1977). 
Winter, Frank H. "Buffalo Balloon Carries Airmail Postage." Linn's Stamp 

News, volume 50, number 25 (June 13, 1977), pages 50-51. 
. "Birth of the Vfr: The Start of Modern Astronautics." Spaceflight, 

volume 19, numbers 7-8, pages 243-256. 

Department of Science and Technology 

Hallion, Richard P. Legacy of Flight: The Guggenheim Contribution to Amer- 
ican Aviation. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977. 

268 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "The American Buzz Bombs." Aeroplane Monthly, volume 4, number 

11 (November 1976), pages 566-571. 

"American Flight Research and Flight Testing: An Overview from 

the Wright Brothers to the Space Shuttle." Cockpit: The Magazine of the 
Society of Experimental Test Pilots, January-February 1977. 

. "The Northrop X-4." Air Enthusiast Quarterly, number 3 (1976). 

. "The Douglas X-3." Air Enthusiast Quarterly, number 4 (1977). 

-. "Twilight of the Piston-Powered Airplane: The Republic XF-12/RC-2 

Rainbow." Aviation Quarterly, volume 3, number 1, (1977). 
Hanle, Paul A. [Review] The History of Quantum Theory, by Friedrich Hund. 

1515, volume 67 (December 1976), pages 625-626. 
. "The Coming of Age of Erwin Schrodinger: His Quantum Statistics 

of Ideal Gases." Archive for History of Exact Sciences, volume 17. 

Presentation and Education Division 

Bondurant, Russell Lynn. "A Grave Situation." Instructor, volume 86, num- 
ber 8 (April 1977), page 111-114. 

. "From Kitty Hawk to the Moon and Beyond — A Visit to the New 

National Air and Space Museum." AIAA Student Journal, volume 15, num- 
ber 1 (Spring 1977), pages 22-24. 

Chamberlain, Von Del. "Sky Interpretation Update." In Touch, National Park 
Service Newsletter, May 1977, pages 16-17. 

. "Sky Interpretation: A Project of the American Astronomical Soci- 
ety." Journal of the Association of Interpretive Naturalists, August 1977. 
-, editor. Sky Interpretation Resource Bidletin, Volume II (1977). Pub- 

lished and distributed by the American Astronomical Society with funds 
by the National Science Foundation. 

Snider, Harold. "The Inviting Air of an Accessible Space." Museum News, 
January-February 1977, pages 18-23. 

. "Museums & the Blind." Arts for the Blind & Visually Impaired Edu- 
cational Facilities Laboratory, June 1977. 

. "Museums & the Blind — A Look Ahead." Braille Monitor, September 


Department of Anthropology 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "Colonial to Modern Skeletal Change in the U.S.A." 
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, volume 45, number 3 (1976), 
pages 723-736. 

. "Introduction to Symposium in Honor of T. Dale Stewart (ed. J. L. 

Angel.)" American Journal of Physical Anthropology, volume 45, number 
3 (1976), pages 519-530. 

Angel, J. Lawrence, and Donald G. Cherry. "Personality Reconstruction From 
Unidentified Remains." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, volume 46, number 
8 (1977), pages 12-15. 

Briggs, Marion F., and Sarah D. McAnulty. The Ghost Dance Tragedy at 
Wounded Knee. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, Office of Print- 
ing and Photographic Services, 1977. 

Crocker, William H. "O Movimento Messianco dos Canelas: Uma Intro- 
ducao." In Leituras de Etnologia Brasileira, edited by E. Schaden, pages 
515-527. Sao Paulo : Companhia Editora Nacional (Biblioteca Universitaria, 
Serie 2 a — Ciencias Sociais, volume 7), 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 269 

Evans, Clifford. "Background and Introduction." In Symposium: New Re- 
search Designs Applied to Paleo-lndian Problems: Some Preliminary Re- 
sults. Adas del XL1 Congresso Internacional de Americanist as, volume 3 
(1976), pages 458-461. 

Ewers, John C. "Spanish Cattle in Plains Indian Art." Great Plains Journal, 
volume 16, number 1 (Fall 1976), pages 66-76. 

. "Foreword." In Cyrus E. Dallin, Let Justice Be Done, by Rell G. Fran- 
cis. Springville, Utah: Springville Museum of Art in cooperation with Utah 
American Bicentennial Committee, 1976. 

"Five Strings to his Bow. The Remarkable Career of William (Lone 

Star) Dietz: Artist, Athlete, Actor, Teacher, Football Coach." Montana: 
The Magazine of Western History, volume 27, number 1 (Winter 1977), 
pages 2-13. 

"The Making and Uses of Maps by Plains Indian Warriors." By 

Valor and Arms, volume 3, number 1 (1977), pages 36-43. 

Fitzhugh, William. "William Fitzhugh Comments on David Yesner's Review 
of Prehistoric Maritime Adaptations of the Circumpolar Zone." Reviews in 
Anthropology, volume 3, number 5 (1976), pages 486-495. 

. "Tribute to Explorer Lost in Labrador," Smithsonian Magazine, De- 
cember 1976, pages 109-119. 

"Population Movement and Cultural Change on the Central Labrador 

Coast." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, volume 288 (Febru- 
ary 1977), pages 481-497. 

"Regional Repositories: A View from the Smithsonian." In Regional 

Centers in Archaeology: Prospects and Problems, edited by William H. 
Marquardt, pages 18-19. Missouri Archaeological Society Research Series, 
number 14, 1977. 

Gibson, Bethune M. "Conservation of a Fan." Journal of the American Insti- 
tute for Conservation, volume 16, number 2 (February 1977), pages 3—11. 

Gibson, Gordon D. "Himba Epochs." History in Africa, volume 4 (1977), 
page 67-121. 

Goddard, R. H. Ives, III. "Some Early Examples of American Indian Pidgin 
English." International Journal of American Linguistics, volume 43 (1977), 
pages 37-41. 

. "The Morphologization of Algonquian Consonant Mutation." In Pro- 
ceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 
pages 241-250. Berkeley, California, 1977. 

"Philological Approaches to the Study of North American Indian 

Languages: Documents and Documentation." In Native Languages of the 
Americas, edited by Thomas A. Sebeok, volume I, pages 73-91. New York 
and London: Plenum Press. 

-. [Review] Riding on the Frontier's Crest: Mahican Indian Culture and 

Culture Change," by Ted J. Brasser. Ethnohistory, volume 22 (1975 [1976]), 
page 185-187. 

[Review] Indian Names in Connecticut, by J. Hammond Trumbull. 

International Journal of American Linguistics, volume 43 (1977' 

Hassan, Afifa A., and Donald J. Ortner. "Inclusions in Bone Material as a 
Source of Error in Radiocarbon Dating." Archaeometry, volume 19 (1977). 

Houchins, Chang-Su. "Konch'uk kwa hoehwa: ch'oech'o iii Man'guk minhwa 
sujip (Architecture and Graphics: Introduction to the Bernadou Collection 
of Korean Folk Paintings in U. S. National Museum.)" Konch'uk Man'guk 
(Korean Architecture), pages 50-51. Seoul, Korea, September 1976. 

. "The Five Blessings and Korean Coin Charms: A Phychocultural 

Analysis." Korea Journal, volume 17, number 2 (February 1977), pages 12- 
26. Seoul, Korea: UNESCO Korean Commission. 

Koritzer, Richard T. [Abstract] "Dental Caries." American Journal of Physi- 
cal Anthropology, volume 47, number 1 (1976), page 143. 

270 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "An Anthropological Approach to the Study of Dental Pathology." 

In Orofacial Growth and Development, edited by Albert A. Dahlberg and 
Thomas Graber, pages 283-299. 1977. 

. "Dental Caries and Enamel Trace Elements in Potomac Indians." 

Georgetown Dental Journal, volume 41, number 2 (1977). 

Laughlin, Robert M. "Of Wonders Wild and New: Dreams from Zinacantan." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, number 22, 1976. 

Levy, John D., and Richard T. Koritzer. "Enamel, Silicon, and Fluoride Rela- 
tionships Demonstrating a Surface Silicon Effect and Facilitating Fluoride 
Uptake." Journal of Dental Research, volume 55, number 5 (1976), pages 

McAnulty, Sarah D. "Angel DeCora: American Indian Artist and Educator." 
Nebraska History, volume 57 (1976), pages 143-199. 

Meggers, Betty J. "Introductions" and "Concluding Remarks." In Symposium: 
Effects of Environmental Differences on the Transition from Hunting and 
Gathering to Settled Life in the Peruvian Highlands. Adas del XL1 Con- 
gresso Internacional de Americanistas, volume 3 (1976), pages 530-531 and 

. "Vegetational Fluctuation and Prehistoric Cultural Adaptation in 

Amazonia: Some Tentative Correlations." World Archaeology, volume 8 
(1977), pages 287-303. 

Meggers, Betty ]., and Clifford Evans. "Early Formative Period Chronology of 
the Ecuadorian Coast: A Correction." American Antiquity, volume 42 
(1977), pages 266. 

Ortner, Donald J. "The Paleopathology Program at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion: Purposes and Present Status." Bulletin of the New York Academy of 
Medicine, volume 52, number 10 (1976), pages 1197-1206. 

. "Microscopic and Molecular Biology of Human Compact Bone: An 

Anthropological Perspective." Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, volume 
19 (1976). 

Ortner, Donald J., and Robert S. Corruccini. "The Skeletal Biology of the Vir- 
ginia Indians." American Journal of Physical Anthropology, volume 45, 
number 3 (1976), pages 717-722. 

Ortner, Donald J., David W. von Endt, and M. S. Robinson. "The Effect of 
Temperature on Protein Decay in Bone: Its Significance in Nitrogen Dating 
of Archeological Material." In Experimental Archeology. New York: Co- 
lumbia University Press (1977). 

Riesenberg, Saul H. "The Organization of Navigational Knowledge on Pulu- 
wat." In Pacific Navigation and Voyaging, by The Polynesian Society In- 
corporated, pages 91-128. Wellington, New Zealand, 1976. 

Rose, Carolyn L. "Comments on the Exchange of Information on Conserva- 
tion Methods and Practices Between Conservators and Archeologists." In 
Pacific Northwest Wet Site Wood Conservation Conference, volume 2 
(1977), pages 83-87. 

. "The Training of Conservation Specialists Within a Museum Studies 

Program." In American Institute for Conservation Conference, Boston, 
Massachusetts, 1977. 

Rye, Owen S., and Clifford Evans. "Traditional Pottery Techniques of Paki- 
stan: Field and Laboratory Studies." Smithsonian Contributions to Anthro- 
pology, number 21, 1976. 

St. Hoyme, L. E., and Richard T. Koritzer. "Ecology of Dental Disease." 
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, volume 45, number 3 (1976), 
pages 673-686. 

Stewart, T. Dale. "Are Supra-Inion Depressions Evidence of Prophylactic 
Trephination?" Bulletin of the History of Medicine, volume 50 (1976), 
pages 414-434. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 271 

. "Adolpho Hans Schultz (1891-1976)." Yearbook of the American 

Philosophical Society, 1976, pages 118-122. 

"The Neanderthal Skeletal Remains from Shanidar Cave, Iraq: A 

Summary of Findings to Date. In Proceedings of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, volume 121 (1977), pages 121-165. 

Sturtevant, William C. "Perfect Likenesses: Portraits for History of the Indian 
Tribes of North America (1837-44)." [Exhibition Catalogue] Washington, 
D.C. : National Museum of History and Technology, 1977. 

. [Review] "Sacred Circles: Two Thousand Years of North American 

Indian Art." [Exhibition] Council for Museum Anthropology Newsletter, 
volume 1, number 2 (1977), pages 18-20. 

[Review] The Invasion of America, by R. Jennings. William and 

Mary Quarterly, volume 34, number 2 (1977), pages 312-314. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H. "Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the 
Rosenkrans Site, Sussex County, New Jersey." In The Rosenkrans Site, An 
Adena-Related Mortuary Complex in the Upper Delaware Valley, New 
Jersey. [Appendix II] Archaeology of Eastern North America, volume 4 
(1976), pages 45-50. 

. "Prehistoric New World Population Size: Historical Review and Cur- 
rent Appraisal of North American Estimates." American Journal of Physi- 
cal Anthropology, volume 45, number 3 (1976), pages 661-666. 

"The Sources and Methodology for Mooney's Estimates of North 

American Indian Populations." In The Native Population of the Americas 
in 1492, edited by William M. Denovan, pages 243-288. Madison, Wiscon- 
sin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1976. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H., and Marianne Bouvier. "A Comparison of Two Meth- 
ods for the Microscopic Determination of Age at Death." American Journal 
of Physical Anthropology, volume 46, number 3 (1977), pages 391-394. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H., and Virginia L. Merchant. "Skeletal Growth of the 
Protohistoric Ankara." American Journal of Pliysical Anthropology, volume 
46, number 1 (1977), pages 61-72. 

Ubelaker, Douglas H, and P. Willey, "Notched Teeth from the Texas Pan- 
handle." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, volume 66, num- 
ber 4 (1976), pages 239-246. 

. "Human Skeletal Remains from Cramer Park, St. Croix." Bulletin 26, 

Office of the Territorial Archaeologist, Government of the Virgin Islands of 
the United States (1977), pages 1-2. 

"Human Skeletal Remains from Botany Bay, St. Thomas." Bulletin 

29, Office of the Territorial Archaeologist, Government of the Virgin Is- 
lands of the United States (1977), pages 1-3. 

Viola, Herman J. The Indian Legacy of Charles Bird King. Washington, D.C: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 

. "How Did an Indian Chief Really Look?" Smithsonian, June 1977, 

pages 100-104. 

Wedel, Waldo R. "The Education of a Plains Archeologist." The Plains An- 
thropologist, volume 22, number 75 (1977), pages 1-11. 

. "Native Astronomy and the Plains Caddoans." In Native American 

Astronomy, edited by Anthony F. Aveni, pages 131-145. Austin: University 
of Texas Press, 1977. 

-. "An Introduction to Pawnee Archeology." [Reprint] Bureau of Ameri- 

can Ethnology Bulletin 112, Smithsonian Institution, 1936 by J & L Reprint 
Company, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1977. 
Wedel, Waldo R., and Mildred M. Wedel. "Wichita Archeology and Ethno- 
history." In Kansas and the West: Bicentennial Essays in Honor of Nyle H. 
Miller, pages 8-20. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1976. 

272 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Department of Botany 

Ayensu, Edward S. "Alternatives for Biological Resources in Africa." Journal 
of the Washington Academy of Sciences, volume 66, number 4 (1976), 
pages 197-205. 

. "Scanning Electron Microscopy of Epidermal Features in Erithryna 

(Fabaceae)." Lloydia, volume 40 (September-October 1977). 

"Understanding Life." In The Smithsonian Experience, edited by James 

K. Page, Jr., Russell Bourne, and Alexis Doster III, pages 120-127. Washing- 
ton, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 
Bohlmann, F., C. Zdero, R. M. King, and H. Robinson. "A New Ageratone 

Derivative from Isocarpha oppositifolia." Phytochemistry, volume 16 (1977), 

page 768. 
Cowan, Richard S. "A Taxonomic Revision of Elizabetha (Leguminosae-Caesa- 

linioideae)." Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van 

Wetenschappen of Amsterdam, series C, volume 79, number 4 (1976), pages 

. "Studies of Tropical American Leguminosae — VIII." In Proceedings of 

the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, number 2 (1977), pages 

Cuatrecasas, J. "Moraceae." In La Vegetacion de la Cima del Macizo de Jaua, 

by Julian A. Steyermark and C. Brewer-Carias, pages 321-323. Boletin de la 

Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales, volume 22, numbers 132-133, 

March 1976. 
. "A New Subtribe in the Heliantheae (Compositae) : Espeletiinae." Phy- 

tologia, volume 35, number 1 (1976), pages 43-61. 

"Westoniella, a New Genus of the Astereae from the Costa Rican 

paramos." Phytologia, volume 35, number 6 (1977), pages 471-487. 

DeFilipps, R. A. "Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae. 28 Olacaceae." Webbia, vol- 
ume 30 (1976), pages 177-190. 

. "Hypochoeris." Flora Europaea, volume 4 (1976), pages 308-310. 

Erwin, Terry L., and Kjell B. Sandved. "Chirp and Rattle, Dart and Glitter." 
Smithsonian, November 1976, pages 116-120. 

Eyde, Richard H. "Durian Theory," [Review]. Seeds of Dicotyledons, by E. J. H. 
Corner. Systematic Botany, volume 1 (1976), pages 195-196. 

Farr, David F., and Ellen R. Farr. "Notes on Phaeocollybia and Pholiota in the 
Southern Appalachians." In Distributional History of the Biota of the South- 
ern Appalachians, Part IV, Algae and Fungi, edited by Bruce C. Parker and 
Martha K. Roane, pages 296-306. Charlottesville, Virginia: The University of 
Virginia Press, 1976. 

Farr, Ellen R., Orson K. Miller, Jr., and David F. Farr. "Biosystematic Studies 
in the Genus Pholiota, Stirps Adiposa." Canadian Journal of Botany, volume 
55 (1977), pages 1167-1180. 

Fosberg, F. R. "Distributional Extensions of Marine Spermatophytes." Micro- 
nesica, volume 12 (1976), pages 317-318. 

. "Expert on Hawaiian Plants Responds." National Parks and Conserva- 
tion Magazine, volume 51 (1977), pages 28-29. 

"Miscellaneous Notes on the Flora of Aldabra and Neighbouring Is- 

lands: IV. A New Bulbostylis and Observations on Cyperus (Cyperaceae)." 
Kew Bulletin, volume 31 (1977), pages 829-835. 

"Miscellaneous Notes on the Flora of Aldabra and Neighbouring Is- 

lands: V. Pandanus Tectorius Parkinson, Sensu Latissimo (Pandanaceae)." 
Kew Bulletin, volume 31 (1977), pages 837-840. 

'Paspalum Distichum Again." Taxon, volume 26 (1977), pages 201-202. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond, and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Floria of Micronesia, 3: Con- 
volvulaceae." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, volume 36, 1977. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 273 

Fosberg, F. Raymond, Margie V. C. Falanruw, and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Ad- 
ditional Records of Vascular Plants from the Northern Mariana Islands." 
Micronesica, volume 13 (1977), pages 27-31. 

Fosberg, F. R., David R. Stoddart, and Marie-Helene Sachet. "Island News and 
Comment." Atoll Research Bulletin, number 219, 1977. 

Hale, Mason E., Jr. "A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Pseudoparmelia Lynge 
(Parmeliaceae)." Smithsonian Contribtition to Botany, number 31, 1976. 

. A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Bulbothrix Hale (Parmeliaceae)." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 32, 1976. 

"A Monograph of the Lichen Genus Permelina Hale (Parmeliaceae)." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 33, 1976. 

"New Species in the Lichen Genus Parmotrema Mass." Mycotaxon, 

volume 5 (1977), pages 432-448. 
King, R. M., and H. Robinson. "Studies in the Eupatoriaea (Asteraceae). CLIX. 

Additions to the Genus, Ayapana." Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 57- 

. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLX. A New Species of Sci- 

adocephala from Ecuador." Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 375-377. 
-. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLXI. A New Species of 

Stevia from Costa Rica." Phytologia, volume 35 (1977), pages 229-232. 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLXII. New Species and 

Combinations from Venezuela." Phytologia, volume 35 (1977), pages 497- 

"Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CLXIII. Additions to the 

Genus Fleischmanniopsis." Phytologia, volume 36 (1977), pages 193-200. 
King, R. M., D. W. Kyhos, A. M. Powell, P. H. Raven, and H. Robinson. 

"Chromosome Numbers in Compositae. XIII. Eupatorieae." Annals of the 

Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 63 (1976), pages 862-888. 
Kirkbride, Joseph H., Jr. "Confirmation of Hybridization between Declieuxia 

fruticosa and D. passerina (Rubiaceae)." Brittonia, volume 28, number 3 

(1976), pages 341-347. 
. "A Revision of the Genus Declieuxia (Rubiaceae)." Memoirs of the 

New York Botanical Garden, volume 28, number 4 (1976), pages 1-87. 

"Index to the Rubiaceae by Julian A. Steyermark in the Botany of 

the Guayana Highland by B. Maguire and Collaborators." Phytologia, vol- 
ume 36 (1977), pages 324-366. 

Lellinger, David B. "Nomenclatural Notes on Some Ferns of Costa Rica, 
Panama, and Colombia." American Fern Journal, volume 67, number 2 
(1977), pages 58-60. 

Lellinger, David B. "Nomenclatural and Taxonomic Notes on the Pterido- 
phytes of Costa Rica, Panama, and Columbia, I." In Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 61, pages 703-732. 

. "Pteridophyta." In La Vegetacion de la Cima del Macizo de Jaua, by 

Julian A. Steyermark and C. Brewer-Carias, pages 262-270. Boletin de la 
Sociedad Venezuelana de Ciencias Naturales, volume 22, number 132-133 

Little, Elbert L., Jr. "Rare Tropical Trees of South Florida." Conservation 
Research Report, 20. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Forest Service, 1976. 

Little, Elbert L., Jr., and Barbara H. Honkala. "Trees and Shrubs of the U.S.: 
A Bibliography for Identification." Miscellaneous Publications, 1336. Wash- 
ington, D.C. : U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1976. 

Little, Elbert L., Jr., and Roy O. Woodbury. "Trees of the Caribbean Na- 
tional Forest, Puerto Rico." Forest Service Research Paper, ITF-20. Wash- 
ington, D.C: U.S. Forest Service, 1976. 

Moldenke, H. N., and L. B. Smith. "Eriocaulaceas." In Flora llustrada Cata- 
rinense, part 1, fascicle erio (1976), pages 1-103. 

274 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Nicolson, Dan H. "Proposal to Change the Typification of 723 Amorpho- 
phallus Nom Cons. (Araceae)." Taxon, volume 26 (May 1977), pages 337- 

Nicolson, Dan H., and Joseph Bogner. "Proposal for the Conservation of 787 
Pinellia Tenore (1839) against Atherurus Blum (1837) (Araceae)." Taxon, 
volume 26 (May 1977), page 338-339. 

Nicolson, Dan H., and George C. Steyskal. "The Masculine Garden of the 
Generic Name Styrax Linnaeus (Styraceae)." Taxon, volume 25 (1976), 
pages 581-587. 

Norman, E. M., and L. B. Smith. "Buddleia in Loganiaceas." In Flora Ilustrada 
Catarinense, part 1, fascicle loga (1976), pages 1-38. 

. "Strychnos in Loganiaceas." In Flora Ilustrada Catarinense, part 1, 

fascicle loga (1976), pages 64-73. 

Norris, James N. "[The Green Algal Genus] Blidingia Kylin 1947." In Marine 
Algae of California, by Isabella A. Abbott and George J. Hollenberg, pages 
70-73. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1976. 

. "[The Green Algal Genus] Enteromorpha Link 1820." In Marine Al- 
gae of California, by Isabella A. Abbott and George J. Hollenberg, pages 
73-77. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1976. 

Norris, James N., and Katina E. Bucher. "The Genus Platoma (Gigartinales, 
Rhodophyta), with a Description of P. abbottiana sp. nov." Journal of Phy- 
cology, volume 13, number 2 (1977), pages 155-162. 

Nowicke, Joan W., and John J. Skvarla. "Pollen Morphology and the Rela- 
tionship of the Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Primulaceae to the 
Order Centrospermae." Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, number 37, 

Read, Robert W. "Preface" and "Palmarum Colombiensium Elenchus por 
Armando Dugand (posthumous)." [Also edited and updated for publica- 
tion.] Cespedesia, volume 5, numbers 19 and 20 (April 1977), pages 257- 

Robinson, H. "Dolichopodidae." In Biota Acudtica de Sudamerica Austral., 
edited by S. H. Hurlbert, pages 305-306. San Diego, California: S. H. Hurl- 
bert, 1977. 

. "A New Species of Dominicomyia from Brasil (Diptera: Dolichopodi- 
dae)." In Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 
79, pages 310-312. 1977. 

. "A New Species of Taxilejeunea from Venezuela." Phytologia, volume 

34 (1976), pages 67-68. 

'A New Species of Vernonia from Ecuador." Phytologia, volume 34 

(1976), pages 301-304. 

"Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). VII. Notes on the Genus, 

Monactis." Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 33-45. 

-. "Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). III. Notes on the Genus, Cacos- 

mia." Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 46-52. 

-. "Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). IV. Additions to the Genus, 

Philoglossa." Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 53-56. 

"Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). New Andean Species of Lia- 

bum." Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 285-300. 

-. "Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). VI. Notes on the Genus Erato. 

Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 378-379. 

"Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). VII. Additions to the Genus 

Munnozia." Phytologia, volume 34 (1976), pages 380-387. 

"Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). VIII. Additions to Liabum and 

Munnozia." Phytologia, volume 35 (1976), pages 37-42. 

'Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). IX. Additions to Munnozia and 

Oligactis." Phytologia, volume 35 (1977), pages 199-204. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 275 

. "Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). X. Additions to the Genus 

Paranephelius." Phytologia, volume 35 (1977), pages 233-240. 

-. "Studies in the Liabeae (Asteraceae). XI. New Species in the Kew 

Herbarium." Phytologia, volume 35 (1977), pages 488-496. 

"Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). VIII. Notes on Genus and 

Species Limits in the Genus Viguiera." Phytologia, volume 36 (1977), pages 

Robinson, H., and J. Cuatrecasas. "Notes on the Genus and Species Limits of 
Pseudogynoxys (Greenm.) Cabrera (Senecioneae, Asteraceae)." Phytologia, 
volume 36 (1977), pages 177-192. 

Sachet, M.-H. "Vegetation et Flore Terrestre, Atoll de Takapoto." In Pro- 
gramme MAB de I'UNESCO, theme VII sur les iles, by B. Salvat, page 73. 
Papeete: MAB Programme de I'UNESCO, 1977. 

Saldanha, C. J., and Dan H. Nicolson. Flora of Hassan District, Karnataka, 
India. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Company, 1976. 

Shetler, Stanwyn G. "Start with Christmas Tree If It's Still Around." Audu- 
bon Naturalist News, volume 3, number 1 (January 1977), page 7. 

. "Phenology Project: Dates of Spring Flowering." Field Project, Num- 
ber 1 (1977), pages i-ii and 1-10. Concord, Massachusetts: International 
Environmental Resources Network. 

Simpson, Beryl B. "Breeding Systems of Dominant Perennial Plants of Two 
Disjunct Warm Desert Ecosystems." Oecologia, volume 27 (1977), pages 

, editor and contributor. Mesquite: Its Biology in Two Desert Scrub 

Ecosystems. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 
Inc., 1977. 

Simpson, Beryl B., J. L. Neff, and D. Seigler. "Krameria, Free Fatty Acids and 
Oil-Collecting Bees." Nature, volume 267 (1977), pages 150-151. 

Smith, Lyman B. "Xyridaceae," pages 275 and 278; "Bromeliaceae," pages 
286-290, 293-294, and 307-311. In La Vegetacion de la Cima del Macizo de 
Jaua, by Julian Steyermark and C. Brewer-Carias. Boletin de la Sociedad 
Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales, volume 22, numbers 132-133 (March 

Soderstrom, Thomas R. "The Graceful Grasses." Garden (March/April 1977), 
pages 5-9. 

Soderstrom, Thomas R., and C. E. Calderon. "Curtains for this Bamboo? The 
Mysterious Flowering of Ma-dake." Pacific Horticulture, volume 37, num- 
ber 3 (1976), pages 7-14. 

Solbig, O. T., and Beryl B. Simpson. A "Garden Experiment on Competition 
between Biotypes of the Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)." Jour- 
nal of Ecology, volume 65 (1977), pages 427-430. 

Stafleu, Frans A., and Richard S. Cowan. Taxonomic Literature: A Selective 
Guide to Botanical Publications and Collections with Dates, Commentaries 
and Types, second edition. Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema Holkema, 1976. 

Stern, William L. "Multiple Uses of Institutional Wood Collections." Curator, 
volume 19 (1976), pages 265-270. 

Steyermark, Julian A., and Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr. "Review of the Genus 
Perama (Rubiaceae)." Brittonia, volume 29, number 2 (June 1977), pages 

Tippo, Oswald, and William L. Stern. Humanistic Botany. New York: W. W. 
Norton and Company, 1977. 

Troth, R. G., and Dan H. Nicolson. "Artificial Key to the Common Shrubs of 
the Riverine Forests, Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal." Phytologia, 
volume 35 (February 1977), pages 224-228. 

Wasshausen, Dieter C. "New Species of Acanthaceae from Colombia." Phy- 
tologia, volume 37 (September 1977), pages 213-218. 

276 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "New Taxa of Acanthaceae from the Rio Palenque Science Center." 

Selbyana, volume 2, number 1 (August 1977), pages 14-21. 

Wurdack, John J. "Certamen Melastomataceis XXV." Phytologia, volume 35, 
number 1 (October 1976), pages 1-13. 

. "Certamen Melastomataceis XXVI." Phytologia, volume 35, number 3 

(February 1977), pages 241-251. 

"Melastomataceae." In La Vegetation de la Cima del Macizo laua, by 

Julian A. Steyermark and C. Brewer-Carias, pages 366-370. Boletin de la 
Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales, volume 22, numbers 132-133 
(March 1976). 

Department of Entomology 

Abercrombie, J. "Medical Entomology Studies — IX. The Subgenus Christo- 
phersiomyia of the Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)." Contributions of 
the American Entomological Institute, volume 14, number 2 (1977), 72 

Blake, D. H. "Colapsis favosa Say and Its Close Relatives (Coleoptera: 
Chrysomelidae)." In Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washing- 
ton, volume 79, number 2, pages 209-215. 1977. 

. "Colaspis chrysis Oliver and Its Close Relatives (Coleoptera: Chry- 
somelidae). In Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 
volume 79, number 3, pages 417-421. 1977. 

Burger, J. F. "The Biosystematics of Immature Arizona Tabanidae (Diptera)." 
In Transactions of the American Entomological Society, number 103. 1977. 

Burns, John M. ["Arthropoda"] (untitled poem). Printed on a wall of the In- 
sect Zoo, National Museum of Natural History, August 1976, and in "Chirp 
and Rattle, Dart and Glitter!" by T. L. Erwin and K. Sandved. Smithsonian, 
volume 7, number 8 (1976), pages 116-120. 

Cartwright, Oscar L. "Adult Feeding by Dynastes tityus (Linn.) Coleoptera: 
Scarabaeidae)." The Coleopterists Bulletin, volume 30, number 4 (1976), 
pages 336-337. 

. "A New Megasoma from Baja California, Mexico (Coleoptera: 

Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)." The Coleopterists Bulletin, volume 30, number 
1 (1976), pages 85-90. 

Clarke, J. F. Gates. "Microlepidoptera. Tortricoidea." Insects of Micronesia, 
volume 9, number 1 (1976), pages 1-144. 

Crabill, R. E., Jr. "A New Cryptopid Genus, with Key to the Genera Known 
to Occur in North America Including Mexico. (Chilopoda: Scolopendro- 
morpha: Cryptopidae). In Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, volume 79, number 3, pages 346-349. 1977. 

de Meillon, Botha. "The Changing Pattern in Transmission of Bancroftian 
Filariasis." In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Congress of Ento- 
mology, pages 498-504. 1976. 

de Meillon, Botha, and Gideon van Eeden. "Anopheles (Cellia) deaconi n. sp. 
from South Africa (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 8, 
number 4 (1976), pages 335-342. 

Emerson, K. C, and Roger D. Price. "Mallophaga of Venezuelan Mammals." 
In Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series, volume 20, 
number 3, pages 1-77. 1975. 

. "Abrocomophagidae (Mallophaga: Amblycera), a New Family from 

Chile." The Florida Entomologist, volume 59 (February 1977), pages 425- 

Erwin, Terry L. "Chirp and Rattle, Dart and Glitter!" Smithsonian, volume 7, 
number 8 (November 1976), pages 116-120. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 277 

. "Studies of the Subtribe Tachyina (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembi- 

diini) Supplement B: Lectotype Designations of Masoreus ridiculus Schau- 
fuss and Transfer of This Species to Polyderis." The Coleopterists Bulletin, 
volume 31, number 1 (1977), page 90. 

Erwin, Terry L., and La Verne J. M. Erwin. "Relationships of Predaceous 
Beetles to Tropical Forest Wood Decay. Part II. The Natural History of 
Neotropical Eurycoleus macularis Chevrolat (Carabidae: Lebiini) and Its 
Implications in the Evolution of Ectoparasitoidism." Biotropica, volume 8, 
number 4 (December 1976), pages 215-224. 

Erwin, Terry L., Donald R. Whitehead, and George E. Ball. "Family 4. cara- 
bidae, The Ground Beetles. North American Beetle Fauna Project." The 
Biological Research Institute of America, Inc., July 1977, pages 4.1-4.68. 

Field, William D., and Jose Herrera. "The Pierid Butterflies of the Genera 
Hypsochila Ureta, Phulia Herrich-Schaffer, Infraphulia Field, Pierphulia 
Field, and Piercolias Steudinger." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 
number 232, 1977. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. [Review] The Odonata of Canada and Alaska, volume III, 
by Edmund M. Walker and Philip S. Corbet. Bulletin of the Entomological 
Society of America, volume 22 (1976), pages 392-393. 

. "Neuroptera, Mecoptera and Trichoptera." In Aquatic Biota of South- 
ern South America, edited by Stuart H. Hurlbert, pages 187-188, 248, and 
249-253. San Diego: San Diego State University, 1977. 

-. [Review] Marine Insects, edited by Lanna Cheng. Bulletin of the 

Entomological Society of America, volume 23 (1977), pages 152-153. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr., and Joaquin Bueno-Soria. "Studies of Neotropical Cad- 
disflies, XXI. The Genus Lepidostoma (Trichoptera: Lepidostomatidae)." In 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, pages 
375-387. 1977. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr., and Scott J. Herrmann. "The Description of and Environ- 
mental Characterization for, a New Species of Ochrotrichia from Colorado 
(Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)." In Annals of the Entomological Society of 
America, volume 69, pages 894-898. 1976. 

Ford (Smith), T. L. "Autobiographical Vignette." Mosquito Systematics, vol- 
ume 9, number 1 (1977), pages 88-90. 

Froeschner, Richard C. "Description of a New Species of Lace Bug Attacking 
the Oil Palm in Colombia (Hemiptera: Tingidae)." In Proceedings of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, volume 78, number 1, pages 104-107. 

. "Galapagos Lace Bugs: Zoogeographic Notes and a New Species of 

Phatnoma (Hemiptera: Tingidae)." In Proceedings of the Entomological 
Society of Washington, volume 78, number 2, pages 181-184. 1976. 

-. "Zoogeographic Notes of the Lace Bug Genus Acalypta Westwood in 

the Americas with Description of a New Species from Mexico (Hemiptera: 
Tingidae)." American Midland Naturalist, volume 96, number 2 (1976), 
pages 257-269. 

-. "The Burrowing Bugs of Hawaii, with Description of a New Species 

(Hemiptera: Cydnidae)." In Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological 
Society, volume 22, number 2, pages 229-236. 1977. 

Gordon, Robert D., and O. L. Cartwright. "Four New Species of Aegialia 
(S. str.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from California and Nevada Sand 
Dunes." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, volume 67, num- 
ber 1 (1977), pages 42-48. 

Harbach, R. E., and K. L. Knight. "A Mosquito Taxonomic Glossary X. The 
Larval Mandible." Mosquito Systematics, volume 9, number 1 (1977), pages 

. "A Mosquito Taxonomic Glossary XI. The Larval Maxilla." Mosquito 

Systematics, volume 9, number 1 (1977), pages 128-175. 

278 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Huang, Yiau-Min. "Medical Entomology Studies — VII. The Subgenus Stego- 
myia of Aedes in Southeast Asia. II — The edwardsi Group of Species. Ill — 
The w.-albus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae)." In Contributions of 
the American Entomological Institute, volume 14, number 1, 1977. 

Hurd, Paul D., Jr. [Review] Evolution of Instinct: Comparative Ethnology of 
Hymenoptera, by Kunio Iwata. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of 
America, volume 23 (1976), page 103. 

Krombein, Karl V. "Lectotype Designations for Three New World Lin's with 
Taxonomic Notes (Hymenoptera: Larridae)." In Proceedings of the Ento- 
mological Society of Washington, volume 78, pages 333-335. 1976. 

, editor and principal investigator for SF 3-00104: Alfieri, Anastase. 

"The Coleoptera of Egypt." Memoires de la Societe Entomologique 
d'Egypte, volume 5 (1977), 361 pages. 

Krombein, Karl V., and Howard E. Evans. "Three New Neotropical Pterom- 
brus with Description of the Diapausing Larva (hymenoptera: Tiphiidae)." 
In Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, volume 78, 
pages 361-368. 1976. 

Mathis, Wayne N., and Willis W. Wirth. "A New Neotropical Shore Fly 
Genus with Two New Species (Diptera: Ephydridae)." The Pan-Pacific 
Entomologist, volume 52, number 2 (1976), pages 126-132. 

. "A New Genus of Psilopine Flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) with Notes 

on Its Relationships." In Proceedings of the Entomological Society of 
Washington, volume 79, number 1, pages 63-74. 1977. 

Peyton, E. L. "Medical Entomology Studies — X. A Revision of the Subgenus 
Pseudoficalbia of the Genus Uranotaenia in Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culi- 
cidae)." In Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, volume 
14, number 3, 273 pages. 1977. 

Price, Roger D., and K. C. Emerson. "Three New Genera and Species of 
Menoponidae (Mallophaga) from Southeast Asia and New Guinea." Pacific 
Insects, volume 16 (1975), pages 427-432. 

. "The Menacanthus (Mallophaga: Menoponidae) of the Piciformes 

(Aves)." In Annals of the Entomological Society of America, volume 68, 
pages 779-785. 1975. 

Reinert, J. F. "A New Man-Biting Species of Aedes (Paraedes) from South- 
east Asia (Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 8, number 3 
(1976), pages 319-331. 

. "Medical Entomology Studies — V. The Subgenus Rhinoskusea of the 

Genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae)." In Contributions of the American Ento- 
mological Institute, volume 13, number 2, 1976. 

Sirivanakarn, S. "Medical Entomology Studies — III. A Revision of the Sub- 
genus Culex in the Oriental Region. (Diptera: Culicidae). In Contributions 
of the American Entomological Institute, volume 12, number 2, 1976. 

. "Additional Descriptions of Three Species of Culex (Eumelanomyia) 

with the Description of a New Species from Peninsular Malaysia (Diptera: 
Culiciae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 9, number 2 (1977), pages 73-87. 
"Redescription of Four Oriental Species of Culex (Culiciomyia) and 

the Description of a New Species from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae)." 
Mosquito Systematics, volume 9, number 2 (1977), pages 93-111. 

-. "Medical Entomology Studies — VI. A Revision of Subgenus Lopho- 

ceraomyia of the Genus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae)." 
In Contributions of the American Entomological Institute, volume 13, num- 
ber 4, 1977. 
Sirivanakarn, S., and S. Ramalingam. "A New Species of Culex (Eumel- 
anomyia) Theobald with Notes on Three Other Species from Malaysia 
(Diptera: Culicidae)." Mosquito Systematics, volume 8, number 2 (1976), 
pages 209-216. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 279 

Spangler, Paul J. "Three New Ecuadorian Species of the Aquatic Beetle Genus 
Chaetarthria (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae)." In Proceedings of the Biologi- 
cal Society of Washington, volume 90, number 3, pages 566-578. 1977. 

Spangler, Paul J., and Glen Longley. "The Larva of a New Subterranean 
Water Beetle, Haideoporus texanus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydropori- 
nae)." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, 
number 3, pages 532-535. 1977. 

Spangler, Paul J., and Philip D. Perkins. "Three New Species of the Neotropi- 
cal Water Beetle Genus Elmoparnus (Coleoptera: Dryopidae)." In Proceed- 
ings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 63, pages 
743-760. 1977. 

Traub, R. "Tiflovia, a New Genus of Pygiopsyllid Flea from New Guinea, 
with Notes of Convergent Evolution and Zoogeography (Siphonaptera)." 
Journal of Medical Entomology, volume 13, number 6 (1977), pages 653- 

Traub, R., C. L. Wisseman, Jr., and A. Farhang-Azad. [Abstract] "The Ecol- 
ogy of Chigger-borne Rickettsiosis and Murine Typhus — Changing Con- 
cepts and Epidemiology." In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International 
Congress of Entomology, volume 11, number 3, pages 487-489. 1974. 

Ward, R. A. "Recent Changes in the Epidemiology of Malaria Relating to 
Human Ecology." In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Congress of 
Entomology, pages 523-539. 1976 

. "Culicidae." In Biota Acudtica de Sudamerica Austral. (Spanish with 

English translation), edited by S. H. Hurlbert, pages 268-274. San Diego: 
San Diego State University, 1977. 

Ward, R. A., B. Jordan, A. R. Gillogly, and F. J. Harrison. "Anopheles litoralis 
King and A. barbirostris Group on the Island of Guam." Mosquito News, 
volume 36, number 1 (1976), pages 99-100. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 

Barnard, J. L. "Amphipoda (Crustacea) from the Indo-Pacific Tropics: A Re- 
view." Micronesica, volume 12 (1976), pages 169-181. 

. "Affinities of Paraniphargus lelouparum Monod, A Blind Anchialine 

Amphipod (Crustacea) from the Galapagos Islands." In Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, pages 421-432. 1976. 

Barnard, J. L., and Eric Schulenberger. "Clarification of the Abyssal Amphi- 
pod, Paralicella tenuipes Chevreus." Crustaceana, volume 31 (1976), pages 

Barnes, A. T., L. B. Quetin, J. J. Childress, and D. L. Pawson. "Deep-sea 
Macroplanktonic Sea Cucumbers; Suspended Sediment Feeders Captured 
from Deep Submergence Vehicle." Science, volume 194 (1976), pages 1083- 

Bayer, Frederick M., and Katherine Margaret Muzik. "New Genera and Spe- 
cies of the Holaxonian Family Chrysogorgiidae (Octocorallia: Gorgona- 
cea)." Zoologische Mededelingen, volume 50, number 5 (1976), pages 65-90. 

."A New Solitary Octocoral, Taiaroa tauhou gen. et sp. nov. (Coelen- 

terata: Protoalcyonaria) from New Zealand." Journal of the Royal Society 
of New Zealand, volume 6, number 4 (1976), pages 499-515. 

Billups, L. H., and J. C. Harshbarger. "Reptiles." [Section of the chapter, 
"Naturally Occurring Neoplastic Diseases."] In CRC Handbook of Labora- 
tory Animal Science, volume 3, edited by E. C. Melby, Jr., and N. H. Alt- 
man, pages 343-356. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1976. 

Bouchard, Raymond W., and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "A New Subgenus and 

280 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Two New Species of Crayfishes of the Genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cam- 
baridae) from the Southeastern United States." Smithsonian Contributions 
to Zoology, volume 224, 1976. 

Bowman, T. E. "Stygiomysis major, A New Troglobitic Mysid from Jamaica, 
and Extension of the Range of S. holthuisi to Puerto Rico (Crustacea: My- 
sidacea: Stygiomysidae)." International Journal of Speleology, volume 8 
(1976), pages 365-373. 

. "Isopod Crustaceans (except Anthuridae) Collected on the Presiden- 
tial Cruise of 1938." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washing- 
ton, volume 89, number 57, pages 653-666. 1977. 

" lucicutiae, A New Species of Suctorian from the 

Pelagic Calanoid Copepod, Lucicutia." Ibid, volume 89, number 60, pages 
692-702. 1977. 

'Mysidacea." In Biota Acudtica de Sudamerica Austral, edited by S. 

H. Hurlbert, volume 14, 342 pages. San Diego: San Diego State University, 

Chace, Fenner A., Jr., and Guy Barnish. "Swarming of A Raninid Megalopa 
at St. Lucia, West Indies (Decapoda: Brachyura)." Crustaceana, volume 31, 
part 1 (1976), pages 105-107. 

Child, C. Allan. "On Some Pyconogonida of French Oceania." In Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, number 2, pages 440- 
446. 1977. 

. "Four New Species of Anoplodactylus (Pycnogonida) from the West- 
ern North Atlantic." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washing- 
ton, volume 90, number 3, pages 584-596. 1977. 

Clarke, Arthur H. "The Endangered Molluscs of Canada." In Proceedings of 
the Symposium on Canada's Threatened Species and Habitats, pages 148- 
150. 1977. 

Cohen, Ann C "The Systematics and Distribution of Loligo (Cephalopoda: 
Myopsida) in the Western North Atlantic, with Descriptions of Two New 
Species." Malacologia, volume 15, number 2 (1976), pages 299-367. 

Cohen, Ann C, and Dustin D. Chivers. "Types of Podocopid Ostracoda De- 
scribed by Skogsberg (1928) in the Type Collection of the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, San Francisco." The Ostracodologist, number 24 (1976), 
pages 10-16. Tel Aviv, Israel. 

Cressey, R. F. "Two New Species of Colobomatus (Copepoda: Cyclopodia) 
Parasitic on Pacific Fish." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 90, number 3, pages 579-583. 1977. 

Danta, W. D., and M. E. Rice. "A Restudy of the Middle Cambrian Bergess 
Shale Fossil Worm, Ottoia Prolifica." In Proceedings of the International 
Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura, edited by M. E. 
Rice and M. Todorovic, volume 2, pages 79-80. 1976. 

Grigg, Richard, W., and Frederick M. Bayer. "Present Knowledge of the Sys- 
tematics and Zoogeography of the Order Gorgonacea in Hawaii." Pacific 
Science, volume 30, number 2 (1976), pages 167-175. 

Harshbarger, J. C. "Description of Polyps and Epidermal Papillomas in Three 
Bivavle Mollusk Species." Marine Fisheries Review, volume 38 (1976), 
pages 25-29. 

Harshbarger, J. C, S. E. Shumway, and G. W. Bane. "Variably Differentiating 
Oral Neoplasms, Ranging from Epidermal Papilloma to Odontogenic Amel- 
oblastoma, in Cunners [(Tautogolabrus adspersus) Osteichthyes; Perci- 
formes: Labridae]." In Progress in Aquatic Animals, edited by C. J. Dawe, 
D. G. Scarpelli, and S. R. Wellings, pages 113-128. Basel: Karger, 1976. 

Harshbarger, J. C, S. V. Otto, and S. C. Chang. "Chlamydiae (with Phages), 
Mycoplasmas, and Rickettsiae in Chesapeake Bay Bivalves." Science, vol- 
ume 196 (1977), pages 666-668. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 281 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. "The Crayfish Bouchardina robisoni, A New Genus and 
Species (Decapoda, Cambaridae) from Southern Arkansas." In Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 62, pages 733- 
742. 1977. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., and H. H. Hobbs III. "On the Troglobitic Shrimps of 
the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (Decapoda: Atyidae and Palaemonidae)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 240, 1976. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., and David S. Lee. "A New Troglobitic Crayfish (Deca- 
poda, Cambaridae) from Peninsular Florida." In Proceedings of the Biologi- 
cal Society of Washington, volume 89, number 32, pages 382-391. 1976. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., and Daniel J. Peters. "The Entocytherid Ostracods of 
North Carolina." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 247, 1977. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., and Margaret Walton. "New Entocytherid Ostracods 
from Kentucky and Tennessee." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington, volume 89, number 33, pages 393-404. 1976. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., H. H. Hobbs III, and Margaret A. Daniel. "A Review 
of the Troglobitic Decapod Crustaceans of the Americas." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology, volume 244, 1977. 

Hope, W. D., B. E. Coull, R. L. Ellison, J. W. Feeger, R. P. Higgins, W. D. 
Hummon, R. M. Rieger, W. E. Sterrer, H Thiel, and J. H. Tietjen. "Quanti- 
tative Estimates of the Meiofauna from the Deep Sea off North Carolina, 
U.S.A." Marine Biology, volume 39 (1977), pages 233-240. 

Jones, M. L., P. A. Jumars, and D. Thistle. "Detecting Two-Dimensional Spa- 
tial Structure in Biological Data." Oecologia, volume 28 (1977), pages 109- 

. "A Redescription of Magelona papillicornis F. Muller." In Essays on 

Polychaetous Annelids in Memory of Dr. Olga Hartman, edited by D. J. 
Reish and K. Fauchald, pages 247-266. Los Angeles: Allan Hancock Founda- 
tion, 1977. 

Kornicker, L. S. "Benthic Marine Cypridinacea from Hawaii (Ostracoda)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 231. 1976. 

Kornicker, L. S., and K. G. McKenzie. "Redescription of Eurypylus petrosus 
Brady, 1869, and A Key to the Genera of Sarsiellidae (Myodocopina: ostra- 
coda)." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, 
pages 347-352. 1976. 

Kornicker, L. S., and I. G. Sohn. "Phylogeny, Ontogeny, and Morphology of 
Living and Fossil Thaumatocypreidacea (Myodocopa: Ostracoda)." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 219, 1976. 

. "Evolution of the Entomoconchacea." Abhandlungen Verhandlungen 

naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Hamburg, numbers 18/19 [Supplement] 
pages 55-61. 1976. 

. "Removal of Gelatinous Coating from the Surface of the Carapace 

of Ostracoda in Preparation for Their Examination with the Scanning 
Electron Microscope." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washing- 
ton, volume 89, pages 365-368. 1976. 

Kornicker, L. S., and F. P. C. M. van Morkhoven. "Metapolycope, A New 
Genus of Bathyal Ostracoda from the Atlantic (Suborder Cladocopina)." 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 225, 1976. 

Kornicker, L. S., and F. E. Caraion. "West African Myodocopid Ostracoda 
(Cypridinidae, Philomedidae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, vol- 
ume 241, 1977. 

Leibovitz, L., J. C. Harshbarger, and P. Chanley. "A Polypoid Myoma of the 
Foot of a Surf Clam (Spisula solidissima)." In Proceedings of the First In- 
ternational Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Ninth Annual Meet- 
ing, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, pages 148-150. Kingston, Canada: 
Queen's University, 1976. 

282 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Manning, Raymond B. "Redescriptions of Oratosquilla indica (Hansen) and 
Clorida verrucosa (Hansen), with Accounts of a New Genus and Two New 
Species." Beaufortia, volume 25, number 318 (1976), pages 1-13. 

. "Preliminary Accounts of Five New Genera of Stomatopod Crusta- 
ceans." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, 
number 2, pages 420-423. 1977. 

Manning, Raymond B., and Horton H. Hobbs, Jr. "Decapoda." In Biota Acua- 
tica de Sudamerica Austral, edited by S. H. Hurlbert, pages 157-162. San 
Diego: San Diego State University, 1977. 

Manning, Raymond B., and Paul Struhsaker. "Occurrence of the Caribbean 
Stomatopod, Bathysquilla microps, off Hawaii, with Additional Records for 
B. microps and B. crassispinosa." In Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington, volume 89, pages 439-449. 1976. 

McKinney, Larry D., and J. L. Barnard. "A New Marine Genus and Species 
of the Nuuanu-group (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from the Yucatan Penin- 
sula." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90. 

Pawson, D. L. "Molpadiid Holothurians of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific and 
Indian Oceans." Antarctic Research Series, volume 26, number 4, 1976. 

. "Shallow-Water Sea Cucumbers from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize." In 

Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 
31, pages 369-382. 1976. 

"Two New Sea Cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holthuroidea) from the 

Eastern United States." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington, volume 89, number 34, pages 405-410. 1976. 

Pettibone, Marian H. "Contributions to the Polychaete Family Trochochaeti- 
dae Pettibone." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 230, 1976. 

. "Revision of the Genus Macellicephala Mcintosh and the Subfamily 

Macellicephalinae Hartmann-Schroder (Polychaeta: Polynoidae)." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, volume 229, 1976. 

-. "Review of Halosydnopsis and Related Genera (Polychaeta: Polynoi- 

dae: Lepidonotinae)." In Essays on Polychaetous Annelids in Memory of 
Dr. Olga Hartman, edited by D. J. Reish and K. Fauchald, pages 39-62. Los 
Angeles: University of Southern California, Allan Hancock Foundation, 

"The Synonymy and Distribution of the Estuarine Hypaniola florida 

(Hartman) from the East Coast of the United States (Polychaeta: Amphare- 
tidae). In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, 
number 2, pages 205-208. 1977. 

Rehder, Harald A. "Mollusca." In "The Natural History of Johnston Atoll, 
Central Pacific Ocean," Atoll Research Bulletin, number 192, pages 70-73, 
December 1976. 

Rice, Mary E. "Larval Development and Metamorphosis in Sipuncula." Amer- 
ican Zoologist, volume 16 (1976), pages 563-571. 

. "Sipunculans Associated with Coral Communities." Micronesica, vol- 
ume 12 (1976), pages 119-132. 

Rice, M. E., and M. Todorovic, editors. Proceedings of the International Sym- 
posium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura, volume 2, page 204. 

Roper, Clyde F. E. "A Comparative Study of Catches of Pelagic Cephalopods 
by Various Midwater Trawls." In The Biology of Cephalopods, Symposia 
of the Zoological Society of London, volume 38, pages 61-87. 1977. 

Rose, F. L., and J. C. Harshbarger. "Neoplastic and Possibly Related Skin 
Lesions in Neotenic Tiger Salamanders from A Sewage Lagoon." Science, 
volume 196 (1977), pages 666-668. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 283 

Rosewater, J. "Pleurocera Rafinesque, 1818 (Gastropoda) : Proposed Designa- 
tion of Type-Species under the Plenary Powers. Z. N. (S.)83." Bulletin 
Zoological Nomenclature, volume 33, part 2, pages 105-113. September 

. [Review] Shell Collector's Guide, by Ruth Fair. National Capital Shell 

Club Newsletter, pages 11-12, September 1976. 

"Letter to the Editor [On Australian Littorinidae]," Australian Shell 

News, number 16 (October 1976), page 2. 

"Bicentennial Notty." National Capital Shell Club Newsletter, page 

8, February 1977. 

Rowe, F. W. P., and D. L. Pawson. "Type-Specimens of Echinoderms in the 
Australian Museum, Sydney." Records of the Australian Museum, 1977. 

Ruetzler, K. "Ecology of Tunisian Commercial Sponges." Tethys, volume 7 
(1977), pages 249-264. 

Ruetzler, K., and B. Collette. "Reef Fishes Over Sponge Bottoms off the 
Mouth of the Amazon River." In Proceedings, Third International Coral 
Reef Symposium, pages 305-310. Coral Gables, Florida: University of 
Miami, 1977. 

Shulenberger, E., and J. L. Barnard. "Amphipods from an Abyssal Trap Set 
in the North Pacific Gyre." Crustaceana, volume 31 (1976), pages 241-258. 

Young, R. E., and Clyde F. E. Roper. "Intensity Regulation of Biolumines- 
cence during Countershading in Living Midwater Animals." Fishery Bul- 
letin, United States, volume 75, number 2, pages 239-253. 1977. 

Zimmerman, Roger ]., and J. L. Barnard. "A New Genus of Primitive Marine 
Hadziid (Amphipoda) from Bimini and Puerto Rico. In Proceedings of the 
Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, pages 565-580. 1977. 

Department of Mineral Sciences 

Appleman, D. E., K. M. Towe, and W. U. Berthold. "The Crystallography of 
Patellina Corrugata Williamson: a-Axis Preferred Orientation." Journal of 
Foraminiferal Research, volume 7, number 1 (1977), pages 58-61. 

Aumento, F., W. G. Melson, et al. "Chemical Stratigraphy of Leg 45 Basalts: 
Electron Probe Analyses of Glasses." Initial Reports of the Deep Sea 
Drilling Project, volume 37, 1977. 

Byerly, G. R., W. G. Melson, J. A. Nelen, and E. Jarosewich. "Abyssal Ba- 
saltic Glasses as Indicators of Magma Composition." Smithsonian Contri- 
butions to the Earth Sciences, number 19, pages 22-30, 1977. 

Clarke, R. S., Jr., and J. I. Goldstein. "Schreibersite Growth and Its Influence 
on the Metallography of Coarse Structured Iron Meteorites." Meteoritics, 
volume 11 (1976), page 262. 

Clarke, R. S., Jr., E. P. Henderson, and B. Mason. "The Harleton, Texas, 
Chondrite." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 19, 
pages 61-70, 1977. 

Desautels, P. E. "Gemstones." Encyclopedia Brittanica Yearbook, 1976. 

. "Jade." Smithsonian, April 1977. 

Dube, A., B. J. Fredriksson, E. Jarosewich, J. A. Nelen, A. F. Noonan, J. 
O'Keefe, and K. Fredriksson. "Eight L-Group Chondrites: A Comparative 
Study." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 19, pages 
71-82, 1977. 

Dunn, Pete J. "Gemmological Notes." Journal of Cemmology, volume 15 
(1976), pages 113-118. 

. "Genthelvite and the Helvine Group." Mineralogical Magazine, vol- 
ume 40 (1976), pages 627-636. 

"Buergerite, Uniformity of Composition." The American Mineralogist, 

volume 61 (1976), pages 1029-1030. 

284 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "Gem Notes." Gems and Cemology, volume 15 (1976), pages 199-202. 

. "Prosopite, an Effective Turquoise Substitute." "Journal of Cemmology, 

volume 15 (1976), pages 205-208. 

"Observations on the Slocum Stone." Gems and Gemology, volume 

15 (1977), pages 252-256. 

"Achrematite Discredited." The American Mineralogist, volume 62 

(1977), page 170. 

"Apatite, a Guide to Species Nomenclature." Mineralogical Record, 

volume 8 (1977) pages 78-82. 
. "The Helvite Group." Mineralogical Record, volume 8 (1977) pages 


. "The Use of the Electron Microprobe in Gemmology." Journal of 

Gemmology, volume 15 (1977), pages 248-258. 

"The U.S. National Mineral Collection." The American Mineralogist, 

volume 62 (1977), page 179. 

"Uvite, a Newly Classified Gem Tourmaline." Journal of Gemmology, 

volume 15 (1977), pages 300-308. 

Mineralogical Notes: Fluellite from North Carolina." Mineralogical 

Record, volume 8 (1977), pages 392-393. 

-. "Mineralogical Notes, Ferberite from Panasqueria, Portugal, and 

Wolframite from Korea." Mineralogical Record, volume 8 (1977). 

Dunn, Pete J., D. E. Appleman, J. S. Nelen, and J. A. Norberg. "Uvite, a 
New (Old) Common Member of the Tourmaline Group." Mineralogical 
Record, volume 8 (1977), pages 100-108. 

Dunn, Pete J., R. Rouse, B. Cannon, and J. A. Nelen. "Zektzerite, a New 
Lithium Sodium Zirconium Silicate Related to Tuhualite and the Osumilite 
Group." The American Mineralogist, volume 62 (1977), pages 416-420. 

Embry, Peter G., P. J. Dunn, and A. Clark. "Blue Wulfenite from Tsumeb." 
Mineralogical Record, volume 8 (1977), pages 86-87. 

Fiske, Richard S. [Review] Volcanoes of the Earth, by Fred M. Bullard. Science 
Books and Films, AAA5, April 1977; and American Scientist, May 1977. 

Fredricksson, K. [Review] Handbook of Iron Meteorites, Their History, Dis- 
tribution, Composition and Structure, by V. F. Buchwald. Science, volume 
194 (1976), pages 313-314. 

Fredricksson, K., A. Noonan, P. Brenner, and C. Sudre. "Bulk and Major 
Phase Composition of Eight Hypersthene Achondrites." Meteoritics, vol- 
ume 11 (1976), pages 278-280. 

Fudali, Robert F. "Geophysical and Geologic Investigations of Some 'Acci- 
dents Circulates' in Mauritania." National Geographic Society Research 
Reports for 1969, pages 123-129, 1977. 

Jarosewich, Eugene, and B. Mason. "Composition of Lunar Basalts 10069, 
10071 and 12008." Lunar Sample Studies, NASA, 1977. 

King, E. A., E. Jarosewich, D. G. Brookings. "Petrography and Chemistry of 
the Faucett Meteorite, Buchanan County, Missouri." Meteoritics, volume 12 
(1977), pages 13-20. 

Kirchner, E., K. Keil, C. B. Gomez, and J. Nelen. "Studies of Brazillian Me- 
teorites V. Evidence for Shock Metamorphism in the Paranaiba, Matto 
Grosso, Chondrite." Revista Brasileira de Geociencias, volume 7 (1977). 

Mason, Brian. "The Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia, Chondrite." Smithsonian 
Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 19, page 83, 1977. 

Mason, Brian, and P. M. Martin. "Geochemical Differences Among Com- 
ponents of the Allende Meteorite." Smithsonian Contributions to the 
Earth Sciences, number 19, pages 84-95, 1977. 

Melson, W. G., G. R. Byerly, J. A. Nelen, T. O'Hearn, T. L. Wright, and T. L. 
Vallier. "A Catalog of the Major Element Chemistry of Abyssal Volcanic 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 285 

Glasses." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, number 19, 
pages 31-60, 1977. 

Melson, W. G., T. L. Vallier, T. L. Wright, G. Byerly and J. Nelen. "Chemical 
Diversity of Abyssal Volcanic Glass Erupted along Pacific, Atlantic, and 
Indian Ocean Sea-Floor Spreading Center." In "The Geophysics of the Pa- 
cific Ocean Basin and Its Margin," Geophysical Monograph 19, pages 351- 
377. American Geophysical Union, 1976. 

Noonan, A. F., and J. A. Nelen. "A Petrographic and Mineral Chemistry 
Study of the Weston, Connecticut, Chondrite." Meteoritics, number 11 
(1976), pages 111-130. 

Noonan, A. F., K. Fredriksson, E. Jarosewich, and P. Brenner, "Mineralogy 
and Bulk, Chondrule, Size-fraction Chemistry of the Dhajala, Indian, Chon- 
drite." Meteoritics, number 11 (1976), pages 340-343. 

Noonan, A. F., J. Nelen, and K. Fredriksson. "Mineralogy and Chemistry of 
Xenoliths in the Weston Chondrite — Ordinary and Carbonaceous." Meteor- 
itics, number 11 (1976), pages 344-346. 

Noonan, A. F., E. Jarosewich, and R. S. Clarke, Jr. "The St. Mary's County, 
Maryland, Chondrite." Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, 
number 19 (1977), pages 96-103. 

Olsen, E., T. E. Bunch, E. Jarosewich, A. F. Noonan, and G. I. Huss. "Happy 
Canyon: A New Type of Enstatite Chondrite." Meteoritics, number 12 
(1977), pages 109-123. 

Simkin, T. [Review] Afar Depression of Ethiopia, edited by A. Pilger and A. 
Rosier. American Mineralogist, volume 62 (1977), pages 835-836. 

. "Historic Volcanism and Eruption Forecasting in Latin America." In 

symposium volume: Geophysics in the Americas. Panamerican Institute of 
Geography and History, August, 1977. 

Simkin, T., and R. S. Fiske. "Volcanology — A Review of 1976." Geotimes, 
January 1977, pages 42-43. 

White, John S., Jr., I. E. Grey, and D. J. Lloyd. "The Structure of Crichtonite 
and Its Relationship to Senaite." American Mineralogist, volume 61 (1976), 
pages 1203-1212. 

. "La Collection Mineralogique du 'Smithsonian Institution' " Le 

Monde et les Mineraux, number 15 (1976), pages 394-397. 

White, John S., Jr., and W. E. Wilson. "An Experiment in Specimen Ap- 
praisal." Mineralogical Record, volume 8 (1977), pages 38-40 and 47-48. 

. "The Kegel Collection." Mineralogical Record, volume 8 (1977), 

pages 51-53. 

Wlotzka, F., and E. Jarosewich. "Mineralogical and Chemical Composition of 
Silicate Inclusions in the El Taco Campo Del Cielo, Iron Meteorite." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences, volume 19, pages 104-125, 1977. 

Department of Paleobiology 

Adey, W. H. "Shallow Water Holocene Bioherms of the Caribbean Sea and 
West Indies." In Proceedings: Third International Coral Reef Symposium, 
Volume 2, Geology, edited by D. L. Taylor, pages xxi-xxiv. Miami, Florida: 
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 

Adey, W. H., and R. B. Burke. "Holocene Bioherms of Lesser Antilles — Geo- 
logic Control of Development." In Studies in Geology No. 4, Reefs and 
Related Carbonates — Ecology and Sedimentology, edited by S. H. Frost, 
M. P. Weiss, and J. B. Saunders, pages 67-81. Tulsa, Oklahoma: The 
American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1977. 

286 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Adey, W. R, P. J. Adey, R. B. Burke, and Leslie Kaufman. "The Holocene 
Reef Systems of Eastern Martinique, French West Indies." Atoll Research 
Bulletin, number 218, pages 1-40, 1977. 

Adey, W. H., I. G. Macintyre, Robert Stuckenrath, and R. F. Dill. "Relict 
Barrier Reef System off St. Croix: Its Implications with Respect to Late 
Cenozoic Coral Reef Development in the Western Atlantic." In Proceed- 
ings: Third International Coral Reef Symposium, Volume 2, Geology, ed- 
ited by D. L. Taylor, pages 15-21. Miami, Florida: Rosenstiel School of 
Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 1977. 

Benson, R. H. "The Evolution of Oblitacythereis and Paleocosta (Trachyle- 
berididae, Neogene) from the Mediterranean and Atlantic." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Paleobiology, number 33, 1977. 

. "The Evolution of the Ostracode Costa Analyzed by 'Theta-Rho Dif- 
ference'." In Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Evolu- 
tion of Post-Paleozoic Ostracoda, edited by Gerhard Hartmann. Abhand- 
lungen und Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaflichen Vereins in Ham- 
burg, (NF) 18/19 [supplement], pages 127-139. 1976. 

-. "Miocene Deep-Sea Ostracodes of the Iberian Portal and the Balearic 

Basin." Marine Micropaleontology, volume 1, number 3 (1976), pages 249- 

-, editor. "The Biodynamic Effects of the Messinian Salinity Crisis, a 

Micropaleontological Examination of the Events of the Late Miocene in the 
Mediterranean." Palaeo geography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol- 
ume 20, numbers 1 and 2 (1976), 170 pages. 

"Preface." In The Biodynamic Effects of the Messinian Salinity 

Crisis, a Micropaleontological Examination of the Events of the Late Mio- 
cene in the Mediterranean, edited by R. H. Benson. Palaeo geography, Pa- 
laeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, volume 20, numbers 1 and 2 (1976), pages 

"Testing the Messinian Salinity Crisis Biodynamically : An Introduc- 

tion." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, volume 20, num- 
bers 1 and 2 (1976), pages 3-11. 

-. "Changes in the Ostracodes of the Mediterranean with the Messinian 

Salinity Crisis." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, volume 
20, numbers 1 and 2 (1976), pages 147-170. 

Berggren, W. A., R. H. Benson, B. U. Hag, W. R. Riedel, A. Sanfilippo, H. J. 
Schrader, and R. C. Tjalsma. "The El Cuervo Section (Andalusia, Spain) : 
Micropaleontologic Anatomy of an Early Late Miocene Lower Bathyal De- 
posit." Marine Micropaleontology, volume 1, number 3 (1976), pages 195- 

Brawley, S. H., and W. H. Adey. "Territorial Behavior of Threespot Damsel- 
fish (Eupomacentrus planifrons) Increases Reef Algal Biomass and Produc- 
tivity." Environmental Biology of Fishes, volume 2, number 1 (1977), pages 

Buzas, M. A., R. K. Smith, and K. A. Beem. "Ecology and Systematics of 
Foraminifera in Two Thalassia Habitats, Jamaica, West Indies." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Paleobiology, number 31, 1977. 

Cifelli, Richard. "Evolution of Ocean Climate and Planktonic Foraminifera." 
Nature, volume 264, number 5585 (1976), pages 431-432. 

Cifelli, Richard, and D. J. Belford. "The Types of Several Species of Tertiary 
Planktonic Foraminifera in the Collections of the U. S. National Museum of 
Natural History." Journal of Foraminiferal Research, volume 7, number 2 
(1977), pages 100-105. 

Cifelli, Richard, and C. Benier. "Planktonic Foraminifera from near the West 
African Coast and a Consideration of Faunal Parcelling in the North At- 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 287 

lantic." Journal of Foraminiferal Research, volume 6, number 4 (1976), pages 

Coates, A. G., E. G. Kauffman, and N. F. Sohl. [Abstract] "Cyclic Incursions 

of Tethyan Biotas into the Cretaceous Temperate Realms." Journal of Pale- 
ontology, volume 51, supplement to number 2, North American Paleonto- 

logical Convention II, Abstracts of Papers, page 7, 1977. 
Conner, J. L., and W. H. Adey. "The Benthic Algal Composition, Standing 

Crop, and Productivity of a Caribbean Algal Ridge." Atoll Research Bulletin, 

number 211, pages 1-15, 1977. 
Cooper, G. A., and R. E. Grant. "Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, V." 

Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, number 24, pages 663-780, 2609- 

2923, and 2924-3159, 1976. 
Glynn, P. W., and I. G. Macintyre. "Growth Rate and Age of Coral Reefs on 

the Pacific Coast of Panama." In Proceedings: Third International Coral 

Reef Symposium, Volume 2, Geology, edited by D. L. Taylor, pages 251- 

259. Miami, Florida: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 

University of Miami, 1977. 
Got, Henri, D. J. Stanley, and Denis Sorel. "Northwestern Hellenic Arc: 

Concurrent Sedimentation and Deformation in a Compressive Setting." 

Marine Geology, volume 24, number 1 (1977), pages 21-36. 
Hickey, L. J. "Stratigraphy and Paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation 

(Early Tertiary) of Western North Dakota." Geological Society of America 

Memoir 150, pages 1-181, 1977. 
. [Abstract] "Changes in Angiosperm Flora across the Cretaceous- 

Paleocene Boundary." Journal of Paleontology, volume 51, supplement to 

number 2: North American Paleontological Convention II, Abstracts of 

Papers, pages 14-15, 1977. 
Kauffman, E. G., special editor. "Field Guide: North American Paleontological 

Convention II, Cretaceous Facies, Faunas, and Paleoenvironments across 

the Western Interior Basin." The Mountain Geologist, volume 14, numbers 

3 and 4 (1977), 274 pages. 
. "Geological and Biological Overview: Western Interior Cretaceous 

Basin." The Mountain Geologist, volume 14, numbers 3 and 4 (1977), 

pages 75-99. 

"Upper Cretaceous Cyclothems, Biotas, and Environments, Rock Can- 

yon Anticline, Pueblo, Colorado." The Mountain Geologist, volume 14, 
numbers 3 and 4 (1977), pages 129-152. 

"Illustrated Guide to Biostratigraphically Important Cretaceous 

Macrofossils, Western Interior Basin, U.S.A." The Mountain Geologist, 
volume 14, numbers 3 and 4 (1977), pages 225-274. 

[Abstract] "Cretaceous Extinction and Collapse of Marine Trophic 

Structure." Journal of Paleontology, volume 51, supplement to number 2, 
North American Paleontological Convention II, Abstracts of Papers, page 
16, 1977. 

[Abstract] "Benthic Communities in Black Shales of an 'Anaerobic' 

Jurassic Basin: the Positonienschiefer." Journal of Paleontology, volume 51, 
supplement to number 2, North American Paleontological Convention II, 
Abstracts of Papers, pages 16-17, 1977. 

"Systematic, Biostratigraphic, and Biogeographic Relationships be- 

tween Middle Cretaceous Euramerican and North Pacific Inoceramidae." In 
Mid-Cretaceous Events, Hokkaido Symposium, 1976, edited by T. Matsu- 
moto. Paleontological Society of Japan, Special Paper number 21 (1977), 
pages 169-212. 

-. "Evolutionary Rates and Biostratigraphy." In Concepts and Methods 

of Biostratigraphy, edited by E. G. Kauffman and J. E. Hazel, pages 109- 
141. Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., 1977. 

288 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. [Review] Jurassic Environments, by Anthony Hallam. Journal of 

Paleontology, volume 51, number 1 (1977), pages 203-206. 

[Review] Oysters, by H. B. Stenzel. Journal of Paleontology, volume 

51, number 2 (1977), pages 427-429. 

Kauffman, E. G., and J. E. Hazel, editors. Concepts and Methods of Biostrati- 
graphy, 658 pages. Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., 1977. 

. "Preface." In Concepts and Methods of Biostratigraphy, edited by 

E. G. Kauffman and J. E. Hazel, pages iii-v. Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchin- 
son and Ross, Inc., 1977. 

Kauffman, E. G., and D. E. Powell. "Stratigraphic, Paleontologic, and Paleo- 
environmental Analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Rocks of Cimarron 
County, Northwestern Oklahoma. Part 2: Paleontology." Geological Society 
of America Memoir 149, pages 47-150, 1977. 

Kauffman, E. G., and P. A. Scholle. [Abstract] "Abrupt Biotic and Environ- 
mental Changes During Peak Cretaceous Transgressions in Euramerica." 
Journal of Paleontology, volume 51, supplement to number 2, North 
American Paleontological Convention 11, Abstracts of Papers, page 16, 1977. 

Kauffman, E. G., and J. R. Steidtmann. [Abstract] "Are These the Oldest 
Known Trace Fossils?" Geological Society of America Abstracts with Pro- 
grams, volume 8, number 6 (1976), pages 947-948. 

Kauffman, E. G., D. E. Hattin, and J. D. Powell. "Stratigraphic, Paleontologic, 
and Paleoenvironmental Analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Rocks of Cim- 
arron County, Northwestern Oklahoma, Part 1: Stratigraphy and Paleoen- 
vironments." Geological Society of America Memoir 149, pages 1-46, 1977. 

Kier, P. M. "Triassic Echinoids." Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 
number 30, 1977. 

. "The Poor Fossil Record of the Regular Echinoid." Paleobiology, vol- 
ume 3, number 2 (1977), pages 168-174. 

Macintyre, I. G. [Abstract] "Porosity Distribution Throughout a Modern Car- 
ibbean Fringing Reef, Galeta Point, Panama." 1977 AAPG-SEPM Annual 
Convention Program. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bul- 
letin, volume 61, number 5 (1977), page 810. 

. "Distribution of Submarine Cements in a Modern Caribbean Fringing 

Reef, Galeta Point, Panama." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, volume 47, 
number 2 (1977), pages 503-516. 

Maldonado, Andres, and D. J. Stanley. "Lithofacies as a Function of Depth in 
the Strait of Sicily." Geology, volume 5, number 2 (1977), pages 111-117. 

Miller, J. A., and I. G. Macintyre. Field Guidebook to the Reefs of Belize, 36 
pages. Miami Beach: The Atlantic Reef Committee, University of Miami, 

Pierce, J. W., and F. T. Dulong. "Discharge of Suspended Particulates from 
Rhode River Subwatersheds." In Proceedings of the Conference on Water- 
shed Research in Eastern North America, edited by D. L. Correll, pages 531- 
553. Washington, D. C. : Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Ray, C. E. "Seals and Walruses of Florida." The Florida State Museum, The 
Plaster Jacket, number 27 (1977), pages 1-15. 

. "Geography of Phocid Evolution." Systematic Zoology, volume 25, 

number 4 (1976), pages 391-406. 

"Fossil Marine Mammals of Oregon." Systematic Zoology, volume 25, 

number 4 (1976), pages 420-436. 
Repenning, C. A., and C E. Ray. "The Origin of the Hawaiian Monk Seal." 

In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 

58, pages 667-688, 1977. 
Scholle, P. A., and E. G. Kauffman. [Abstract] "Paleoecological Implications 

of Stable Isotope Data from Upper Cretaceous Limestones and Fossils from 

the U. S. Western Interior." Journal of Paleontology, volume 51, supplement 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 289 

to number 2, North American Paleontological Convention II, Abstracts of 
Papers, pages 24-25, 1977. 

Siegel, F. R., J. W. Pierce, S. Bloch, and P. P. Hearn. "Mineral Suspensate 
Geochemistry, Argentine Continental Shelf: R/V HERO Cruise 75-3." Ant- 
arctic Journal of the United States, volume 11, number 4 (1976), pages 230- 

Siegel, F. R., J. W. Pierce, F. T. Dulong, and P. P. Hearn. "Suspended Sedi- 
ments in Southern Chilean Archipelago Waters: R/V HERO Cruise 76-4." 
Antarctic Journal of the United States, volume 11, number 4 (1976), pages 

Stanley, D. J. "Recent Tectonic Overprint on Cobblestone Deposition in the 
Northwestern Hellenic Arc." In Symposium on the Structural History of 
the Mediterranean Basins, edited by B. Biju-Duval, and L. Montadert, pages 
433-445. Paris: Editions Technip, 1976. 

. "Post-Miocene Depositional Patterns and Structural Displacement in 

the Mediterranean." In The Ocean Basins and Margins — The Mediter- 
ranean Sea, edited by A. E. M. Nairn and F. G. Stehli, pages 77-150. New 
YorK: Plenum Press, 1977. 

Stanley, D. J., and Andres Maldonado, "Nile Cone: Late Quaternary Strati- 
graphy and Sediment Dispersal." Nature, volume 266, number 5598 (1977), 
pages 12V-135. 

Stanley, D. J., and Constantine Perissoratis. "Aegean Sea Ridge Barrier — 
and — Basin Sedimentation." Marine Geology, volume 24, number 2 (1977), 
pages 97-107. 

Stanley, D. J., and P. T. Taylor, "Sediment Transport Down a Seamount 
Flank by a Combined Current and Gravity Process." Marine Geology, 
volume 23, numbers 1 and 2 (1977), pages 77-88. 

Stanley, D. J., Antonio Brambati, Henri Got, Gilbert Kelling, and Andres 
Maldonado. "Depositional Patterns (Pliocene and Quaternary) in Mobile 
Mediterranean Settings." In Commission Internationale pour I'Exploration 
Scientifique de la Mer Mediterranee, 25th Congress Symposium, pages 1-3, 

Steneck, R. S., and W. H. Adey. "The Role of Environment in Control of 
Morphology in Lithophyllum congestum, a Caribbean Algal Ridge Builder." 
Botanica Marina, volume 19, number 4 (1976), pages 197-215. 

Waller, T. R. [Abstract] "The Development of the Larval and Early Postlarval 
Shell of the Bay Scallop, Argopecten irradians." Bulletin of the American 
Malacological Union, Inc. for 1976, (1976), page 46. 

Young, D. K., M. A. Buzas, and M. W. Young. "Species Densities of Macro- 
benthos Associated with Seagrass: A Field Experimental Study of Peda- 
tion." Journal of Marine Research, volume 34, number 4 (1976), pages 577- 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 

Ash, J. S. "Bird Ringing in Ethiopia, Report No. 5, 1969-1975." NAMRU-5 

Technical Report, Number 1 (1976), pages 1-17. 
. "Bird Ringing in Ethiopia, Report No. 6, 1969-1976." NAMRU-5 

Technical Report (1977), pages 1-17. 

"Four Species of Birds New to Ethiopia and Other Notes." Bulletin of 

the British Ornithologists' Club, volume 97, number 1 (1977), pages 4-9. 

"The Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea Breeding South of the Sa- 

hara." Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, volume 97, number 2 
Ash, J. S., and E. McConnell. "A Biological Distribution Map for Ethiopia." 
Ethiopian Medical Journal, volume 13 (1976), pages 37-39. 

290 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Ashford, R. W., T. T. Palmer, J. S. Ash, and R. S. Bray. "Blood Parasites of 
Ethiopian Birds: A General Survey." Journal of Wildlife Diseases, volume 12 
1976), pages 409-426. 

Collette, Bruce B., and Ernest A. Lachner. "Fish Collections in the United States 
and Canada." Copcia, number 3 (August 1976), pages 625-642. 

Handley, C. O., Jr. "Descriptions of New Bats (Choeroniscus and Rhinophylla) 
from Colombia." In Selected Readings in Mammalogy, by J. K. Jones, Jr., S. 
Anderson, and R. S. Hoffman, pages 42-47. Museum of Natural History 
Monograph number 5. University of Kansas, November 1976. [Reprinted 
from Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 79, pages 
83-88. 1966] 

Heyer, W. Ronald. "Studies in Larval Amphibian Habitat Partitioning." Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Zoology, number 242, 1976. 

. "The Presumed Tadpole of Paratelmatobius lutzi (Amphibia, Leptodac- 

tylidae)." Papeis Avulsos, Sao Paulo, volume 30, number 10 (1976), pages 

-. [Review] "Evolution of the Desert Biota." Copeia, number 3 (1976), 

pages 614-615. 

"Notes on the Frog Fauna of the Amazon Basin." Acta Amazonica, 

volume 6, number 3 (1976), pages 369-378. 

"A Discriminant Function Analysis of the Frogs of the Genus Adeno- 

mera (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae)." In Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington, volume 89, number 51, pages 581-592. 1977. 

Heyer, W. Ronald, and Miriam H. Muedeking. "Notes on Tadpoles as Prey for 
Naiads and Turtles." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, vol- 
ume 66, number 4 (1977), pages 235-239. 

Heyer, W. Ronald, and A. Stanley Rand. "Foam Nest Construction in the Lepto- 
dactylid Frogs Leptodactylus pentadactylus and Physalaemus pustulosus 
(Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae)." Journal of Herpetology, volume 11, 
number 2 (1977), pages 225-228. 

Karnella, Charles, and Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. "The Lanternfish Lobianchia 
dofleini: An Example of the Importance of Life-History Information in 
Prediction of Oceanic Sound Scattering." In Oceanic Sound Scattering Pre- 
diction, edited by Neil R. Andersen and Bernard J. Zahuranec, pages 361- 

Krueger, William H., Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., Robert C. Kleckner, Aimee A. 
Keller, and Michael J. Keene. "Distribution and Abundance of Mesopelagic 
Fishes on Cruises 2 and 3 at Deepwater Dumpsite 106." NOAA Dumpsite 
Evaluation Report 77-1 (1977), Volume 2, pages 377-422; Volume 3, pages 

Lachner, Ernest A., et al. "A National Plan for Ichthyology." Copeia, number 
3 (August 1976), pages 618-o25. 

Olson, Storrs L. "A Jacana from the Pliocene of Florida (Aves: Jacanidae)." 
In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 
19, pages 259-264. 1976. 

. "Fossil Woodcocks: An Extinct Species from Puerto Rico and an In- 
valid Species from Malta (Aves: Scolopacidae: Scolopax)." In Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 89, number 20, pages 265- 
274. 1976. 

. "Additional Notes on Subfossil Bird Remains from Ascension Island." 

Ibis, volume 119, number 1 (1977), pages 37-43. 

"A Synopsis of the Fossil Rallidae." In Rails of the World, by S. D. 

Ripley, pages 339-373. Boston: David Godine, March 1977. 

-. "The Identity of the Fossil Ducks Described from Australia by C. W. 

De Vis." Emu, volume 77, number 3 (1977), pages 129-131. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 291 

. "Notes on Subfossil Anatidae from New Zealand, Including a New 

Species of Pink-eared Duck (Malacorhynchus)." Emu, volume 77, number 3 
(1977), pages 132-135. 

Olson, Storrs L., and David W. Steadman. "A New Genus of Flightless Ibis 
(Aves: Threskiornithidae) and Other Fossil Birds from Cave Deposits in 
Jamaica." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 
90, number 2, pages 447-457. 1977. 

Olson, Storrs L., and Alexander Wetmore. "Preliminary Diagnoses of Two 
Extraordinary New Genera of Birds from Pleistocene Deposits in the Ha- 
waiian Islands." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 
volume 89, number 18, pages 247-258. 1976. 

Ripley, S. Dillon. "Reconsideration of Athene blewitti (Hume)," Journal of 
the Bombay Natural History Society, volume 73, number 1 (1976), pages 

. Rails of the World, xx + 406 pages, 41 colored plates, 17 maps, 26 

figures, and a chapter on fossil species by Storrs L. Olson. Boston: David 
R. Godine, 1977. 

-. "The World of Birds and Books." The Yale University Library Ga- 

zette, volume 52, number 1 (1977), pages 1-9. 
. "Rails of the World." American Scientist, volume 64, number 6 (No- 

vember-December 1976), pages 628-635. 

[Foreword] Birds of the West Coast, by Fenwick Lansdowne. Toronto: 

M. F. Feheley Arts, Ltd., 1976. 

"Bird that is Loath to Fly but Roams Afar all the Same." Smith- 

sonian, volume 7, number 12 (March 1977), pages 88-93. 

Risebrough, R. W., G. E. Watson, and J. P. Angle. "A Red Phalarope (Phala- 
ropus fulicarious) in Breeding Plumage on Anvers Island." Antarctic Jour- 
nal, volume 11, number 4 (December 1976), page 226. 

Setzer, Henry W. "Obituary: A. Remington Kellogg — 1892-1969." Journal of 
Mammalogy, volume 58, number 2 (May 1977), pages 251-253. 

Setzer, Henry W., and E. Lendell Cockrum. "Types and Type Localities of 
North African Rodents." Mammalia, volume 40, number 4 (1976), pages 

Slud, Paul. [Review] Avifauna of Northwestern Colombia, South America, 
by Jiirgen Haffer. The Wilson Bulletin, volume 89, number 1 (1977), pages 

Springer, Victor G., C. Lavett Smith, and Thomas H. Fraser. "Anisochromis 
straussi. New Species of Protogynous Hermaphroditic Fish, and Synonymy 
of Anisochromidae, Pseudoplesiopidae, and Pseudochromidae." Smithsonian 
Contributions to Zoology, number 252, 1977. 

Thorington, Richard W., Jr., and Robert E. Vorek. "Observations on the Geo- 
graphic Variation and Skeletal Development of Aotus." Laboratory Animal 
Science, volume 26, number 6 (December 1976), pages 1006-1021. 

Urban, E. K., S. J. Tyler, and J. S. Ash. "Ethiopia: A Status Report of the 
Wetlands in Ethiopia, February 1974." In Proceedings of the International 
Conference on Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl, pages 89-91. 
Heiligenhafen, Germany, 1976. 

Watson, George E. "Proceedings of the 94th Stated Meeting of the American 
Ornithologists' Union." The Auk, volume 94, number 1 (1977), pages 123- 

. "New World Checklist." [Review] Checklist of the World's Birds, by 

E. S. Gruson and R. A. Foster. Atlantic Naturalist, volume 31, number 4 
(1976), pages 175-176. 

-. "Birds in the Bush." [Review] A. B. A. Checklist. Atlantic Naturalist, 

volume 31 (Fall 1976), pages 121-122. 

292 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "Introduction," pages xv-xix. The Bluebird, How You Can Help Its 

Fight for Survival, by Lawrence Zeleny. Bloomington: Indiana University 
Press, Summer 1976. 

And Birds Took Wing." In Our Continent: A Natural History of 

North America, pages 98-106, National Geographic Society, Washington, 
D. C, Fall 1976. 

-. "An Unusual Order of Birds." [Review] Penguins, Past and Present, 

Here and There, by G. G. Simpson. Science, volume 194, number 4262 
(October 1976), page 312. 

Weitzman, Stanley H. "Hyphessobrycon socolofi, a New Species of Characoid 
Fish (Teleostei: Characidae) from the Rio Negro of Brazil." In Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, number 2, pages 326- 
347. August 1977. 

. "A New Species of Characoid Fish, Hyphessobrycon diancistrus, from 

the Rio Vichada, Orinoco River Drainage, Colombia, South America (Tele- 
ostei: Characidae)." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washing- 
ton, volume 90, number 2, pages 348-357. August 1977. 

Weitzman, Stanley H., and Robert H. Kanazawa. " Ammocryptocharax ele- 
gans, A New Genus and Species of Riffle-Inhabiting Characoid Fish (Tele- 
ostei: Characidae) from South America." In Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington, volume 89, number 26, pages 325-346. October 1976. 

. "A New Species of Pygmy Characoid Fish from the Rio Negro and 

Rio Amazonas, South America (Teleostei: Characidae)." In Proceedings of 
the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, number 1, pages 149-160. 
June 1977. 

Zug, G. R. "The Matamata (Testudines: Chelidae) Is Chelus not Chelys." 
Herpetologica, volume 33, number 1 (1977), pages 53-54. 

. "Once More into the Loch." 1978 Yearbook of Science and the Future, 

page 154-169. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1978. 

Office of Animal Health 

Bush, M., P. K. Ensley, K. Mehren, and W. Rapley. "Immobilization of Gi- 
raffes with Xylazine and Etorphine Hydrochloride." Journal of the Ameri- 
can Veterinary Medical Association, volume 169 (1976), pages 884-885. 

Bush, M., D. W. Heese, C. W. Gray, and A. E. James. "Surgical Repair of 
Tusk Injury (Pulpectomy) in an Adult, Male Forest Elephant (Loxodonta 
cyclotis)." Journal of the American Dental Association, volume 93 (1976), 
pages 371-375. 

Bush, M., J. L., Hughes, P. K. Ensley, and A. E. James. "Fracture Repair in 
Exotics Using Internal Fixation." Journal of the American Animal Hospital 
Association, volume 12 (1976), pages 746-753. 

Bush, M., and A. E. James. "A New System of Casting Fractures in Exotic 
Animals." Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinic, volume 71 (1976), 
pages 1288-1295. 

Bush, M., and S. A. Koch. "Surgical Correction of a Bilateral Lens Luxation 
in an African Lion." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Associa- 
tion, volume 169 (1976), pages 987-988. 

Bush, M., U. S. Seal, E. Smith, M. D. Lewis, and L. M. Bush. "Neonatal 
Anemia and Growth in Sable Antelope (Hippoptragus niger)." In Proceed- 
ings of the Eighteenth International Symposium on Disease of Zoo Ani- 
mals, pages 361-379. Innsbruck, Austria, 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 293 

Ensley, P. K., and M. Bush. [Case report] "Rectal Mucosal Prolapse in an 
Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)." Journal of Zoo Animal Medi- 
cine, volume 7 (1976), page 22. 

Freedman, M. T., M. Bush, G. R. Novak, R. M. Heller, Jr., and A. E. James, 
Jr. "Nutritional and Metabolic Bone Disease in a Zoological Population." 
Skeletal Radiology, volume 1 (1976), pages 87-96. 

James, A. E., J. B. Brayton, G. Novak, D. Wight, T. K. Sheehan, M. Bush, and 
R. C. Sanders. "The Use of Diagnostic Ultrasound in Evaluation of the 
Abdomen in Primates, with Emphasis on the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mu- 
latta)." Journal of Medical Primatology, volume 5 (1976), pages 160-175. 

James, A. E., M. Bush, P. A. Osterman, R. M. Heller, and G. R. Novak. "Ra- 
diologic Imaging of Human Diseases in Exotic Animals." Journal of the 
American Medical Association, volume 235 (1976), pages 184-188. 

James, A. E., G. Hutchins, M. Bush, T. K. Natarajan, and B. Burns. "How 
Birds Breathe: Correlation Radiographic with Anatomical and Pathologic 
Studies." Journal of the American Veterinary Radiological Society, volume 
17 (1976), pages 77-86. 

James, A. E., F. O. Osterman, M. Bush, T. Sheehan, G. Novak, D. Wight, and 
R. C Sanders. "The Use of Compound B-Mode Ultrasound in Abdominal 
Disease of Animals." Journal of the American Veterinary Radiological So- 
ciety, volume 17 (1976), pages 106-112. 

Smeller, J., and M. Bush. "A Physiological Study of Immobilized Cheetahs 
(Acinonyx jabutus)." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, volume 7 (1976), 
pages 5-7. 

Office of Animal Management 

Demeter, B. J. "Observations on the Care, Breeding and Behavior of a Giant 
Day Gecko (Phelsuma madagascariensis) at the National Zoological Park, 
Washington, D.C" International Zoo Yearbook, volume 16, pages 130-133, 

Egoscue, J. J. "Flea Exchange between Deer Mice and Some Associated Small 
Mammals in Western Utah." Great Basin Naturalist, volume 36 (1976), 
pages 475-480. 

Marcellini, D. L. "Some Aspects of the Thermal Ecology of the Gecko (Hemi- 
dactylus frenatus)." Herpetologica, volume 32 (1976), pages 341-345. 

Marcellini, D. L., and T. E. Keefer. "Analysis of the Gliding Behavior of 
Ptychczoon lionatum (Reptilia: Cekkonidae)." Herpetologica, volume 32 
(1976), pages 362-366. 

Xanten, W. A., H. Kaska, and T. J. Olds. "Breeding the Binturong (Arctictis 
binturong) at the National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C." Interna- 
tional Zoo Yearbook, volume 16, pages 117-119, 1976. 

Conservation and Research Center 

Davis, P. S., and G. A. Greenwell. "Successful Hatching of a North Island 

Brown Kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) at the National Zoological Park, 

Washington, D.C." International Zoo Yearbook, volume 16, pages 86-88, 

Gilbert, S., and G. A. Greenwell. "An Unusually Prolific Breeding Season in 

the Bornean Great Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus grayi)." International 

Zoo Yearbook, volume 16, page 93-96, 1976. 
Greenwell, G. A. "The National Zoological Park Takes a Look at Pheasant 

Breeding." American Pheasant and Waterfowl Society Magazine, volume 

76-79 (1976), pages 4-10. 

294 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Wemmer, C, and G. L. Johnson. "Egg-breaking Behavior in a Yellow- 
Throated Marten; Martes flavigula (Mustelidae; Carnivora)." Z. Saugetier- 
kunde, volume 41 (1976), pages 58-60. 

Wemmer, C, M. Von Ebers, and K. Scow. "An Analysis of the Chuffing Vo- 
calization in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)." Journal of Zoology, Lon- 
don, volume 180 (1976), pages 425-439. 

Office of Pathology 

Bush, M., D. Brownstein, R. J. Montali, A. E. James, Jr., and M. J. G. Appel. 
"Vaccine Induced Canine Distemper in a Lesser Panda (Allures fulgens)." 
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, volume 169 
(1976), pages, 959-960. 

Bush, M., A. E. James, Jr., R. J. Montali, and F. P. Seitik. "Pulmonary Alveo- 
lar Microlithiasis in a Binturong (Arctictis binturong): A Case Report." 
Journal of the American Veterinary Radiological Society, volume 17 (1976), 
pages 157-160. 

Bush, M., R. J. Montali, G. R. Novak, and A. E. James, Jr., "The Healing of 
Avian Fractures: A Histological Xeroradiographic Study." Journal of the 
American Animal Hospital Association, volume 12 (1976), pages 768-773. 

Montali, R. J. "Ear Mites in a Horse." Journal of the American Veterinary 
Medical Association, volume 169 (1976), pages 630-631. 

. [Summary of Proceedings] "Symposium on Mycobacterial Infections of 

Zoo Animals." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 
volume 169 (1976), pages 177-178. 

-. [Summary] "Proceedings of Symposium on Mycobacterial Infections 

of Zoo Animals." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, volume 7 (1976), pages 

Montali, R. J., M. Bush, and G. Greenwell. "An Epornitic of Duck Viral En- 
teritis in a Zoological Park." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical 
Association, volume 169 (1976), pages 954-958. 

Montali, R. J., M. Bush, C. O. Thoen, and E. Smith. "Tuberculosis in Captive 
Exotic Birds." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 
volume 169 (1976), pages 920-927. 

Osterman, F. A., W. R. Bell, R. J. Montali, G. R. Novak, and R. I. White, Jr. 
"Natural History of Autologous Blood Clot Embolization in Swine." Inves- 
tigative Radiology, volume 11 (1976), pages 267-276. 

Office of Zoological Research 

Brownell, R. L., Jr., and K. Ralls. [Review] International Zoo Yearbook, edited 
by N. Duplaix-Hall, volumes 14 and 15. Journal of Mammalogy, volume 57 
(1976), page 612. 

Eisenberg, J. F. [Review] Sociobiology. The New Synthesis, by E. O. Wilson. 
Animal Behavior, volume 24 (1976), pages 705-706. 

Eisenberg, J. F., and J. Seidensticker. "Ungulates in Southern Asia: A Consid- 
eration of Biomass Estimates for Selected Habitats." Biological Conserva- 
tion, volume 10 (1976), pages 293-308. 

Field, R. "Application of a Digitizer for Measuring Sound Spectrograms." 
Behavioral Biology, volume 17 (1976), pages 579-583. 

Golani, I. "Homeostatic Motor Processes in Mammalian Interactions: A 
Choreography of Display." In Perspectives in Ethology, edited by P. P. G. 
Bateson and P. H. Klopfer, volume 2, pages 69-134. New York: Plenum 
Press, 1976. 

Green, K. M. "The Nonhuman Primate Trade in Colombia." In Neotropical 
Primates: Field Studies and Conservation, page 85-98. Washington, D. C. : 
National Academy of Sciences, 1975. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 295 

Kleiman, D. G. "An Updated Studbook for the Golden Lion Tamarin Com- 
pleted." AAZPA Newsletter, volume 17 (1976), page 13. 

. "Will the Pot of Gold Have a Rainbow? Hope for Brazil's Golden 

Tamarins in North America." Animal Kingdom, volume 79 (1976), pages 

-. [Review] Prosimian Biology: Duckworth's London, edited by R. D. 

Martin, G. A. Doyle, and A. C. Walker. Journal of Mammalogy, volume 57 
(1976), page 613. 

[Review] Lemur Biology, edited by I. Tattersall and R. W. Sussman. 

Journal of Mammalogy volume 57 (1976), page 613. 

Mock, D. "Pair Formation Displays of the Great Blue Heron." Wilson Bulle- 
tin, volume 88 (1976), pages 185-230. 

Morton, E. S. "Vocal Mimicry in the Thick-Billed Euphonia." Wilson Bulletin, 
volume 88 (1976), pages 485-487. 

. "Zoo Studies: Bluebird Families." Smithsonian Institution Research 

Reports, number 15, 1976. 

"The Adaptive Significance of Dull Coloration in Yellow Warblers." 

Condor, volume 78 (1976), page 423. 

Ralls, K. "Extremes of Sexual Dimorphism in Size in Birds." Wilson Bulletin, 
volume 88 (1976), pages 149-150. 

. "Mammals in which Females are Larger than Males." Quarterly Re- 
view of Biology, volume 51 (1976), pages 245-276. 

[Review] Being Female, edited by Dana Raphael. Quarterly Review of 

Biology, volume 51 (1976), page 464. 

Seidensticker, J. "Ungulate Populations in Chitawan Valley, Nepal." Biologi- 
cal Conservation, volume 10 (1976), pages 183-210. 

. "On the Ecological Separation between Tigers and Leopards." Bio- 

tropica, volume 8, number 4 (1976), pages 225-234. 

Woodward, P. W. "Red-Footed Booby Helper at Great Frigate Bird Nests." 
Condor, volume 78 (1976), pages 264-265. 


Adovasio, J. M., J. D. Gunn, J. Donahue, and R. Stuckenrath. "Progress Re- 
port on the Meadowcroft Rockshelter — A 16,000 Year Chronicle." In Amer- 
inds and Their Paleo environments in Northeastern North America, Annals 
of the N. Y. Academy of Sciences, edited by W. S. Newman and B. Salwen, 
volume 288, pages 137-159. The New York Academy of Sciences, 1977. 

Correll, David L., John L. Edwards, and W. Shropshire, Jr. Phytochrome: A 
Bibliography Prior to 1975. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 

Crowl, G. H., and R. Stuckenrath, Jr. "Geological Setting of the Shawnee- 
Minisink Paleoindian Archeological Site (36-Mr-43)." In Amerinds and 
Their Paleoenvironments in Northeastern North America, Annals of the 
N. Y. Academy of Sciences, edited by W. S. Newman and B. Salwen, vol- 
ume 288, pages 218-222. The New York Academy of Sciences, 1977. 

Drake, B. G. "Seasonal Changes in Reflectance and Standing Crop Biomass 
in Three Salt Marsh Communities." Plant Physiology, volume 58 (1976), 
pages 696-699. 

. "Estimating Water Status and Biomass of Plant Communities by Re- 
mote Sensing." In Ecological Stiudes, Analysis, and Synthesis, edited by O. 
L. Lange and E. -D. Schulze, volume 19, page 432-438. New York: Springer- 
Verlag, 1976. 

Gantt, E., C. A. Lipschultz, and B. A. Zilinskas. "Phycobilisomes in Relation 
to the Thylakoid Membranes." In Chlorophyll-Proteins, Reaction Centers 

296 I Smithsonian Year 1977 

and Photosynthetic Membranes, Brookhaven Symposia in Biology, No. 28 
(1976), pages 347-357. 

Goldberg, B., and W. H. Klein. "Variations in the Spectral Distribution of 
Daylight at Various Geographical Locations on the Earth's Surface." Solar 
Energy, volume 19 (1977), pages 3-13. 

Gray, B. H., J. Cosner, and E. Gantt. "Phycocyanins with Absorption Maxima 
at 637 nm and 623 nm from Agmanellum quadruplicatum." Photochemistry 
and Photobiology, volume 24 (1976), pages 299-302. 

Klein, W. H., and B. Goldberg. Solar Radiation Measurements/1974-1975. 
Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976. 

Klein, W. H., B. Goldberg, and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Instrumentation for the 
Measurement of the Variation, Quantity and Quality of Sun and Sky Ra- 
diation." Solar Energy, volume 19 (1977), pages 115-122. 

Margulies, M. M., and A. Michaels. "Biosynthesis of Chloroplast Membrane 
Protein in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." In Acides Nucleiques et Synthese 
des Proteins chez les Vegetaux, Colloques Internationaux du Centre Na- 
tional de la Recherche Scientifiques no. 261, pages 395-401. Editions du 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 15 quai Anatole-France, 
75700 Paris, France, 1977. 

Margulies, M. M., and J. Weistrop. "A Chloroplast Membrane Fraction En- 
riched in Chloroplast Ribosomes." In Genetics and Biogenesis of Chloro- 
plast and Mitochondria, edited by Th. Bucher et al., pages 657-660. Amster- 
dam, The Netherlands: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1976. 

Stuckenrath, R. "Radiocarbon: Some Notes from Merlin's Diary." In Amer- 
inds and Their Paleo environments in Northeastern North America, Annals 
of the N. Y. Academy of Sciences, edited by W. S. Newman and B. Salwen, 
volume 288, pages 181-1S8. The New York Academy of Sciences, 1977. 

Suraqui, S., B. Goldberg, and W. H. Klein. "An Analysis of the Errors Found 
in Broadband Filter Radiometry." Solar Energy, volume 19 (1977), pages 


(Including Contributions from Harvard Members of the 
Center for Astrophysics) 

Akram, F., N. M. Sheikh, A. Javed, and M. D. Grossi. "Impulse Response of 
a Meteor Trail Forward Scattering Channel Determined by Ray Tracing 
Techniques." Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Transactions 
of the Communications Society, volume COM-25, pages 467-470, 1977. 

Aksnes, K. "The Natural Satellites: Beacons in the Sky." Harvard Magazine, 
July/August 1977, pages 28-33. 

Aksnes, K., A. F. Cook, F. A. Franklin, and B. G. Marsden. [Letter to the 
editor] "Saturn's Disputed Moons." Science News, volume 11 (1977), page 

Allen, R. S., D. D. Dulong, M. D. Grossi, and A. H. Katz. "Ionospheric 
Range Error Correction by Adaptive Probing of Propagation Medium." In 
Proceedings of the N ATO-ACARD Conference on Propagation Limitations 
of Navigation and Positioning Systems, AGARD Publication Number 209, 
pages 6-1-6-16. Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 1976. 

Altschuler, M.D., R. H. Levine, M. Stix, and J. W. Harvey. "High Resolution 
Mapping of the Magnetic field of the Solar Corona." Solar Physics, volume 
51 (1977), pages 345-375. 

Avrett, E. H. "Models of the Solar Atmosphere." In The Solar Output and 
Its Variations, edited by O. R. White, J. A. Eddy, and D. F. Heath. Boulder, 
Colorado: University of Colorado Press, 1977. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 297 

Avrett, E. H., J. E. Vernazza, and J. L. Linsky. [Abstract] "Formation of the 
He I and He II Lines in the Solar Atmosphere." Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 534. 

Ayres, T. R. "A Reexamination of Solar Upper Photosphere Models, the Cal- 
cium Abundance, and Empirical Damping Parameters." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 213 (1977), pages 296-306. 

. "Nonthermal Broadening in the Solar Photosphere Derived from 

Widths of Weak Absorption Features in the Ca II H and K Wings." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 214 (1977), pages 905-911. 

Ayres, T. R., and H. R. Johnson. "The Surface Gravity and Mass of Arc- 
turus." Astrophysical Journal, volume 214 (1977), pages 410-417. 

Ayres, T., J. Linsky, A. Rogers, and R. Kurucz. "Stellar Model Chromo- 
spheres. V. a Cen A (G2V) and a Cen B (KIV)." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 210 (1977), pages 199-210. 

Baliunas, S. L., A. K. Dupree, and J. D. Lester. [Abstract] "Possible Detection 
of Fe XIV in the X-Ray Binary. Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 9 (1977), page 298. 

Bardas, D. "A Moderate-Resolution, Wideband, Astronomical Echelle Spec- 
trograph." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, volume 
89 (1977), pages 104-111. 

Bardas, D., J. E. McClintock, P. Peterson, G. W. Clark, and C. R. Canizares. 
[Abstract] "Two Dimensional Photon-Counting Echelle Spectroscopy." 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 290. 

Black, J. H., and A. Dalgarno. "Molecule Formation in the Interstellar Gas." 
Reports on Progress in Physics, Institute of Physics, volume 39 (1976), 
pages 573-612. 

. "Models of Interstellar Clouds. I. The Zeta Ophiuchi Cloud." Astro- 
physical Journal Supplement Series, volume 34, number 3 (1977), pages 

Bottcher, C, A. L. Ford, and K. Kirby-Docken. "Evaluation of Molecular In- 
tegrals Involving Continuum Orbitals." Computational Physics Communi- 
cations, volume 13 (1977), pages 11-15. 

Blair, G. N., and D. F. Dickinson. "SiO Masers in Variable Stars." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 215 (1977), pages 552-560. 

Brace, L. H., W. R. Hoegy, H. G. Mayr, G. A. Victor, W. B. Hanson, C. A. 
Reber, and H. E. Hinteregger. "Discrepancy between Electron Heating and 
Cooling Rates Derived from Atmospheric Explorer-C Measurements." Jour- 
nal of Geophysical Research, volume 81 (1976), pages 5421-5429. 

Brinkman, A. C, J. Heise, A. J. F. denBoggende, J. Grindlay, H. Gursky, and 
D. Parsignault. "X-Ray Observations of Cygnus A with ANS." Astrophysi- 
cal Journal, volume 214 (1977), pages 35-37. 

Cameron, A. G. W., and J. B. Pollack. "On the Origin of the Solar System 
and of Jupiter and Its Satellites." In Jupiter, edited by T. Gehrels and M. S. 
Matthews, pages 61-84. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 

Cameron, A. G. W., and J. W. Truran. "The Supernova Trigger for Forma- 
tion of the Solar System." Icarus, volume 30 (1977), pages 447-461. 

Cantu, A. M., W. H. Parkinson, G. Tindello, and G. P. Tozzi. "Observations 
of Li I and Li II Absorption Spectra in the Grazing Incidence Region." 
Journal of the Optical Society of America, volume 67 (1977), page 1030. 

Carleton, N. P., and J. M. Vrtilek. [Abstract] "A Search for Emission Lines 
from Hot Interstellar Gas." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 8 (1977), page 499. 

Cassinelli, J. P., and L. W. Hartmann. "The Effects of Winds and Coronae of 
Hot Stars on the Infrared and Radio Continua." Astrophysical Journal, 
volume 212 (1977), page 488. 

298 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Ceplecha, Z., and R. E. McCrosky. "Fireball End Heights: A Diagnostic for 
the Structure of Meteoric Material." Journal of Geophysical Research, vol- 
ume 81 (1976), pages 6257-6275. 

Chaffee, F. H., Jr. [Abstract] "Weak Interstellar Lines toward Persei." Bulle- 
tin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1977), page 66. 

Chaffee, F. H., Jr., and B. L. Lutz. "Line Spectra in Interstellar Clouds. III. 
Weak Lines below X3400 in f Perseii." Astrophysical Journal, volume 213 
(1977), pages 394-404. 

Chaisson, E. J., and M. A. Dopita. "A Comparison of the Orion Nebula's 
Physical Condition Measured in the Radio and Optical Domains." Astron- 
omy and Astrophysics, volume 56 (1977), pages 385-400. 

Chairsson, E. J., and M. A. Malkan. "Radio Recombination Study of the 
Planetary Nebula." Astrophysical Journal, volume 210 (1976), pages 108- 

Chaisson, E. J., and L. F. Rodriguez. "Detection of Extragalactic Radio Re- 
combination Line Emission from M82." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), 
volume 214 (1977), pages L111-L114. 

Cominsky, L., W. Forman, C. Jones, and H. Tananbaum. "UHURU Observa- 
tions of the Globular Cluster X-Ray Source NGC 6712." Astrophysical 
Journal (Letters), volume 211 (1977), pages L9-L14. 

Cowan, J. J., and W. K. Rose. "Production of 14 C and Neutrons in Red 
Giants." Astrophysical Journal, volume 212 (1977), page 149. 

Dalgarno, A. "The Interstellar Molecules CH and CH + ." In Atomic Processes 
and Applications, edited by P. G. Burke and B. L. Moiseiwitsch, pages 109- 
132. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1976. 

Davies, P. B., D. K. Russell, B. A. Thrush, and H. E. Radford. "Rotational 
and Hyperfine Parameters of NH : (X'Bi) from LMR Spectra." Chemical Phys- 
ics Letters, volume 42 (1976), page 35. 

. "Analysis of the Laser Magnetic Resonance Spectrum of NH : (X~Bi)." 

In Proceedings of the Royal Society, volume A253, page 299. 1977. 

Davis, R. J. "Spectral Classification and U, B, V, H-beta Photometry." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 213 (1977), pages 105-110. 

Davis, R. J., W. A. Deutschman, and R. E. Schild. "The Galactic Distribution 
of Interstellar Absorption as Determined from the Celescope Catalog of 
Ultraviolet Stellar Observations and a New Catalog of UBV, H-beta Photo- 
electric Observations." Astrophysical Journal Supplement, volume 30 (1976), 
pages 97-225. 

Delvaille, J. P. [Abstract] "The X-Ray Structure of NGC 5128." Bulletin of 
the American Astronomical Society, volume 9 (1977), page 323. 

Dickinson, D. F., and S. G. Kleinmann. "Shell Structure in Stellar Water 
Masers." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 214 (1977), page L135. 

Dickinson, D. F., G. Kojoian, C R. Purton, R. A. Sramek, and H. M. Tov- 
massian. "Radio Spectra of Some Markarian Galaxies." Astronomische 
Nachrichten Band 297, volume H.6 (1976), page 283. 

Dupree, A. [Abstract] "Chromospheres and Coronas in Late Type Stars" 
(invited review). Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 
(1976), page 353. 

. "Ultraviolet Observations from I. U. E." In Workshop Papers for a 

Symposium on X-Ray Binaries, NASA SP-389, edited by Y. Kondo and B. 
Boldt, page 747. Washington: National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion, 1976. 

Dupree, A. K., and S. L. Baliunas. [Abstract] "Interstellar Density of Deu- 
terium and Hydrogen towards Alpha Aurigae" Bulletin of the American 
Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 551. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 299 

Dupree, A. K., P. V. Foukal, and C. Jordan. "Plasma Diagnostic Techniques 
in the Ultraviolet: The C III Density Sensitive Lines in the Sun." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 209 (1976), pages 621-632. 

Dupree, A. K., and J. B. Lester. "High Dispersion Observations of HD 153919 
(3U 1700-37)." In Workshop Papers for a Symposium on X-Ray Binaries, 
NASA SP-389, edited by Y. Kondo and B. Boldt, pages 539-549. Washing- 
ton: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1976. 

Elliot, J. L., E. Dunham, D. Mink, R. L. Millis, J. Churms, and B. G. Marsden. 
"Occultation of SAO 158687 by Uranian Satellite Belt." International Astro- 
nomical Union Circular Number 3051, 1977. 

Elmegreen, B. G., and C. J. Lada. "Discovery of an Extended (85 pc) Mole- 
cule Cloud Associated with the M17 Star-Forming Complex." Astronomical 
Journal, volume 81 (1976), page 1089. 

. "Sequential Formation of Subgroups in OB Associations." Astrophysi- 

cal Journal, volume 214 (1977), page 725. 

Epstein, A., J. Delvaille, H. Helmken, S. Murray, H. W. Schnopper, R. Doxsey, 
and F. Primini. "Variability of LMC X-4." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
216 (1977), pages 103-107. 

Epstein, R. I., and M. J. Geller. "A Model for Superlight Velocities of Extra- 
galactic Radio Sources." Nature, volume 265 (1977), pages 219-222. 

Fabbiano, G., and E. J. Schreier. "Further Studies of the Pulsation Period and 
Orbital Elements of Centaurus X-3." "Astrophysical Journal, volume 214 
(1977), pages 235-244. 

Fazio, G. G., W. A. Traub, E. L. Wright, F. J. Low, and L. Trafton. "The 
Effective Temperature of Uranus." Astrophysical Journal, volume 209 
(1976), pages 633-637. 

Field, G. B. "The Space Telescope." Astronomy Magazine, volume 4 (Novem- 
ber 1976), page 6-15. 

Field, G. B., and S. C. Perrenod. "Constraints on a Dense Hot Intergalactic 
Medium." Astrophysical Journal, volume 215 (1977), pages 717-722. 

Fireman, E. L., J. DeFelice, and J. D'Amico. "The Abundances of 3 H and 14 C 
in the Solar Wind." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 32 (1976), 
pages 185-190. 

. [Abstract] "Carbon-14 in Lunar Soil." In Lunar Science VIII, pages 

299-301. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1977. 

Foukal, P. V. "The Pressure and Energy Balance of the Cool Corona over 
Sunspots." Astrophysical Journal, volume 210 (1976), pages 575-581. 

Foukal, P. V., P. E. Mack, and J. E. Vernazza. "The Effect of Sunspots and 
Faculae on the Solar Constant." Astrophysical Journal, volume 215 (1977), 
pages 952-959. 

Fox, J. L., and A. Dalgarno. "Radiative Transition Probabilities of the ls2p :i 
2 P and ls2p 2 2 D States of the Lithium Isoelectronic Sequence." Physical 
Review A, volume 16 (1977), pages 283-288. 

Fox, J. L., A. Dalgarno, E. R. Constantinides, and G. A. Victor. "The Nitrogen 
Dayglow on Mars." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 82 (1977), 
pages 1615-1616. 

Fox, J. L., A. Dalgarno, and G. A. Victor. "The Absorption of Energetic 
Electrons by Argon Gas." Planetary and Space Science, volume 25 (1977), 
pages 71-78. 

Frederick, J. E., D. W. Rusch, G. A. Victor, W. E. Sharp, D. G. Torr, P. B. 
Hays, and H. C. Brinton. "The OI (X5577) A Airglow: Observations and 
Excitation Mechanisms." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 81 
(1976), pages 3923-3930. 

Gaposchkin, E. M. "Gravity-Field Determination Using Laser Observations." 
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London), Series A, volume 
284 (1977), pages 515-527. 

300 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Gaposchkin, E. M, and G. M. Mendes. [Abstract] "Geopotential Model to 
Degree and Order 30 from Satellite and Terrestrial Data." Transactions of 
the American Geophysical Union, volume 58 (1977), page 371. 

Gingerich, O. [Omnibus review of a dozen current astronomy books] "Ad 
astra sine asperis." Harvard Magazine, volume 78 (1976), pages 58-59, and 

. "Will the Universe End with a Bang or a Whimper?" Harvard Maga- 
zine, volume 79 (1977), pages 10-12. 

. "A Conversation with Charles Eames." American Scholar, volume 46 

(1977), pages 326-337. 

-. "The Trauma of the Infinite Universe." Journal of the American Sci- 

entific Affiliation, volume 29 (1977), pages 56-58. 

"Donald Howard Menzel." Physics Today, volume 30 (1977), pages 96 

and 98. 

"The 1582 Theorica Orbium' of Hieronymus Vulparis." Journal of 

Historical Astronomy, volume 8 (1977), pages 38-43. 
. "Tycho Brahe." Harvard Magazine, volume 79 (1977), pages 52-53 and 


-. [Abstract] "Was Ptolemy a Fraud?" Bulletin of the American Astro- 

nomical Society, volume 8 (1977), page 546. 

-. "Copernicus: A Modern Reappraisal." In Man's Place in the Universe, 

Riecker Lectures for 1973, pages 25-49. Tucson Arizona: University of 
Arizona Press, 1977. 

"Early Copernican Ephemerides." In Science and History, Studies in 

Honor of Edward Rosen, Studia Copernicana, volume 16. Wroclaw: Polska 
Akademia Nauk, 1977. 

-, editor. Cosmology + 2. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1977. 

Gingerich, O., and B. Welther. "The Accuracy of the Toledan Tables." In 
IIPI2MATA, edited by W. G. Saltzer and Y. Maeyama, pages 151-164. 
Weisbaden: Steiner Verlag, 1977. 

Golub, L., A. S. Krieger, and G. S. Vaiana. "Observations of Spatial and 
Temporal Variations in X-Ray Bright Point Emergence Patterns." Solar 
Physics, volume 50 (1976), pages 311-327. 

Gorenstein, P., and K Topka. "Scintillating Imaging Proportional Counter as 
X-Ray to Light Image Converter." Transactions on Nuclear Science, volume 
NS-24, page 511. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1977. 

Gott, J. R., Ill, and E. L. Turner. "Groups of Galaxies. IV. The Multiplicity 
Function." Astrophysical Journal, volume 216 (1977), pages 357-371. 

Gottlieb, E. W., and W. Liller. "The Photometric Histories of CRL 2688, the 
'Egg' nebula, and CRL 618." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 207 
(1976), pages L135-L137. 

Gowen, R. A., B. A. Cooke, R. E. Griffiths, and M. J. Ricketts. "An Upper 
Limit to the Linear X-Ray Polarization of Sco X-l." Monthly Notices of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, volume 179 (1977), pages 303-310. 

Griffiths, R. E., M. J. Ricketts, and B. A. Cooke. "Observations of the X-Ray 
Nova A0620-00 with the Ariel V Crystal Spectrometer/Polarimeter." 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, volume 177 (1976), 
pages 429-440. 

Grindlay, J. "Discovery of Bursting X-Ray Sources." Comments on Astro- 
physics, volume 6 (1976), pages 165-175. 

. "Very High Energy Gamma Ray Astronomy." In The Structure and 

Content of the Galaxy and Galactic Gamma Rays, edited by C. Fichtel and 
F. Stecher, pages 81-98. NASA publication CP-002, 1976. 

[Abstract] "New ANS Results on Galactic X-Ray Sources." Bulletin 

of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 444. 
. [Abstract] "ANS Observations of X-Ray Burst from the Globular 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 301 

Cluster NGC 662." Bulletin of the American Physical Society, volume 21 
(1976), page 676. 

"New Bursts in Astronomy." Harvard Magazine, volume 79 (1977), 

pages 23-27 and 81-82. 
Grindlay, J., and H. Gursky. "UHURU Observations of the Norma X-Ray 

Burster." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 209 (1976), pages L61- 

Grindlay, J., H. Gursky, D. Parsignault, A. C. Brinkman, J. Heise, and D. 

Harris. "New X-Ray and Radio Observations of A 2319." Astrophysical 

Journal (Letters), volume 214 (1977), pages L57-L60. 
Grindlay, J. E., H. Gursky, D. R. Parsignault, H. Cohn, J. Heise, and A. C. 

Brinkman. "X-Ray Observations of Globular Clusters with ANS." Astro- 
physical Journal (Letters), volume 209 (]976), pages L67-L72. 
Grindlay, J., H. F. Helmken, and T. C. Weekes. "Evidence for a Variable 

Flux of >10 u eV Gamma Rays from NP 0532." Astrophysical Journal, 

volume 209 (1976), pages 592-601. 
Grindlay, J., and W. Liller. [Abstract] "Evidence for Ionized Hydrogen in the 

Cores of X-Ray Globular Clusters." Bulletin of the American Astronomical 

Society, volume 8 (1976), page 544. 
Grindlay, J., D. R. Parsignault, H. Gursky, A. C. Brinkman, J. Heise, and D. 

E. Harris. "New X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Galaxy Cluster 

A 2319." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 214 (1977), page L57. 
Hall, R., T. Kelsall, D. E. Kleinmann, and G. Neugebauer. "The Infrared 

Capabilities of the Large Space Telescope." In The Space Telescope, NASA 

Special Publication Number 392, pages 90-96. Washington: National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration, 1976. 
Harnden, F., Jr., D. Fabricant, K. Topka, B. Flannery, W. Tucker, and P. Gor- 

enstein. "A Soft X-Ray Image of the Algol Region." Astrophysical Journal, 

volume 214 (1977), pages 418-422. 
Helmken, H, and C. V. Karmendy. "Periodic Slot Collimator for Accurate 

Gamma Ray Burst Locations." Space Science Instructor, volume 3 (1977), 

pages 115-121. 
Hartmann, L. W., and C. M. Anderson. "Abundance in Late-Type Dwarfs." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 215 (1977) page 188. 
. "Possible Infalling Gas in the DkSe Star EQ Virginis." Astrophysical 

Journal (Letters), volume 213 (1977), page L67. 
Hartmann, L. W., and J. P. Cassinelli. "The Structure of the Winds of Wolf- 

Rayet Stars as Determined from Observations of the Infrared Continua." 

Astrophysical Journal, volume 215 (1977), page 155. 
Heise, J., A. C. Brinkman, A. J. F. den Boggende, D. R. Parsignault, J. Grind- 
lay, and H. Gursky. "ANS Observations of the X-Ray Burster MXB 1730- 

335." Nature, volume 261 (1976), page 562-564. 
Henry, J. P., S. Bowyer, C. G. Rapley, and J. L. Culhane. "Detection of an 

Extreme-Ultraviolet Source in the Southern Sky." Astrophysical Journal 

(Letters), volume 209 (1976), pages L29-L33. 
Henry, J. P., and E. J. Schreier. "A Measurement of the Spin-Up Rate of the 

SMC X-l X-Ray Pulsar." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 212 

(1977), pages L13-L16. 
Hogan, C, and D. Layzer. "Origin of the X-Ray Background." Astrophysical 

Journal, volume 212 (1977), pages 360-366. 
Jacchia, L. G. [Review] Pulsating Stars, edited by B. V. Kukarkin. Sky and 

Telescope, volume 57 (1976), pages 343-345. 
• [Review] Atmosphere of Earth and the Planets, edited by B. M. Mc- 

Cormack. Space Science Review, volume 19 (1976), page 161. 

302 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "Thermospheric Temperature, Density, and Composition: New Mod- 
els." Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Special Report Number 375, 
106 pages, 1977. 

Jacchia, L. G., J. W. Slowey, and U. vonZahn. "Temperature, Density, and 
Composition in the Disturbed Thermosphere from ESRO 4 Gas Analyzer 
Measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 82 (1976), pages 

Johnson, W. R., C. D. Lin, and A. Dalgarno. "Allowed and Forbidden Transi- 
tions of Helium-Like Ions." Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular 
Physics, volume 9 (1976), pages L303-L306. 

Jones, C. "Energy Spectra of 43 Galactic X-Ray Sources Observed by 
UHURU." Astrophysical Journal, volume 214 (1977), pages 856-873. 

Jones, C, and W. Forman. "UHURU Observations of Hercules X-l during the 
Low State of the 35-Day Cycle." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 
209 (1977), pages L131-L135. 

Jones, C, W. Forman, H. Tananbaum, and M. J. L. Turner. "UHURU and 
Ariel 5 Observations of 3U 1630-47: A Recurrent Transient X-Ray Source." 
Astrophysical Journal (Letters) volume 210 (1977), pages L9-L11. 

Jones, G. "Thermal Interaction of the Core and the Mantle and Core-Mantle 
Interaction." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 82 (1977), pages 

Julien, P., W. Forman, and C. Jones. [Abstract] "UHURU Observations of 
Cygnus X-3." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 9 
(1977), page 348. 

Kalkofen, W. "Line Radiation with Large Differential Velocities." In Phy- 
sique des Mouvements dans les Atmospheres Stellaires, edited by R. Cay- 
rel and M. Steinberg, page 95. Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1976, 

. [Abstract] "The Solar Temperature Minimum." Bulletin of the Amer- 
ican Astronomical Society, volume 9 (1977), page 324. 

Kalkofen, W., and P. Ulmschneider. "Acoustic Waves in the Solar Atmos- 
phere: II. Radiative Damping." Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 57 
(1977), pages 193-198. 

Kallne, E., H. W. Schnopper, L. P. VanSpeybroeck, J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, 
R. Z. Bachrach, J. H. Dijkstra, and L. J. Lautwaard. [Abstract] "Holo- 
graphic Transmission Gratings: A New Analyzer in the X-Ray Region." 
International Conference on the Physics of X-Ray Spectra, pages 245-247, 
Kellogg, E., S. Murray, U. Briel, and D. Bardas. "The Photicon." Review of 

Scientific Instruments, volume 48 (1977), pages 550-553. 
Kirby-Docken, K., and B. Liu. "Theoretical Study of Molecular Dipole Mo- 
ment Functions. I. The X'2 f state of CO." Journal of Chemical Physics, 
volume 66 (1977), pages 4309-4316. 
Kleinmann, D. E. "Infrared Observations of Extragalactic Sources." In Pro- 
ceedings of COSPAR/IAU/URI Symposium on Infrared and Submillimeter 
Astronomy, page 129. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 
Kleinmann, D. E., S. G. Kleinmann, and E. L. Wright. "The Infrared Source 
near the Rapid Burst X-Ray Source MXB 1730-335." Astrophysical Journal 
(Letters), volume 210 (1977), page L83. 
Kleinmann, S. G., and D. F. Dickinson. [Abstract] "The Structure of Circum- 
stellar Maser Emission." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 9 (1977), page 321. 
Kohl, J. L. "The Components of the Balmer Alpha Line of He II in the Sun." 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 212 (1977), page 958. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 303 

Kohl, J. L., W. H. Parkinson, and G. L. Withbroe. "The Solar Boron Abun- 
dance." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 212 (1977), pages L101- 

Kopp, J. P., D. W. Rusch, R. G. Roble, G. A. Victor, and P. B. Hays. "Photo- 
emission in the Second Positive System of Molecular Nitrogen in the Earth's 
Dayglow." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 82 (1977), pages 555- 

Kresak, L., B. G. Marsden, P. Herget, E. Roemer, and B. Morando. "Report of 
the International Astronomical Union Commission Number 20." "Transac- 
tions of the International Astronomical Union, volume XVIA (1976), pages 

. "The Occultation of k Geminorum by Eros: A Learning Experience." 

Bulletin of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, volume 
4 (1976), page 34. 

Kurucz, R. "The Fourth Positive System of Carbon Monoxide." Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory Special Report Number 374, 170 pages. 1977. 

Lada, C. J. "Detailed Observations of the M17 Molecular Cloud Complex." 
Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Number 32, page 603. 

Latham, D. W. [Abstract] "The Effects of Push Development and Hydrogen 
Hyper-Sensitization in the Detective Performance of Kodak Spectroscopic 
Plates Types Illa-J and 127-04." American Astronomical Society Photo Bul- 
letin Number 3, issue number 13 (1976), pages 9-13. 

Lathan, D. W., M. Davis, E. D. Feigelson, and J. B. Lester. [Abstract] "Grid 
Photography." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 
(1977), page 566. 

Latimer, J., and E. M. Gaposchkin. [Abstract] "Scalar Translocation Using 
Laser Ranging Data and Station-Coordinate Determination." Transactions 
of the American Geophysical Union, volume 58 (1977), page 372. 

Layzer, D. "Why Are Spherical Stellar Systems Relaxed?" General Relativity 
and Gravitation, volume 8, number 1 (1977), pages 3-6. 

. "The Structure of Matter and the Structure of the Astronomical Uni- 
verse." International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Quantum Chemistry 
Symposium, Number 11, pages 637-645, 1977. 

Levine, R. H. [Abstract] "Evolution of Photospheric Magnetic Field Patterns." 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 9 (1977), page 371. 

. [Invited review] "Large Scale Solar Magnetic Fields and Coronal 

Holes." In Skylab Solar Workshop Series Monograph on Coronal Holes, 
edited by J. B. Zirker, Chapter 4. Boulder, Colorado: Associated University 
Press, 1977. 

Levine, R. H, M. D. Altschuler, and J. W. Harvey. "Solar Sources of the 
Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Solar Wind." Journal of Geophysical Re- 
search, volume 82 (1977), 1061-1065. 

Levine, R. H., M. D. Altshuler, J. W. Harvey, and B. V. Jackson. "Open 
Magnetic Structures on the Sun." Astrophysical Journal, volume 215 (1977), 
pages 636-657. 

Levine, R. H., and J. C. Flagg. "Numerical Image Manipulation and Display 
in Solar Astronomy." Applied Optics, volume 16 (1977), pages 938-943. 

Levine, R. H, and G. L. Withbroe. "Physics of an Active Region Loop Sys- 
tem." Solar Physics, volume 51 (1977), pages 83-101. 

Lightman, A. P. "Some Recent Advances in X-Ray Astronomy." Sky and 
Telescope, volume 52 (1976), page 243. 

. [Review] The Dark Night Sky, by Donald Clayton. Icarus, volume 

30 (1977), page 436. 

"Enhancement of the Gravothermal Catastrophe in Two-Component 

Isothermal Spheres." Astrophysical Journal, volume 215 (1977), pages 914- 

304 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Lightman, A. P., and S. L. Shapiro. "The Distribution and Consumption Rate 
of Stars around a Massive Collapsed Object." Astrophysical Journal, vol- 
ume 211 (1977), page 244. 

Liller, M. H., and B. W. Carney. [Abstract] "Revised Photometry and a New 
Distance for the Globular Cluster NGC 6624 = 3U 1820-30." Bulletin of 
the American Astronomical Society, volume 9 (1977), page 294. 

Liller, W. "A0620-00 as a Recurrent Nova." In X-Ray Binaries, NASA SP-389, 
pages 335-341. Washington: National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion, 1976. 

. "The Long Term Variability of HDE 226868 = Cygnus X-l." In 

X-Ray Binaries, NASA SP-389, pages 573-620. Washington: National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration, 1976. 

"Variability of HZ Hercules during the Optical Offs." In X-Ray 

Binaries, NASA SP-389, pages 155-157. Washington: National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration, 1976. 

"The Story of AM Hercules." Sky and Telescope, volume 53 (1977), 

pages 351-354. 

"Searches for the Optical Counterparts of the X-Ray Burst Sources 

MXB 1728-34 and MXB 1730-33." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 

213 (1977), pages L21-L23. 
Liu, C. D., W. R. Johnson, and A. Dalgarno. "Radiation Decays of the n = 2 

States of He-Like Ions." Physical Review A, volume 15 (1977), pages 154- 

Loeser, R., and E. M. Gaposchkin. "The Second Law of Debugging." Software, 

volume 6 (1976), pages 577-578. 
Mahra, H. S., S. K., Gupta, and B. G. Marsden. "Occupation of SAO 158687 

by Uranian Rings." International Astronomical Union Circular Number 

3061, 1977. 
Marcus, P. S., and W. H. Press. "On Green's Functions for Small Disturb- 
ances of Plane Couette Flow." Journal of Fluid Mechanics, volume 79 

(1977), pages 525-534. 
Margules, L., H. O. Halvorson, J. S. Lewis, and A. G. W. Cameron. "Limita- 
tions to Growth of Microorganisms on Uranus, Neptune, and Titan." 

Icarus, volume 30 (1977), page 793. 
Marsden, B. G. "Orbital Linkage of Comets of Intermediate Period." Report 

of Accomplishments of Planetology Program, 1975-1976. NASA TM 

X-3364, pages 31-33, 1976. 
. "Annual Report of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams" 

International Astronomical Union Information Bulletin, number 36 (1976), 

pages 34-35. 

"Report of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams" (Com- 

mission Number 6). Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, 
volume 16, pages 195-196, 1976. 

-. "Annual Report of the Central Bureau of Astronomical Telegrams." 

International Astronomical Union Information Bulletin, number 38 (1977), 
pages 5-7. 

-. "Forest Ray Moulton." In Dictionary of American Biography, edited 

by J. Garraty, Supplement 5, pages 508-509. New York: Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1977. 

"Charles Dillon Perrine." In Dictionary of American Biography, 

edited by J. Garraty, Supplement 5, pages 540-541. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1977. 
Marsden, B. G., and Z. Sekanina. "Orbit Determination of Nearly Parabolic 
Comets." Report of Accomplishments of Planetology Program 1975-1976. 
NASA TM X-3364, pages 34-36, 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 305 

Marvin, U. B. "Professionalism Among Women and Men in the Geosciences." 
Journal of Geological Education, volume 24 (1976), pages 169-170. 

. "A Unique Eucritic Gabbro from the Descartes Highlands." Meteor- 

itics, volume 11 (1976), pages 329-330. 

-. [Review] Carbonaceous Meteorites, by B. Nagy. American Mineral- 

ogy, volume 61 (1976), page 344. 

The Earth Sciences: 1956-1976. An overview prepared at the request 

of the National Science Foundation, 82 pages, 1977. 

Mattison, E. M., R. F. C. Vessot, and M. W. Levine. "The TEm-Mode Cavity: 
A New Small Hydrogen Maser Resonator." In Proceedings of the Second Fre- 
quency Standards and Metrology Symposium, pages 615-624. Boulder, Colo- 
rado: National Bureau of Standards, 1976. 

Maxson, C. W., and G. S. Vaiana. "Determination of Plasma Parameters from 
Soft X-Ray Images for Coronal Hole (Open Magnetic Field Configurations) 
and Coronal Large-Scale Structures (Extended Closed-Field Configurations). 
Astrophysical Journal, volume 215 (1977), pages 919-941. 

McSween, H. Y., Jr. "Carbonaceous Chondrites of the Orans Type: A Meta- 
morphic Sequence." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 41 (1977), 
pages 477-491. 

. "On the Nature and Origin of Isolated Olivine Grains in Carbona- 
ceous Chrondrites." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 41 (1977), 
pages 411-418. 

Mertz, L. "Positively Constrained Imagery for Rotation Collimators." Astro- 
physics and Space Science, volume 45 (1976), pages 383-389. 

. "A Wide-Angle Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for Monochromatically 

Selective Photography." Applied Optics, volume 16 (1977), pages 812-813. 

Michael, W. H., A. P. Mayo, W. T. Blackshear, R. H. Tolson, G. M. Kelly, 
J. P. Brenkle, D. L. Cain, G. Fjeldbq, D. N. Sweetnam, R. B. Goldstein, P. E. 
MacNeil, R. D. Reasenberg, I. I. Shapiro, T. I. S. Boak, M. D. Grossi, and 
C. H. Tang. "Mass Dynamics and Surface Properties: Determination from 
Viking Tracking Data." Science, volume 194 (1976), pages 1337-1339. 

Mohr, P. A. "Atmospheric Correction Problems in Ethiopian Geodimeter 
Surveys." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Terrestrial 
Electromagnetic Distance Measurements and Atmospheric Effects on Angu- 
lar Measurements, edited by I. D. Brook, volume 3, paper 2. Stockholm, 

. "1974 Ethiopian Rift Geodimeter Survey." Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory Special Report Number 376, March 1977, 111 pages (plus 

-. [Abstract] "Contemporary Strain Accumulation Patterns in the Ethio- 

pian rift." E($)S, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, volume 
58 (1977), page 490. 

Mohr, P. A. [Report] Rio Grande Rift Symposium, Albuquerque, Neio Mexico, 
May 20-21, 1976. World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics, Report 
SE-5, Geodynamic InternationaI-10, pages 54-56. Boulder, Colorado: U.S. 
Department of Commerce, 1977. 

Mohr, P. A., and C. A. Wood. "Volcano Spacing and Lithospheric Attenua- 
tion in the Eastern Rift of Africa." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 
volume 33 (1976), pages 126-144. 

Moran, J. M., J. A. Ball, J. L. Yen, P. R. Schwartz, K. J. Johnston, and S. H. 
Knowles. "Very Long Baseline Interferometric Observations of OH Masers 
Associated with Infrared Stars." Astrophysical Journal, volume 211 (1977), 
page 160. 

Moran, J. M., B. F. Burke, R. C Walker, A. D. Haschick, L. I. Matveyenko, 
L. R. Kogan, V. I. Kostenko, and I. G. Moiseyev. [Abstract] "VLBI Obser- 

306 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

vations of H2O Masers in H II Regions with Submilliarcsecond Resolution." 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8, (1976), page 564. 

Morton, D., H. Spinrad, G. Bruzval, and R. Kurucz. "Ultraviolet Spectra of 
Alpha Aquilae and Alpha Canis Minoris." Astrophysical Journal, volume 
212 (1977), pages 438-445. 

Murdin, P., R. E. Griffiths, K. A. Pounds, M. G. Watson, and A. J. Longmore. 
"Optical Identification of the Transient X-Ray Source A 1524-61." Monthly 
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, volume 178 (1977), pages 27p- 

Oppenheimer, M. "Isentropic Instabilities in the Interstellar Gas." Astro- 
physical Journal, volume 211 (1977), pages 400-403. 

Oppenheimer, M., and A. Delgarno. "Associative Ionization and Interstellar 
TiO + and TiO." Astrophysical Journal, volume 212 (1977), pages 683-684. 

Oppenheimer, M., A. Dalgarno, and H. C. Brinton. "Ion Chemisotry of N* 2 and 
the Solar Ultraviolet Flux in the Thermosphere." Journal of Geophysical 
Research, volume 81 (1976), pages 3762-37e>6. 

. "Molecular Oxygen Abundances in the Thermosphere from the Chem- 
istry of Oo Ion Based on Atmosphere Explorer-C Composition Measure- 
ments." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 81 (1976), pages 4678- 

Oppenheimer, M., A. Dalgarno, F. P. Trebino, L. H. Brace, H. C. Brinton, and 
J. H. Hoffman. "Daytime Chemistry of NO + from Atmosphere Explorer-C 
Measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 82 (1977), pages 

Pallavicini, R., S. Serio, and G. S. Vaiana. "A Survey of Soft X-Ray Limb 
Flare Images: The Relation between Their Structure in the Corona and 
Other Physical Parameters." Astrophysical Journal, volume 216 (1977), 
pages 108-122. 

Papaliolios, C, S. J. Freeman, and R. A. Holt. "Experimental Status of Hid- 
den Variable Theories." In Quantum Mechanics, Determinism, Causality, 
and Particles, edited by M. Flato, Z. Marix, A. Milojevic, D. Sternheimer, 
and N. P. Vigier. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1976. 

Parsignault, D. R., E. Schreier, J. Grindlay, and H. Gursky. "On the Stability 
of the Period of Cygnus X-3." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 209 
(1976), pages L73-L75. 

Parsignault, D. R., E. Schrier, J. Grindlay, H. Schnopper, and H. Gursky. 
[Abstract] "Limitations on Models of Cygnus X-3 based on ANS Observa- 
tions. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), 
page 441. 

Payne-Gaposchkin, C. H. "Past and Future Novae." In Novae-Related Stars. 
New York: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1977. 

Penfield, H., M. M. Litvak, A. E. Lilley, and C. A. Gottlieb. "Mesospheric 
Ozone Measured from Ground-Based Microwave Observations." Journal 
of Geophysical Research, volume 81 (1976), pages 6115-6120. 

Perrenod, S. C, G. A. Schields, and E. J. Chaisson. "Observation and Inter- 
pretation of Temperature Gradients in the Orion Nebula." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 216 (1977), pages 427-432. 

Phaneuf, R. A., P. O. Taylor, and G. H. Dunn. "Absolute Cross Sections for 
Emission of 284.7 nra." Physical Review A, volume 14 (1976), page 2021; 
erratum, Physical Review A, volume 15 (1976), page 1812. 

Porter, N. A., T. Delaney, H. F. Helmken, and T. C. Weekes. "Observations 
of NP 0532 with a Wide Angle Atmospheric Cerenkov System." Nuovo 
Cimento, volume 32B (1976), page 514. 

Porter, N. A., and T. C. Weekes. "Optical Pulses from Primordial Black 
Hole Explosions." Nature, volume 267 (1977), pages 5000-5001. 

. An "Upper Limit to the Rate of Gamma Ray Bursts from Primordial 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 307 

Black Hole Explosions." Astrophysical Journal, volume 213 (1977), pages 

Press, W. H. "A 'Foil' for Gravitational Clustering Investigations." Astronomy 
and Astrophysics, volume 48 (1976), page 149. 

"Theoretical Maximum for Energy from Director and Diffuse Sun- 
light." Nature, volume 264 (1976), page 734. 

. "On Gravitational Radiation from Sources which Extend in Their 

Own Wave Zone." Physical Review D, volume 15 (1977), page 965. 

Press, W. H., and S. A. Teukolsky. "On Formation of Close Binaries by Two- 
Body Tidal Capture." Astrophysical Journal, volume 213 (1977), page 183. 

Purton, C. R., G. Kojoian, and D. F. Dickinson. "Markarian 421: A Lacertid." 
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, volume 89 (1977), 
page 119. 

Radford, H. E., M. M. Litvak, C. A. Gottlieb, E. W. Gottlieb, S. K. Rosenthal, 
and A. E. Lilley. "Mesospheric Water Vapor Measured from Ground-Based 
Microwave Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research, volume 82 
(1977), pages 472-478. 

Radford, H. E., F. R. Peterson, D. A. Jennings, and J. A. Mucha. "Heterodyne 
Measurements of Submillimeter Laser Spectrometer Frequencies." Journal 
of Quantum Electronics, volume QE-13, pages 92-94. Institute of Electrical 
and Electronic Engineers, 1977. 

Radford, H. E., and D. K. Russell. "Spectroscopic Detection of Methoxy 
(CH'O)." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 66 (1977), pages 2222-2224. 

Reeves, E. M., J. G. Timothy, P. V. Foukal, M. C. E. Huber, R. W. Noyes, 
E. J. Schmahl, J. E. Vernazza, and G L. Withbroe. "Initial Results from the 
EUV Spectrometer on ATM." In Scientific Investigations on the Skylab 
Satellite, edited by M. I. Kent, E. Stuhlinger, and S. Wu, pages 73-103. 
New York: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1976. 

Reeves, E. M., J. G. Timothy, M. C. E. Huber, and G. L. Withbroe. "Photo- 
metric Calibration of the EUV Spectroheliometer on ATM." Applied Optics, 
volume 16 (1977), pages 849-857. 

Reid, M. J., and D. F. Dickinson. "The Stellar Velocity of Long-Period Vari- 
ables." Astrophysical Journal, volume 209 (1976), page 505. 

Rice, J. E., H. Helava, R. R. Parker, and H. W. Schnopper. "X-Ray Spectra 
from Alcator." Bulletin of the American Physical Society, volume 21 (1976), 
page 852. 

Richardson, S. [Abstract] "Cation Exchange Profiles as Guides to Relative 
Fracture Ages in Metamorphic Rocks." Geological Society of America, Ab- 
stracts with Programs, volume 8 (1976), page 1079. 

Richardson, S. A., and H. Y. McSween. [Abstract] "The matrix composition 
of carbonaceous chondrites." Meteoritics, volume 11 (1976), pages 355-356. 

Rosenberg, F. D., and A. M. Levine. [Abstract] "X-Ray Observations of Extra- 
Galactic Objects from SAS-3." Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 9 (1977), page 348. 

Rosner, R., and G. S. Vaiana. "Hydrostatic and Dynamic Models of Solar 
Coronal Holes." Astrophysical Journal, volume 216 (1977), pages 141-157. 

Roufosse, M. C, and E. M. Gaposchkin. [Abstract] "Worldwide Survey of 
the Correlation between Short-Wavelength Features of Topographic Heights 
and of Gravity Anomalies." Transactions of the American Geophysical 
Union, volume 57 (1976), page 1002. 

Rybicki, G. B. "Integrals of the Transfer Equation: I. Quadratic Integrals 
for Monochromatic Isotropic Scattering." Astrophysical Journal, volume 213 
(1977), page 165-176. 

. "The Interpretation of Line Profiles." In The Energy Balance and 

Hydrodynamics of the Solar Chromosphere and Corona, edited by R. M. 
Bonnet and Ph. Delache. France: G. de Bussac, Clermont-Ferrand, 1977. 

308 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Ryder, G. "Apollo 17 KREEPy Basalt: A Rock Type Intermediate between 
Mare and KREEP Basalts." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 35 
(1977), pages 1-13. 

Ryder, G., and J. F. Bower. "Poikilitic KREEP Impact Melts in the Apollo 14 
White Rocks." In Proceedings of the Seventh Lunar Science Conference, 
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Supplement 7, volume 2, pages 1925- 
1948, 1976. 

. "Petrology." In Interdisciplinary Studies by the Imbrium Consortium, 

volume 2, pages 1-8, 13-18, 20-26, and 42-60, 1977. 

Ryder, G., and G. J. Taylor. "Did Mare-Type Volcanism Commence Early in 
Lunar History?" In Proceedings of the Seventh Lunar Science Conference, 
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Supplement 7, volume 2, pages 1741- 
1755, 1976. 

Ryder, G., and J. A. Wood. [Abstract] "Composition and Vertical Structure 
of the Lunar Crust." Meteoritics, volume 11 (1976), pages 356-357. 

. [Abstract] "Serenitatis and Imbrium Impact Melts: Implications for 

Lunar Crustal Composition and Stratigraphy." In Lunar Science VIII, pages 
826-828. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science Institute, 1977. 

[Abstract] "The Apollo 15 Green Clods and the Green Glass Enigma" 

In Lunar Science VIII, pages 1026-1028. Houston, Texas: Lunar Science In- 
stitute, 1977. 

Schild, R. E. "The Distance-Reddening Law for Nova Cygni (1975) = V1500 
Cygni." Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 209 (1976), pages L35-L36. 

. "The Interstellar Reddening Law." Astronomical Journal, volume 82 

(1977), pages 337-344. 

Schnopper, H. W. [Abstract] "Extragalactic X-Ray Sources." Bulletin of the 
American Astronomical Society, volume 8 (1976), page 445. 

Schnopper, H. W., J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, H. Helmken, S. S. Murray, G. 
Clark, G. Jernigan, and R. Doxsey. "Detection of X-Rays from Algol (0 
Persei). Astrophysical Journal (Letters), volume 210 (1976), pages L75-L77. 

Schnopper, H. W., J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, K. Kalata, and A. R. Sohval. 
"X-Ray Spectroscopy with the ANS and HEAO-B Satellites." Space Science 
Instrumentation, volume 2 (1976), pages 243-261. 

Schnopper, H. W., A. Epstein, J. P. Delvaille, W. Tucker, R. Doxsey, and G. 
Jernigan. "Detection of the X-Ray Emission from 3C120. Astrophysical 
Journal (Letters), volume 215 (1977), pages L7-L11. 

Schnopper, H. W., L. P. VanSpeybroeck, J. P. Delvaille, A. Epstein, E. Kallne, 
R. Z. Bachrach, J. Dijkstra, and L. Lantwaard. "Diffraction Grating Trans- 
mission Efficiencies for XUV and Soft X-Rays." Applied Optics, volume 16 
(1977), pages 1088-1091. 

Sekanina, Z. "Dust Content and Particle Release Experiments." In Proceed- 
ings of the Shuttle-Based Cometary Science Workshop, edited by G. A. 
Gary and K. S. Clifton, pages 142-149. Huntsville, Alabama: Marshall 
Space Flight Center, 1976. 

. "Statistics of Anomalous Tails of Comets." NASA TM X-3364, pages 

40-42, 1976. 

Shapiro, S. L., and A. P. Lightman. "The Distribution of Stars around a Mas- 
sive Black Hole." Nature, volume 262 (1976), page 743. 

Smarr, L. [Abstract] "Gravitational Wave Generation Efficiency for Colliding 
Black Holes." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 8 
(1976), page 516. 

. "Gravitational Radiation from Distant Encounters and Head-on Colli- 
sions of Black Holes: The Zero-Frequency Limit." Physical Review D, vol- 
ume 15 (1977), page 2069. 

Smith, P. L. "Absolute Oscillator Strengths for the Iron Group: A Correc- 
tion to the Data of Warner and a Comment on Some of the Semiempirical 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 309 

Results of Kurucz and Peytremann." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society, volume 177, pages 275-289. 

Spencer, J. H., K. H. Johnston, P. R. Schwartz, R. C. Walker, J. Moran, and 
M. J. Reid. [Abstract] "The Size and Position of the H-O Sources Asso- 
ciated with IR Stars." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, vol- 
ume 8 (1976), page 552. 

Stein, R. F., R. I. Klein, and W. Kalkofen. "Radiative Shock Dynamics." 
International Astronomical Union Reports, Commission 12, pages 49-54, 

Stewart, R. F., D. K. Watson, and A. Dalgarno. "Variational Time-Dependent 
Hartree-Fock Calculations. III. Potential Curves for Two-Electron Molecu- 
lar Systems." Journal of Chemical Physics, volume 65 (1976), pages 2104- 

Svestka, Z., C. V. Solodyna, R. Howard, and R. H. Levine. [Abstract] "Open 
magnetic fields in active regions." Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 9 (1977), page 344. 

Tananbaum, H., L. J. Chaisson, W. Forman, C. Jones, and T. A. Matilsky. 
"UHURU Observations of 4U 1608-52: The 'Steady' X-Ray Source Asso- 
ciated with the X-Ray Burst Source in Norma." Astrophysical Journal 
(Letters), volume 209 (1976), pages L125-L130. 

Tang, C. H., P. F. Sforza, and M. D. Grossi. "Viking Mission Relay Link 
Measurement of Dielectric Properties of Martian Terrain." In Proceedings 
of the Colloquium on Water in Planetary Regoliths, pages 134-138. Han- 
over, New Hampshire: Dartmouth College, Department of Earth Sciences, 
and Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 1976. 

Timothy, J. G. "Detection Efficiencies of Channel Electron Multipliers with 
MgF Photocathodes at XUV Wavelengths." Applied Optics, volume 15 
(1976), page 1218. 

Torr, D. G., M. R. Torr, J. C. G. Walker, L. H. Brace, H. C. Brinton, W. B. 
Hanson, J. H. Hoffman, A. O. Nier, and M. Oppenheimer. "Recombination 
of NO + in the Ionosphere." Geophysical Research Letters, volume 3 (1976), 
pages 209-212. 

Tucker, W. H. [Abstract] "X-Ray Emission from Giant Elliptical Galaxies." 
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 9 (1977), page 347. 

Turner, J. L., and A. Dalgarno. "The Chemistry of Silicon in Interstellar 
Clouds." Astrophysical Journal, volume 213 (1977), pages 386-389. 

Ulmschneider, P., and W. Kalkofen. "Theoretical Temperature Minimum for 
the Sun." In Physique des Mouvements dans les Atmospheres Stellaires, 
edited by R. Cayrel and M. Steinberg, page 103. Paris, France: CNRS, 1976. 

. "Acoustic Waves in the Solar Atmosphere: III. A Theoretical Tem- 
perature Minimum." Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 57 (1977), pages 

Ulmschneider, P., W. Kalkofen, T. Nowak, and H. U. Bohn. "Acoustic Waves in 
the Solar Atmosphere: I. The Hydrodynamic Code." Astronomy and Astro- 
physics, volume 54 (1977), page 61. 

Vaiana, G. S., L. VanSpeybroeck, M. V. Zombeck, A. S. Krieger, J. K. Silk, 
and A. Timothy. "The S-054 X-Ray Telescope Experiment on Skylab." 
Space Science Instrumentation, volume 3 (1977), pages 19-76. 

Vessot, R. F. C, and M. W. Levine. "A Preliminary Report on the Gravita- 
tional Redshift Rocket-Probe Experiment." In Proceedings of the Second Fre- 
quency Standards and Metrology Symposium, pages 659-688. Boulder, 
Colorado: National Bureau of Standards, 1976. 

Walborn, N. R., and M. H. Liller. "The Earliest Spectroscopic Observations 
of Eta Carinae and its Interaction with the Carina Nebula." Astrophysical 
Journal, volume 211 (1977), pages 181-183. 

Walker, R. C, B. F. Burke, A. D. Haschick, P. C. Crane, J. M. Moran, K. J. 

310 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Johnston, K. Y. Lo, J. L. Yen, N. W. Broten, T. H. Legg, E. W. Greisen, and 
S. S. Hansen. [Abstract] "VLBI Aperture Synthesis Observations of H-O 
Masers in H II Regions." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 
volume 8 (1976), page 563. 

Watson, M. G., and R. E. Griffiths. "Ariel V Sky Survey Instrument: Extended 
Observations of 3U0900-40." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, volume 178 (1977), pages 513-524. 

Wayne, F. D., and H. E. Radford. "The Laser Magnetic Resonance Spectrum 
of Imine (NH) and Its Isotopes." Molecular Physics, volume 32 (1976), page 

Weekes, T. C. "The Sensitivity of Atmospheric Cherenkov Experiments for 
Gamma Ray Astronomy." Nuovo Cimento, volume 35 (1976), pages 95- 

. "Atmospheric Fluorescence as a Means of Detecting X-Ray and 

Gamma Ray Transients." Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 
volume 38 (1976), pages 1021-1026. 

Whipple, F. L. "A Speculation about Comets and the Earth." Memoires de la 
Societe Royale des Sciences, Liege, series 6, volume 9 (1976), pages 101- 

. "Sources of Interplanetary Dust." In Interplanetary Dust and Zodi- 
acal Light, edited by H. Elsasser and H. Fechtig, pages 403-415. Heidel- 
berg: Springer-Verlag, 1976. 

. "Background of Modern Comet Theory." Nature, volume 263 (1976), 

pages 15-19. 

-. "The Status of Cometary Science." In Proceedings of the Shuttle- 

Based Cometary Workshop, edited by G. A. Gary and K. S. Clifton, pages 
169-190. Huntsville, Alabama: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, 1977. 
-. "The reality of Comet Groups and Pairs." Icarus, volume 30 (1977), 

page 736. 

Whipple, F. L., and W. F. Heubner. "Physical Processes in Comets." Annual 
Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 14 (1976), pages 143-172. 

Whitney, C. A., and C. H. Payne-Gaposchkin. "Photometry of Long-Period 
Variables." Memoires de la Societe Royale des Sciences, Liege, series 6, 
volume 9 (1976), pages 419-435. 

Withbroe, G. L. "Mass and Energy Flow in the Solar Atmosphere — Implica- 
tions of Skylab Observations." In The Energy Balance and Hydrodynamics 
of the Solar Chromosphere and Corona, edited by R. M. Bonnet and P. 
Delache, pages 263-315. France: G. de Bussac, Clermont-Ferrand, 1977. 

Withbroe, G. L., and J. T. Mariska. "Analysis of EUV Limb Brightening Ob- 
servations from ATM. II. Influence of Spicules." Solar Physics, volume 48 
(1976), pages 21-40. 

Withbroe, G. L., and J. E. Vernazza. "Active Region Flare Rates 8.6 mm 
Brightness Temperatures." Solar Physics, volume 50 (1976), pages 127-131. 

. [Abstract] "Skylab EUV Observations of the 7 September 1973 

Flare." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, volume 9 (1977), 
page 299. 

Wood, J. A. "Basaltic Volcanism in Terrestrial Planets." Ceotimes, February 
1977, pages 26-29. 

Wright, E. L., E. W. Gottlieb, W. Liller, J. Grindlay, H. Schnopper, E. Schreier, 
H. Gursky, and D. Parsignault. [Abstract] "Possible Period for Cyg X-2 
Based on Optical, X-Ray Data." Bulletin of the American Astronomical 
Society, volume 8 (197t>), page 441. 

Wright, E. L., C. J. Lada, D. E. Kleinmann, and G. G. Fazio. "A New Infra- 
red CO-Source in M8." Astronomical Journal, volume 82 (1977), pages 132- 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 311 


Ferrari, Frank. "The Significance of the Response of Pelagic Marine Animals 
to Solar Eclipses." Deep-Sea Research, number 23 (1976), pages 653-654. 

. "A Redescription of Oithona dissimilis Lindberg 1940 with a Com- 
parison to Oithona hebes Giesbrecht 1891 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclo- 
poida)." In Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, volume 90, 
number 2, pages 400-411. 1977. 

Higgins, R. P. "Redescription of Echinoderes dujardinii (Kinorhyncha) with 
Descriptions of Closely Related Species." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology, number 248, 1977. 

. "Two New Species of Echinoderes (Kinorhyncha) from South Caro- 
lina." Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, volume 96, 
number 3, pages 340-354. 1977. 

Landrum, B. J. "Cooperative Systematic Studies." "Antarctic Journal of the 
United States, volume 11, number 3 (1976), page 192. 

. "Polar Biological Collections." Antarctic Journal of the United States, 

volume 11, number 4 (1976), page 292. 

Matthews, Frances D., David M. Damkeer, Leslie W. Knapp, and Bruce B. 
Collette. "Food of Western North Atlantic Tunas (Thunnus) and Lancet- 
fishes (Alepisauras)." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 
Technical Report NMFS SSRF-706, pages 1-19. 1977. 


Abele, Lawrence G. "Comparative Species Composition and Relative Abun- 
dance of Decapod Crustaceans in Marine Habitats of Panama." Marine 
Biology, volume 38, number 3 (1976), pages 263-278. 

Abrams, Peter A. "Density-Independent Mortality and Interspecific Competi- 
tion: A Test of Pianka's Niche Overlap Hypothesis." The American Nat- 
uralist, volume 111, number 979 (1977), pages 539-552. 

Bartholomew, George A., and Timothy M. Casey. "Endothermy During Ter- 
restrial Activity in Large Beetles." Science, volume 195, number 4281 
(1977), pages 882-883. 

Batista de Yee, Gloria, and Carmen Rosa Chang. "Observaciones Sobre la 
Ecologia de una Pradera de Thalassia en la Costa Atlantica de Panama." 
Thesis, Universidad de Panama, Repiiblica de Panama, 1976. 

Bertsch, Hans. "Intraspecific and Ontogenetic Radular Variation in Opistho- 
branch Systematics (Mollusca: Gastropoda)." Systematic Zoology, volume 
25, number 2 (1976), pages 117-122. 

Bonaccorso, Frank J., Nicholas Smythe, and Stephen R. Humphrey. "Improved 
Techniques for Marking Bats." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 57, number 
2 (1976), pages 181-182. 

Burghardt, Gordon M. "Of Iguanas and Dinosaurs: Social Behavior and Com- 
munication in Neonate Repitles." American Zoologist, volume 17, number 
1 (1977), pages 177-190. 

Burghardt, Gordon M., Harry W. Green, and A. Stanley Rand. "Social Be- 
havior in Hatchling Green Iguanas: Life at a Reptile Rookery." Science, 
volume 195, number 4279 (1977), pages 689-691. 

Clark, Mertice M., and Bennett G. Galef, Jr. "Patterns of Agonistic Interac- 
tion and Space Utilization by Agoutis (Dasyprocta punctata)." Behavioral 
Biology, volume 20, number 1 (1977), pages 135-140. 

Cooke, Richard G. "Current Research: Lower Central America." American 
Antiquity, volume 42, number 2 (1977), pages 281-283. 

. "Nuevos Analisis de Carbono — 14 para Panama, al Este de Chiriqui: 

una Actualizacion de los Cambios Culturales Prehistoricos." La Antigua, 
number 6 (1976), pages 88-111. 

312 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "Panama: Region Central." Vinculos, volume 2, number 1 (1976), 

pages 122-140. 

Del Rosario, Juan B., and Lawrence G. Abele. "Descriptions of the Male and 
New Distribution Records for Acanthocarpus delsolari Garth, 1973 (Deca- 
poda, Calappidae) from the Pacific Coast of Panama." Crustaceana, volume 
30, number 3 (1976), pages 225-228. 

Dexter, Deborah M. "A Natural History of the Sand Dollar Encope stokesi 
L. Agassiz in Panama." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 27, number 3 
(1977), pages 544-551. 

Dressier, Robert L. "Une Epidendrum Bella del Subgenero Oerstedella. An 
Attractive Epidendrum of the Subgenus Oerstedella." Orquideologia, vol- 
ume 11, number 2 (1976), pages 107-112. 

. "How to Study Orchid Pollination Without Any Orchids." In Pro- 
ceedings of the Eighth World Orchid Conference, pages 534-537. 1976. 
-. "Orquideas Collectadas en Fortuna, 1976." In Evaluation Ambiental y 

Efectos del Proyecto Hidroelectrico Fortuna, by Abdiel J. Adames. Loteria, 
number 254-256 (1977), pages 209-216. 

"Una Poinsettia (Euphorbiaceae) Nueva y Atractiva de Guerrero 

(Mexico)." Boletin de la Sociedad Botdnica de Mexico, number 35 (1975), 
pages 17-21. 

"Una Sievekingia Nueva de Colombia. A New Colombian Sieve- 

kingia." Orquideologia, volume 11, number 3 (1976), pages 215-221. 

"Tipificacion de Epidendrum insidiosum. The Typification of Epiden- 

drum insidiosum." Orquidea (Mex.), volume 61, number 1 (1976), pages 

Dressier, Robert L., and Eric Hagsater. "Una Especie Nueva del Sur de Mex- 
ico, Helleriella guerrerensis." Orquidea (Mex.), volume 5, number 2 (1975), 
pages 35-42. 

. "Pachyphyllum mexicanum, sp. nov.; Un Genero Nuevo Para la Or- 

quideoflora de Mexico. Pachyphyllum mexicanum, sp. nov.; A New Genus 
for the Mexica Orchid Flora." Orquidea (Mex.), volume 6, number 3 (1976), 
pages 71-79. 

Dressier, Robert L., and Norris H. Williams. "Euglossine Pollination of 
Spathiphyllum (Araceae)." Selbyana, volume 1 (1976), pages 349-356. 

Eberhard, William G. "Physical Properties of Sticky Spirals and Their Con- 
nections: Sliding Connections in Orb Webs." Journal of Natural History, 
volume 10, number 5 (1976), pages 481-488. 

Fauchald, Kristian. "Polychaetes From Intertidal Areas in Panama, with a 
Review of Previous Shallow-Water Records." Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology, number 221, 1977. 

Foster, Robin B. "Tachigalia versicolor is a Suicidal Neotropical Tree." Na- 
ture, volume 268, number 5621 (1977), pages 624-626. 

Galef, Bennett G., Jr., and Mertice M. Clark. "Non-Norturent Functions of 
Mother-Young Interaction in the Agouti (Dasyprocta punctata)." Beha- 
vioral Biology, volume 17, number 2 (1976), pages 255-262. 

Galef, Bennett G., Jr., Russell A. Mittermeier, and Robert C. Bailey. "Preda- 
tion of the Tayra (Eira barbara)." Journal of Mammalogy, volume 57, num- 
ber 4 (1976), pages 760-761. 

Gee, John H. "Buoyancy and Aerial Respiration: Factors Influencing the Evo- 
lution of Reduced Swimbladder Volume of Some Central American Cat- 
fishes (Trichomycteridae, Callichthyidae, Loricariidae, Astroblepidae)." Ca- 
nadian Journal of Zoology, volume 54, number 7 (1976), pages 1030-1037. 

Gee, John H., and Phyllis A. Gee. "Alteration of Buoyancy by Some Central 
American Stream Fishes, and a Comparison with North American Species." 
Canadian Journal of Zoology, volume 54, number 3 (1976), pages 386-391. 

Gliwicz, Zbgniew Maciej. "Plankton Photosynthetic Activity and Its Regula- 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 313 

tion in Two Neotropical Man-Made Lakes." Polish Archives of Hydrobiol- 
ogy, volume 23, number 2 (1976), pages 61-93. 

"Stratification of Kinetic Origin and its Biological Consequences in a 

Neotropical Man-Made Lake." Ekologia Polska, volume 24, number 2 (1976), 
pages 197-209. 

Glynn, Peter W. "Some Physical and Biological Determinants of Coral Com- 
munity Structure in the Eastern Pacific." Ecological Monographs, volume 46, 
number 4 (1976), pages 431-456. 

. "Interactions Between Acanthaster and Hymenocera in the Field and 

Laboratory." In Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Sympo- 
sium, I, pages 209-215. 1977. 

"Growth Rate and Age of Coral Reefs on the Pacific Coast of Pan- 

ama." In Proceedings of the Third International Coral Reef Symposium, II, 
pages 251-259. 1977. 

Gore, Robert H., and Lawrence G. Abele. "Shallow Water Porcelain Crabs of 
Panama and Adjacent Caribbean Waters (Crustacea: Anomura: Porcellani- 
dae)." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 237, 1976. 

Green, Harry W. "The Aardwolf as Hyena Mimic." Animal Behaviour, volume 
25, number 1 (1977), pages 245-246. 

Haines, Bruce, and Robin B. Foster. "Energy Flow Through Litter in a Pana- 
manian Forest." Journal of Ecology, volume 65, number 1 (1977), pages 147- 

Healey, Thomas S. "Where Seaworms Glow and Monkeys Howl in the Tree- 
tops." The Lamp, Spring 1977, pages 26-29. 

Heck, Kenneth L., Jr. "Comparative Species Richness, Composition, and Abun- 
dance of Invertebrates in Caribbean Seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) Mead- 
ows (Panama)." Marine Biology, volume 41, number 4 (1977), pages 335- 

Hendler, Gordon. "Development of Amphioplus abditus (Verrill) (Echinoder- 
mata: Ophiuroidea) : I. Larval Biology." Biological Bulletin, volume 152, 
number 1 (1977), pages 51-63. 

. "The Differential Effects of Seasonal Stress and Predation on the 

Stability of Reef-Flat Echinoid Populations." In Proceedings of the Third 
International Coral Reef Symposium, I, pages 217-224. 1977. 

Heyer, W. Ronald, and A. Stanley Rand. "Foam Nest Construction in the 
Leptodactylid Frogs Leptodactylus pentadactylus and Physalaemus pustulo- 
sus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae)." Journal of Herpetology, volume 
11, number 2 (1977), pages 225-228. 

Hover, Edward L., and Thomas A. Jenssen. "Descriptive Analysis and Social 
Correlates of Agonistic Displays of Anolis limifrons (Sauria, Iguanidae)." 
Behaviour, volume 58, number 3-4 (1976), pages 173-191. 

Jaeger, Robert G. "A Possible Prey-Call Window in Anuran Auditory Per- 
ception." Copeia, number 4 (1976), pages 833-834. 

Jaeger, Robert G., Jack P. Hailman, and Linda S. Jaeger. "Bimodal Diel Ac- 
tivity of Panamanian Dendrobatid Frog, Colostethus nubicola, in Relation 
to Light." Herpetologica, volume 32, number 1 (1976), pages 77-81. 

Janos, David P. "Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Affect the Growth of 
Bactris gasipaes." Principes, volume 21, number 1 (1977), pages 12-18. 

Jenssen, Thomas A., and Edward L. Hover. "Display Analysis of the Signa- 
ture Display Anolis limifrons (Sauria: Iguanidae)." Behaviour, volume 57, 
number 3-4 (1976), pages 227-240. 

Karr, James R. "An Association Between a Grass (Paspalum virgatum) and 
Moths." Biotropica, volume 8, number 4 (1976), pages 284-285. 

. "On the Relative Abundance of Migrants from the North Temperate 

Zone in Tropical Habitats." Wilson Bulletin, volume 88, number 3 (1976), 
pages 433-458. 

314 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "Seasonality, Resource Availability, and Community Diversity in 

Tropical Bird Communities." The American Naturalist, volume 110, number 
976 (1976), pages 973-994. 

"Weights of African Birds." Bulletin of the British Ornithological 

Club, volume 96, number 3 (1976), pages 92-96. 

"Within- and Between-Habitat Avian Diversity in African and Neo- 

tropical Lowland Habitats." Ecological Monographs, volume 46, number 4 
(1976), pages 457-481. 

"Ecological Correlates of Rarity in a Tropical Forest Bird Commu- 

nity." The Auk, volume 94, number 2 (1977), pages 240-247. 

Kramer, Donald L., and Jeffrey B. Graham. "Synchronous Air Breathing, a 
Social Component of Respiration in Fishes." Copeia, number 4 (1976), 
pages 689-697. 

Lawrence, J. M. "On the Role of the Tube Feet and Spines in the Righting 
Response of Sea Urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)." American Zoolo- 
gist, volume 16, number 2 (1976), page 228. 

Leigh, Egbert G., Eric L. Charnov, and Robert R. Warner. "Sex Ratio, Sex 
Change, and Natural Selection." In Proceedings of the National Academy 
of Sciences of the United States of America, volume 73, number 10, pages 
3656-3660. 1976. 

Linares, Olga F. "Animals That Were Bad to Eat Were Good to Compete 
With: An Analysis of the Conte Style from Ancient Panama." In Ritual 
and Symbol in Native Central America, edited by Philip Young and James 
Howe. University of Oregon, Anthropological Papers, number 9 (1976), 
pages 3-19. 

. "Current Research: Central America." American Antiquity, volume 

41, number 2 (1976), pages 225-226. 

" 'Garden Hunting' in the American Tropics." Human Ecology, vol- 

ume 4, number 4 (1976), pages 331-349. 

[Review] The Yukpa Cultivation System: A Study of Shifting Culti- 

vation in Colombia and Venezuela, by Kenneth Rudle. Human Ecology, 
volume 4, number 3 (1976), pages 273-275. 

-. "Adaptive Strategies in Western Panama." World Archeology, vol- 

ume 8, number 3 (1977), pages 304-319. 

Lubin, Yael D.> G. Gene Montgomery, and Orrey P. Young. "Food Resources 
of Anteaters (Edentata: Myrmecophagidae) I. A Year's Census of Arboreal 
Nests of Ants and Termites on Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone." 
Biotropica, volume 9, number 1 (1977), pages 26-34. 

McCosker, John E. "The Osteology, Classification, and Relationships of the 
Eel Family Ophichthidae." In Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences, volume 41, number 1, pages 1-123. 1977. 

McCoy, Earl D., and Kenneth L. Heck. "Biogeography of Corals, Seagrasses, 
and Mangroves: An Alternative to the Center of Origin Concept." Sys- 
tematic Zoology, volume 25, number 3 (1976), pages 201-210. 

McHargue, Laurie A. "Nesting of Turkey and Black Vultures in Panama." 
The Wilson Bulletin, volume 89, number 2 (1977), pages 328-329. 

Maclntyre, I. G., and Peter W. Glynn. "Evolution of Modern Caribbean Fring- 
ing Reef, Galeta Point, Panama." The American Association of Petroleum 
Geologists Bulletin, volume 60, number 7 (1976), pages 1054-1072. 

May, Michael L. "Warming Rates as a Function of Body Size in Periodic 
Endotherms." Journal of Comparative Physiology, volume 111, number 1 
(1976), pages 55-70. 

Mendel, Frank. "Postural and Locomotor Behavior of Alouatta palliata on 
Various Substrates." Folia Primatologica, volume 26, number 1 (1976), 
pages 36-53. 

Mendoza B., Rodolfo E. "Estudio Taxonomico y Morfologico del Genero 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 315 

Marchantia en Panama." [Thesis] Universidad de Panama, Republica de 
Panama, 1976. 

Meyer, Kaniaulono B. "Dorid Nudibranchs of the Caribbean Coast of the 
Panama Canal Zone." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 27, number 2 
(1977), pages 299-307. 

Milton, Katharine. "The Foraging Strategy of the Mantelet Howler Monkey 
(Allouatta palliata) in the Tropical Forest of BCI, Panama." [Thesis] Uni- 
versity of New York, 1977. 

Mittermeier, Russell A., and John G. Fleagle. "The Locomotor and Postural 
Repertoires of Ateles geoffroyi and Colobus guereza, and a Reevaluation 
of the Locomotor Category Semibrachiation." American Journal of Physical 
Anthropology, volume 45, number 2 (1976), pages 235-256. 

Morton, Eugene S. "Intratropical Migration in the Yellow-Green Vireo and 
Piratic Fly-Catcher." The Auk, volume 94, number 1 (1977), pages 97-106. 

. "Vocal Mimicry in the Thick-Billed Euphonia." The Wilson Bulletin, 

volume 88, number 3 (1976), pages 485-487. 

-. "Oxford Biological Expedition to the San Bias Islands, Panama, 1974." 

Bulletin of the Oxford University Explorers Club, New Series, volume 1 
(1976), pages 27-30. 

Reiskind, Jonathan. "Ant-Mimicry in Panamanian Clubionid and Salticid Spi- 
ders (Araneae: Clubionidae, Salticidae)." Biotropica, volume 9, number 1 
(1977), pages 1-8. 

Ricklefs, Robert E. "Growth Rate of Birds in the Humid New World Trop- 
ics." The Ibis, volume 118, number 2 (1976), pages 179-207. 

Robertson, D. R., H. P. A. Sweatman, E. A. Fletcher, and M. G. Cleland. 
"Schooling as a Mechanism for Circumventing the Territoriality of Com- 
petitors." Ecology, volume 57, number 6 (1976), pages 1208-1220. 

Robinson, Michael H., and Barbara Robinson. "Discrimination Between Prey 
Types: An Innate Component of the Predatory Behaviour of Araneid Spi- 
ders." Zeitschrift fur Tier psychologic volume 41, number 3 (1976), pages 

. "A Tipulid Associated With Spider Webs in Papua New Guinea." 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, volume 112 (1977), pages 1-4. 

Robinson, Michael H., and Nicholas D. Smythe. "A Technique for Observing 
the Behaviour of Small Animals Under Field Conditions." Psyche, volume 
83, number 2 (1976), pages 210-212. 

Rodriguez T., Cesar A., y Stella Guerrero B. "La Historia Natural y el Com- 
portamiento de Zygopachylus albomarginis (Chamberlain) (Arachnida, 
Opiliones: Gonyleptidae)." Biotropica, volume 8, number 4 (1976), pages 

Schaffer, William M., and Egbert G. Leigh. "The Prospective Role of Mathe- 
matical Theory in Plant Ecology." Systematic Botany, volume 1, number 3 
(1976), pages 209-232. 

Scott, Norman J., Jr., Alan F. Scott, and Linda A. Malmgren. "Capturing and 
Marking Howler Monkeys for Field Behavioral Studies." Primates, volume 
17, number 4 (1976), pages 527-533. 

Smith, Alan P. "Albinism in Relation to Competition in Bamboo Phyllostachys 
bambusoides." Nature, volume 266, number 5602 (1977), pages 527-529. 

Smith, W. John. The Behavior of Communicating; An Ethological Approach. 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977. 

Smith, Wayne L. "Beneficial Behavior of a Symbiotic Shrimp to its Host 
Anemone." Bulletin of Marine Science, volume 27, number 2 (1977), pages 

Smythe, Nicholas. "The Function of Mammalian Alarm Advertising: Social 
Signals or Pursuit Invitation?" The American Naturalist, volume 111, num- 
ber 977 (1977), pages 191-194. 

316 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Vollrath, Fritz. "Konkurrenzvermeidung Bei Tropischen kleptoparasitischen 
Haubennetzspinnen der Gattung Argyrodes (Arachnida: Araneae: Theri- 
diidae)." Entomological Cermanica, volume 3, number 1/2 (1976), pages 

West, David A. "Aposematic Coloration and Mutualism in Sponge-Dwelling 
Tropical Zoanthids." In Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior, edited by G. O. 
Mackie. New York: Plenum Press, 1976. 

Wilder, George J. "Structure and Development of Leaves in Carludovica 
palmata (Cyclanthaceae) with Reference to Other Cyclanthaceae and 
Palmae." American Journal of Botany, volume 63, number 9 (1976), pages 

. "Structure and Symmetry of Species of the Asplundia Group (Cyclan- 
thaceae) Having Monopodial Vegetative Axes: Schultesiophytum Chorian- 
thum, Dicranopygium sp. nov., Asplundia rigida, and Thoracocarpus bis- 
sectus." Botanical Gazette, volume 138, number 1 (1977), pages 80-101. 

Williams, Ernest E., and A. Stanley Rand. "Species Recognition, Dewlap Func- 
tion and Faunal Size." American Zoologist, volume 17, number 1 (1977), 
pages 261-270. 

Willis, Edwin O. "Seasonal Changes in the Invertebrate Litter Fauna on 
Barro Colorado Island, Panama." Revista Brasileira de Biologia, volume 36, 
number 3 (1976), pages 643-657. 

Windsor, Donald M. "Birds as Predators on the Brood of Polybia Wasps 
(Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) in a Costa Rican Deciduous Forest." 
Biotropica, volume 8, number 2 (1976), pages 111-116. 

. editor. "Environmental Monitoring and Baseline Data; Tropical Stud- 
ies." [Compiled under the Smithsonian Institution Environmental Science 
Program] Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 

Wolda, Hindrik. "Ecologia de Insectos en la Provincia de Chiriqui." Conscien- 
cia, volume 4, number 1 (1977), pages 3-5. 

, editor. "La Estabilidad del Medioambiente Tropical y sus Pobla- 

ciones." Resumenes Recibidos para el IV Simposium Internacional de Eco- 
logia Tropical, 212 pages, 1977. 

Zaret, Thomas M., and J. Samuel Suffern. "Vertical Migration in Zooplankton 
as a Predator Avoidance Mechanism." Limnology and Oceanography, vol- 
ume 21, number 6 (1976), pages 804-813. 

Zucker, Naida. "Neighbor Dislodgement and Burrow-Filling Activities by Male 
Uca musica terpsichores: A Spacing Mechanism." Marine Biology, volume 
41, number 3 (1977), pages 281-286. 



Dee, Elaine Evans. "Watercolors and Drawings." In The Royal Pavilion at 
Brighton. New York: Cooper-Hewitt Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Oliver, Richard B. "Drawing Toward a More Modern Architecture." Archi- 
tectural Design Magazine, June 1977, pages 444-446, London. (Entire issue 
served as a catalogue for the Cooper-Hewitt exhibition of the same name.) 

Sonday, Milton. "Repeat, Repeat, Repeat." Craft Horizons, August 1977, 
pages 52-54. 

. [Introductory essay] Fabric of Jewish Life: The Textiles in the Collec- 
tion of the Jewish Museum. New York: Jewish Museum, 1977. 

Taylor, Lisa M. [Foreword] Man transforms, by Hans Hollein. New York: 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 1976. 

. [Foreword] Cooper-Hewitt Museum 1977 Benefit Auction. New York: 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 317 

. [Foreword] The Royal Pavilion at Brighton. New York: Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 
. [Foreword] The Sculpture of Minoru and Niizuma. Tokyo: Cibu Mu- 

seum, 1977. 
. "Turn of the Century Life." Old Westbury News, Spring 1977, page 4. 


Atil, Esin. Monthly articles for Turkey Today [the Embassy of Turkey]. Jan- 
uary-September 1977. 
. "Pottery: The High Art of Lusterwares." The Washington Post, May 

8, 1977. 
Hobbs, Susan. "The Little-Known Side of One Great American Collector." 

Smithsonian, volume 7, number 10 (January 1977), pages 50-57. 
. "A Connoisseur's Vision: The American Art Collection of Charles 

Lang Freer." American Art Review, August 1977, pages 76-101. 
Lovell, Hin-cheung. "Some Northern Chinese Ceramic Ware of the Sixth and 

Seventh Centuries." Oriental Art, Winter 1975, pages 328-343. 
. "A Question of Choice, a Matter of Rendition." Renditions, number 

6 (Spring 1976), pages 63-69. 
Winter, John. [Obituary] "Harold Phillip Stern." Washington Conservation 

Guild Newsletter, volume 2, number 2 (1977), page 5. 


Fox, Howard. "Through the Golden Door: America's Immigrant Artists." 

Jewish Quarterly, Spring 1977. 
, publisher and co-editor. Sun & Moon: A Quarterly of Literature and 

Art, Washington, D.C. 
Fox, Howard, and Douglas Messerli. Index to Periodical Fiction in English, 

1965-1969. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, 1977. 
Gettings, Frank. E. E. Cummings: The Poet as Artist. Washington, D. C. : 

Smithsonian Institution Press, December 1976. 
. Roger Long, Paintings and Drawings. Washington, D. C. : Federal 

Reserve Board, Fine Arts Program, April 1977. 
Lerner, Abram. Auguste Rodin: The Burghers of Calais. Washington, D. C. : 

Museum Press, Inc., 1976. 
Millard, Charles. "Fauvism." Hudson Review, Winter 1976/1977, pages 576- 

. The Sculpture of Edgar Degas. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Uni- 
versity Press, 1977. 
Rosenzweig, Phyllis. The Thomas Eakins Collection of the Hirshhorn Museum 

and Sculpture Garden. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977. 
. [Review] The Natural Paradise, edited by Kynaston McShine. Mh- 

seum News, July/August 1977. 
Tighe, Mary Ann. "The Caricature of David Levine." The New Republic, 

March 20, 1976. 
. "Philip Pearlstein: Dis-Armorying Art History." The New Republic 

April 24, 1976. 

"The Daguerreotypes of Southworth and Hawes." Smithsonian, Octo- 

ber 1976. 

. [Review] The Art Scene, by Calvin Tompkins. The New Republic, 

October 23, 1976. 

. "A New Federal Agency: Rx for Museum Malaise." Art in America, 

November/December 1976. 

. [Review] Portraits, by Richard Avedon. The Washington Post, No- 
vember 7, 1976. 

318 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "The Best Art and Photography Books of 1976." The Washington 

Post, December 9, 1976. 

. "Art and Exhibitionism." The New Republic, December 10, 1976. 

. [Review] Persepolis and Ancient Iran. Smithsonian, December 1976. 

[Review] Calder Universe, by Jean Lipman. The Washington Post, 

December 19, 1976. 

[Review] Eisenstaedt's Album, by Philip Kunhadt, Jr. The Washington 

Post, December 19, 1976. 
. [Review] Lisette Model Exhibition. Art in America. January/February 

. "Gertrude Kasebier, Lost and Found." Art in America, March/April 


"DiSuevero in Grand Rapids: The Public Prevails." Art in America, 

March/April 1977. 

-. "Art on the Line: New York, Moscow, New York, Moscow." The New 

Republic, April 16, 1977. 

[Review] Callahan and Paul Strand: Sixty Years of Photographs. The 

Washington Post, March 10, 1977. 

[Review] Alfred Stiglitz and the American Avant-Carde. The New 

York Times Book Review, May 8, 1977. 

[Review] An Early Victorian Album: The Photographic Masterpieces 

of David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, edited by Colin Ford. Smith- 
sonian, May 1977. 

Weil, Stephen E. "Art and the Law." Law Library Journal, volume 70, number 
1 (February 1977), pages 1-4. 

. " 'If Men Were Angels. . .,' An Overview of Museums and the Law." 

Museum News, volume 56, number 1 (September/October 1977), pages 35-41. 


Mollela, Arthur P., and Nathan Reingold, editors. "The Interaction of Science 
and Technology in the Industrial Age." [Special issue] Technology and Cul- 
ture, volume 17 (October 1976). 

Reingold, Nathan. The Case of the Disappearing Laboratory." American 
Quarterly, volume 29 (Spring 1977), pages 79-101. 

Reingold, Nathan, and Arthur P. Molella. [Introduction] "The Interaction of 
Science and Technology in the Industrial Age." [Special issue] Technology 
and Culture, volume 17 (October 1976). 



Americas: The Decorative Arts in Latin America in the Era of the Revolution. 
80 pages, 4 color and 71 black-and-white illustrations. Washington, D.C. : 
Smithsonian Institution Press, October 1976. $6.80. 

Robert Rauschenberg. 218 pages, 21 color and 259 black-and-white illustra- 
tions. Washington, D.C: National Collection of Fine Arts, March 1977. Paper 


Bermingham, Peter. [Essay] The Art of Poetry. [Exhibition checklist] November 

. [Essay] China Revisited: Ink Paintings by Thomas George. [Exhibition 

checklist] February 1977. 

Flint, Janet A. [Essay] Jacob Kainen: Prints, A Retrospective. [Exhibition cata- 
logue] November 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 319 

. [Checklist of Prints] Jacob Kainen: Prints, A Retrospective. [Exhibition 

catalogue] November 1976. 

-. [Essay] Raphael Soyer: Drawings and Watercolors. [Exhibition cata- 

logue] September 1977. 

Herman, Lloyd. [Foreword] The Object as Poet. [Exhibition catalogue] Decem- 
ber 1976. 

. [Essay] Paint on Wood: Decorated American Furniture Since the 17th 

Century. [Exhibition catalogue] May 1977. 

-. [Acknowledgments] Americas: The Decorative Arts in Latin America 

in the Era of the Revolution. [Book] October 1976. 

Hopps, Walter. [Acknowledgments] Robert Rauschenberg. [Exhibition cata- 
logue] March 1977. 

Hormats, Bess. "Whatever Happened to the German War Art Collection?" 
Art Monthly (London), December 1976. 

Taylor, Joshua C. [Forword] America: The Decorative Arts in Latin America 
in the Era of the Revolution. [Book] October 1976. 

. [Foreword] Jacob Kainen: Prints, A Retrospective. [Exhibition cata- 
logue] November 1976. 

[Foreword] Raices y Visionesi Roots and Visions. [Exhibition checklist] 

July 1977. 

. [Foreword] Robert Rauschenberg. [Exhibition catalogue] March 1977. 

[Essay] Arthur Wesley Dow (1857-1922). [Exhibition checklist] July 


-. [Essay] Robert Rauschenberg. [Exhibition checklist] October 1976. 

Truettner, William. "George Catlin, Frank Wilkin, and the Prince of Econ- 
chatti." Apollo, volume 105 (February 1977), pages 124-126. 


Kaleidoscope Day: The Third Dimension. May 1977. 

The Philadelphia Trio. October 1976. 

Carmina Gallo. November 1976. 

"Poetry in Sound." December 1976. 

Liliane Questel. January 1977. 

Sara Stern, Alice Takemoto. May 1977. 

Daniel Comegys, Maurice Murphy. June 1977. 

Kathleen Colding, Alice Takemoto. June 1977. 

Candace Johnson, Al Cifford, Marjorie Lee. June 1977. 

Pamela Barr, Lydia Bernstein. July 1977. 

Lydian Chamber Players. August 1977. 


Office of the Director 

Bedini, Silvio A. "Owls in the Attic." In The Smithsonian Experience, pages 
141-143. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

"The Hardware of History." In The Smithsonian Experience, pages 

96-103. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Friedel, Robert. Men, Materials, and Ideas: A History of Celluloid. [Ph.D. 
Dissertion] Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1977. 

Friedel, Robert, and John W. Servos. "The Saccharin Flap of '07." The Wash- 
ington Post, March 27, 1977, page C5. 

Hindle, Brooke. The Meaning of the Bethlehem Waterworks. Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, 1977. 

. "Military History and the Museum." Army Museum Newsletter, 

number 14 (1977), pages 4-7. 

320 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "Science and the American Revolution." The Journal of General Edu- 
cation, number 28 (Fall 1976), pages 223-236. 

Lawless, Benjamin W. "The Smithsonian Style." The Smithsonian Experience, 
pages 52-59. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution, 1977. 

Lawless, Benjamin W., and Michael Harris. "Letters to a Highly Regarded 
Institution," by Michael Lawless and Benjamin Harris [sic]. Gargoyle, 
September 1977, pages 8-19. 

Post, Robert C. Physics, Patents, and Politics: A Biography of Charles Graf- 
ton Page. New York: Science History Publications, 1976. 

. "Steel Ropes into the Howling Wilderness." In Los Angeles: Biog- 
raphy of a City, edited by Johns and Laree Caughey, pages 192-197, Berkeley, 
Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1976. 

-. "Story of the Pacific Railway." Evening Outlook, Santa Monica, Cali- 

fornia, September 11, 1976, pages 6A-7A. 

"Stray Sparks from the Induction Coil: The Volta Prize and the Page 

Patent." In Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, volume 64, 
page 1279-1287. 1976. 

-, contributing author. Signers of the Constitution: Historic Places 

Commemorating the Signing of the Constitution. Washington, D.C: De- 
partment of the Interior, National Park Service, 1976. 
Tillotson, Robert G. Museum Security/Le Securite dan les Musees. Edited 
by Diana D. Menkes. Paris: International Council of Museums, May 1977. 

Department of Applied Arts 

Adrosko, Rita J. "18th Century American Weavers, Their Looms and Their 
Products." In Imported and Domestic Textiles in Eighteenth-Century Amer- 
ica. 1975 Proceedings of the Irene Emery Roundtable on Museum Textiles. 
Washington, D.C: The Textile Museum, 1976. 

. [Introduction] 22 Polish Textile Artists. Washington, DC: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1977. 

"Weaving." In Spinning and Weaving. Washington, DC: Smith- 

sonian Institution Press, 1977. 

Bruns, Franklin R., Jr. "The United States 'Liberty' Issue, 1954-1963." In The 
American Philatelic Congress Book, 1976, pages 45-76. Wilmington, Dela- 
ware: The American Philatelic Congress, 1976. 

. American Stamps. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 


Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. America di ieri nelle medaglie e nelle placchette di 
Victor D. Brenner. [Reprint from La Medaglia, pages 53-67] Milan, Italy: 
S. Johnson, 1976. 

. Dimitri Ferentinos and His Art. Athens, Greece 1977. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira, and Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli. Das grosse Buch der 
Miinzen und Medaillen. Munich, Germany: Battenberg, 1976. [Published 
with an appendix by Giinter Shon. Munzkatalog Europa von 1900 bis 

Hebert, Raymond J. "The Mecklenberg Declaration of Independence Centen- 
nial Medal." The Numismatist, February 1977, pages 273-284. 

Marzio, Peter C. The Art Crusade. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1976. 

. "Democracy in American Art." In Papers on American Art. Philadel- 
phia: Friends of Independence Historical Park, 1976. 

-. "Illustrated News in Early American Prints." In American Printmak- 

ing before 1876. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1976. 

-. "Mr. Audubon and Mr. Bien: An Early Phase in the History of Amer- 

ican Chromolithography." In Prospects, edited by Jack Salzman. New York: 
Burt Franklin, 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 321 

. "The American Drawing Books." In Philadelphia Printmaking before 

1860. Philadelphia: Tinicum Press, 1977. 

Perfect Likenesses: Portraits for History of the Indian Tribes of North 

America (1837-44). Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977. 

Norby, Reidar. "The Scandinavian Stamp Lexicon." Scandinavian Scribe, 
volume 12, number 1 (1976), pages 5-6 and 11-12. 

. Foreign Stamps. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 


Ostroff, Eugene. Conserving and Restoring Photographic Collections. [Re- 
vised edition] Washington, D.C: American Association of Museums, 1976. 

. Photography. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977. 

Scheele, Carl H. American Post Offices. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press, 1977. 

Department of Cultural History 

Ahlborn, Richard E. "Comments on Textiles in Eighteenth Century Spanish 
New Mexico." In Imported and Domestic Textiles in 18th Century Amer- 
ica, edited by Patricia L. Fiske, pages 132-146. Washington, DC: The 
Textile Museum, 1976. 

Fesperman, John T. "Spanish and American Organbuilding in Mexico." News- 
letter of the American Musical Instrument Society, volume 5, number 2/3 
(June/October 1976), pages 1-2, and 4. 

. Works of Nicolas de Crigny. [Performance on organ built by Charles 

Fisk at the University of Vermont] Orion Master Recordings, Inc. 

Golovin, Anne C. "William King Jr., Georgetown Furniture Maker." Antiques, 
volume 111, number 5 (May 1977), pages 1032-1037. 

Harris, Karyn Jean. Costume Display Techniques. Nashville, Tennessee: 
American Association for State and Local History, 1977. 

Hollis, Helen R. The Musical Instruments of Joseph Haydn: An Introduction. 
Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977. 

Kidwell, Claudia. "Apparel for Ballooning with Speculations on More Com- 
monplace Garb." Costume (London), number 11, pages 73-87. 

Roth, Rodris. "Relic Furniture and George J. Henkels." In Collector's Notes, 
edited by Dorothy E. Ellesin. Antiques, volume 110, number 2 (August 
1976), pages 276 and 356. 

. "A Patent Model by John Henry Belter." Antiques, volume 111, 

number 5 (May 1977), pages 1038-1040. 

Sheldon, Robert. "Brandenburg Concerto I." In Brandenburg Concerti, by 
J. S. Bach. [Performance with Aston Magna Foundation on horn in F by 
Johann Grinwald, Munich, 1725, from Smithsonian collection] Columbia 

Weaver, James. Pieces de Clavecin, by Jacques Duphly. [Performance on 
harpsichord by Benoist Stehlin, Paris, 1770, from Smithsonian collection] 
The Smithsonian Label. 

. Pieces de Clavecin, by Antoine Forqueray. [Performance on harpsi- 
chord] Nonesuch Records. 

"Brandenburg Concerto II." In Brandenburg Concerti, by J. S. Bach. 

[Performance with Aston Magna Foundation on harpsichord] Columbia 

. Sonatas for Violin and Basso Continuo by Francesco Geminiani. 

[Performance on harpsichord] Musical Heritage Society. 

322 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Department of Industries 

Berkebile, Don H. American Carriages, Sleighs, Sulkies and Carts. New York: 

Dover Publications, Inc., 1977. 
Gardner, Paul V. In the Smithsonian: The National Museum of History and 

Technology: American Class. Washington, D.C. : Smithsonian Institution 

Press, 1977. 
Schlebecker, John T. "The Use of Objects in Historical Research." Agricultural 

History, volume 51 (January 1977), pages 200-208. 
. "Who's a Leader? The Published Documents: A Commentary." In 

Agricultural Literature: Proud Heritage — Future Promise, pages 169-171. 

Washington, D.C: Associates of the National Agricultural Library, 1977. 

"Eighteenth Century Living Historical Farms: A Search for Identity." 

In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, 1976, pages 32-34. Washington, D.C. 
Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums, 1977. 

"Standards of Excellence for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural 

Museums." In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, 1976, pages 1-8. Washing- 
ton, D.C: Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Mu- 
seums, 1977. 

-, editor. [Bi-monthly] Living Historical Farms Bulletin, volume 6, num- 

bers 1-6 (November 1976-September 1977). 

Sharrer, G. Terry. "Alexandria Industry and Commerce, 1800-1900." In Alex- 
andria, A Town in Transition, edited by John Macoll. Alexandria, Virginia: 
Alexandria Historical Society, 1977. 

White, John H., Jr. "Grice and Long: Steam-Car Builders." In Prospects, An 
Annual of American Cultural Studies, volume 2, pages 25-39. New York: 
Burt Franklin & Co., Inc., 1976. 

. "Splendor and Gloom: The Decoration of Victorian Railroad Cars." In 

Nineteenth Century, volume 3 (Spring 1977), pages 38-47. 

. "The Why in History." In Trains Magazine, volume 37 (1977) page 66. 

"The Cover Design 'A Perfect Light Is a Luxury': Pintsch Gas Car 

Lighting." In Technology and Culture, volume 18, pages 64-69. 

-, editor. Railroad History, numbers 135 (Autumn 1976) and 136 (Spring 


Department of National and Military History 

Klapthor, Margaret B. "Presidential China." Cincinnati Antiques Festival 1976, 

pages 76-80, October 1976. 
. [Foreword] Behind the Scenes, by the Southern Maryland Regional 

Committee of National Society of Colonial Dames of America. 1977. 

The First Ladies Cookbook. Historical text of Parents' Magazine Press, 

New York, 1977. [Chapters on the Ford administration and the Carter admin- 
Langley, Harold D., Francis L. Loewenheim, and Manfred Jones, editors. 

Roosevelt and Churchill: Carteggi Segreto Di Cuerra. [Italian edition of 

Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence] Milan: 

Arnoldo Mondadori, 1977. 
Lundeberg, Philip K. "Convoy and Dry Docks." In Dictionary of American 

History, volume 2, pages 217-218 and 375. New York: Charles Scribner's 

Sons, 1976. 
. "Nautical Archaeology: Legal Aspects." In Proceedings of the Second 

International Conference of Maritime Museums, Oslo, 1975, pages 27-33. 

Oslo: Norsk Sjofartsmuseum, 1977. 
. "Samuel Eliot Morison, 1887-1976." Military Affaires, volume 40 

(1976), pages 145-146. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 2>22> 

. "Search for Continental Gunboats at Schuylers Island, Lake Cham- 
plain, New York." In National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1968, 
pages 213-223. Washington, D.C. : Washington National Geographic So- 
ciety, 1976. 

"Staff Security Training." In Museum Security: La Securite dans les 

Musees, pages 12-15, 65-67, and 190-193. Paris: International Council of 
Museums, 1977. 

Mayo, Edith P. "The Woman's Pavillion at the Philadelphia Centennial." In 
Bulletin of the National Council of Women, volume 24, number 3 (Novem- 
ber/December 1976). 

. "Ladies and Liberation: Icon and Iconoclast in the Women's Move- 
ment." Icons of America, Fall 1977. 

Department of Science and Technology 

Belfield, Robert B. Relics of the Electrical Age. Washington, D.C: Smith- 
sonian Institution, Division of Electricity, 1977. 

Eklund, Jon B. "Of a Spirit in the Water: Some Early Ideas on the Aerial 
Dimension." ISIS, volume 67 (1976), pages 527-550. 

Finn, Bernard S. "Franklin as Electrician." In Proceedings of the IEEE, volume 
64, pages 1270-1273. 1976. 

. "Growing Pains at the Crossroads of the World: A Submarine Cable 

Station in the 1870s." In Proceedings of the IEEE, volume 64, pages 1287- 
1292. 1976. 

Person-to-Person Exhibit Directory. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian 

Institution, Division of Electricity, 1976. 

Forman, Paul. "'Atom Smashers: Fifty Years' — Preview of an Exhibit on the 
History of High Energy Accelerators." In Proceedings of the 1977 Particle 
Accelerator Conference. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, volume 
NS-24, pages 1896-1899. 1977. 

Hamarneh, Sami K. "India's Contribution to Medieval Arabic Medical Edu- 
cation and Practice." Studies in History of Medicine, volume 1, New Delhi, 
India, page 5-35. 1977. 

. "Reconstruction of an 1884 American Pharmacy." Pharmacy in His- 
tory, volume 19 (1977), pages 109-114. 

Hamarneh, Sami K., and A. Y. al-Hassan, editors. Institute for the History of 
Arabic Science News Letter, numbers 1-5 (June 1976-April 1977). 

Mayr, Otto. "The Science-Technology Relationship as a Historiography 
Problem." In Technology and Culture, volume 17 (1976), pages 663-673. 

Multhauf, Robert P. "Geology, Chemistry, and the Production of Common 
Salt." Technology and Culture, volume 17 (1976), pages 634-645. 

Sivowitch, Elliot N. [Introductory essay] The Telephone, An Historical An- 
thology. New York: Arno Press, 1977. 

Tyne, Gerald F. J. Saga of the Vacuum Tube. Indianapolis: Howard W. Sams 
and Co., Inc., 1977. 


Beard, Richard E., and Nancy B. Beard. "Some Notion of Nations." [Review 
of the exhibition "A Nation of Nations"] Roundtable Reports, Summer 

Henderson, Amy E. "Expansionism and Louisiana." [Review] This Affair of 
Louisiana, by Alexander De Conde. Reviews in American History, June 

. [Review] The Impact of the American Revolution Abroad, Library of 

Congress Symposia on the American Revolution. The New England Quar- 
terly, June 1977. 

324 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. [Review] A Fair and Happy Land, by William A. Owen. The Filson 

Club History Quarterly, June 1977. 

[Review] Revolt in Louisiana, by John Preston Moore. Illinois State 

Historical Journal, August 1977. 

Miles, Ellen G. [Doctoral dissertion] Thomas Hudson (1701-1779): Portraitist 
to the British Establishment. University Microfilms, June 1977. 

. Portrait Painting in America: The Nineteenth Century. New York: 

Antiques Magazine Library, 1977. 

Miller, Lillian B. [Review] The Patriots: The American Revolution Genera- 
tion of Genius, edited by Virginius Dabney. The Journal of American His- 
tory, September 1976. 

. [Review] The New York Little Renaissance: Iconoclasm, Modernism 

and Nationalism in American Culture, 1908-1927, by Arthur Frank Wer- 
theim. History Reviews of New Books, September 1976. 

-. [Review] Toward a National Taste, by J. Meredith Neil. The William 

and Mary Quarterly, October 1976. 

-. [Review] A Rising People: The Founding of the United States 1765 

to 1789, by the American Philosophical Society, 1976. Pennsylvania Maga- 
zine of History and Biography, January 1977. 

[Review] Architecture in the United States: A Survey of Architec- 

tural Styles Since 1776, by Ralph W. Hammett. History: Reviews of New 
Books, February 1977. 

[Review] A Cultural History of the American Revolution: Painting, 

Music, Literature and the Theatre in the Colonies and the United States 
from the Treaty of Paris to the Inauguration of George Washington, 1763- 
1789, by Kenneth Silverman. The Journal of American History, June 1977. 

O'Toole, Dennis. [Review] The Message in the Bottle, by Walker Percy. 
Roundtable Reports, Summer 1977. 

Voss, Frederick. [Review] Manual for Museums, by Ralph Lewis. American 
Archivist, July 1977. 

Yellis, Kenneth. "To Speak the Name of the Dead." [Review of the exhibition 
"Treasures of Tutankhamen"] Roundtable Reports, Winter 1977. 


Washburn, Wilcomb E. The Indian in America. [Japanese translation arranged 

with Harper and Row Publishers Inc. through Japan UNI Agency, Inc.] 

Tokyo: Nan'un-do Company, Ltd., 1977. 
. "The Moral Equivalent to Football." The New Republic, volume 177, 

number 4 (July 23, 1977), pages 33-36. 
Washburn, Wilcomb E., and Robert M. Utley. The American Heritage History 

of the Indian Wars. New York: American Heritage Publishing Company, 




Goodway, Martha E. "Metallographic Preparation of Art and Archaeological 
Specimens." Technology and Conservation, Spring 1977, pages 10-13. 

, editor. Corrosion and Metal Artifacts — A Dialogue between Con- 
servators and Archaeologists and Corrosion Scientists, NBS Special Publi- 
cation 479. [Proceedings of meeting at the National Bureau of Standards] 
March 1976. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 325 


Lytle, Richard H, Maynard Brichford, Harriet Ostroff, and John P. Butler. 
"Intellectual Central of Historical Records." The American Archivist, vol- 
ume 40 (1977), pages 307-313. 

. [Review] SP1NDEX II at Cornell University and a Review of Archival 

Automation in the United States, by H. Thomas Hickerson, Joan Winters, and 
Venetia Beale. The American Archivist, volume 40 (1977). 


Abelson, Alison [Review] Theatre Came File, by Viola Spolin. Roundtable 
Reports, Spring 1967, page 10. 

Coodwin, Jack. "Current Bibliography in the History of Technology (1975)." 
Technology and Culture, volume 18 (April 1977), pages 272-390. 

Pisano, Dominick. "Charles Lindbergh: A Selected Bibliography." In Charles 
A. Lindbergh: An American Life, by Tom D. Crouch. Washington, D.C. : 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977. 

Ratzenberger, Katharine. [Review] The American Personality: The Artist- 
Illustrator of Life in the United States, 1860-1930. [Exhibition at the Grun- 
wald Center for the Graphic Arts] Library Journal, November 1, 1976. 

. [Review] American Architecture and Art: A Guide to Information 

Sources, by David M. Sokol. Art Libraries Society of North America News- 
letter, volume 5, number 1, (December 1976). 

[Review] The Paintings and the Journal of Joseph Whiting Stock. 

Library Journal, February 15, 1977. 

[Review] Women in American Architecture: A Historic and Contem- 

porary Perspective. Library Journal, May 15, 1977. 

[Review] American Architects from the First World War to the Pres- 

ent, by Lawrence Wodehouse. Library Journal, June 15, 1977. 
Shank, Russell. "Smithsonian Institution Libraries." Bowker Annual, 1977, 
pages 46-49. 



Karageorghis, Vassos. Treasures of Cyprus. November 1976. 

Tanavoli, Parvi, and John Wertime. Locks from Iran: Pre-Islamic to Twen- 
tieth Century. October 1976. 

Silverworks from Rio de la Plata, Argentina. October 1976. 

The Human Form: Sculpture, Prints and Drawings by Fritz Wotruba. April 


Davis, Nancy. Folk Woodcuts from Brazil's Northeast. November 1976. 
Mirage in the West. January 1977. 


Timbrell, Charles. Salzburger Festspielel. April 1977. 

Naive Art in Yugoslavia. October 1976. 

Treasures of Cyprus. November 1976. 

Divine Favors, Human Vows: Milagros from Puerto Rico. May 1977. 

America's First Ladies. July 1977. 

326 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Oliphant: Paintings and Cartoons. June 1977. 

And Now a Message . . . A Century of American Advertising, 1830-1930. 
August 1977. 


The Anacostia Story: 1608-1930, March 3, 1977. 


Taylor, J. R. [Liner notes] "Fletcher Henderson: Developing an American 
Orchestra, 1923-1937." Smithsonian Collection recording. 

. [Liner notes] "Jammin' for the Jackpot: Big Bands and Territory 

Bands of the 1930s." New World Records recording. 

. [Liner notes] "Jim Hall: Commitment." Horizon recording. 

— . [Liner notes] "Max Roach: The Many Sides of Max." Trip recording. 
[Liner notes] "Duke Ellington: Carnegie Hall Concert 1947." Fantasy 


. [Liner notes] "Charlie Parker: Encore." Savoy recording. 

. "Jimmy Owens: A Master's Voice." Radio Free Jazz, December 1976. 

. "Horace Silver Discography." Radio Free Jazz, March 1977. 

. "Bond Street Breakdown." Village Voice, July 18, 1977. 

. [Review] "Fats Waller Strides Out of Sight." Village Voice, August 1, 


— . "Newport Jazz Festival Events." Radio Free Jazz, August 1977. 

[Review] "McCoy Turner: Fly with the Wind." Jazz Magazine, num- 

ber 2. 

. [Review] "Sonny Clark Memorial Album." Jazz Magazine, number 2. 

. [Review] Jazz Is, by Nat Hentoff. Jazz Magazine, number 3. 

. [Review] "Kenny Dorham: But Beautiful." Jazz Magazine, number 3. 

. [Review] "Mai Waldron: One and Two." Jazz Magazine, number 3. 

. [Review] "Art Farmer: Crawl Space." Jazz Magazine, number 4. 

. [Review] "Urbie Green: The Fox." Jazz Magazine, number 4. 

[Program notes] Smithsonian Jazz Heritage, Jazz Connoisseur, and 

Blues concerts. 1976-1977. 

[Preface and Introductions] Greenwood Press Jazz Periodicals, Micro- 

form Series. 
Williams, Martin. "American Jazz" and "Duke Ellington." In The Enjoyment 

of Music, by Joseph Machlis, fourth edition. New York: W. W. Norton and 

Co., Inc. 
. [Liner notes for recording] "Ellington: American Composer." In Duke 

Ellington 1938, Smithsonian Collection recording. 
. [Program notes] "Ellington and Black, Brown and Beige." September 

29, 1977. 
. [Liner notes for recording] "John Birks Gillespie: The Development 

of an American Artist." Smithsonian Collection recording. 


[Newsletter] Art-to-Zoo. Published several times during the year. 
Let's Go to the Smithsonian: A Bulletin for Schools. Published several times 
during the year. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 327 

Smithsonian Learning Opportunities for Schools: 1977-1978. Washington, 
D.C. : Smithsonian Institution Press, August 15, 1977. 


Edelson, Paul J., co-author. "Community College Aims to Expand Occupa- 
tional Opportunities for the Deaf." Hearing Rehabilitation Quarterly, Win- 
ter 1977. 

Lee, Margaret V., art director, and Janet W. Solinger, producer. "Inscapes: 
Words and Images." Poster reproduction of an original serigraph by Philip 
Guston with poetry by Stanley Kunitz. [Commissioned to commemorate 
the city-wide poetry and visual arts festival] Washington, D.C, December 


Brown, David A. "An Apollo and Marsyas by Anselmi." Antologia di Belle 

Arti, volume 1, number 1 (March 1977), pages 2-6. 
. "A Drawing by Zanetti after a Fresco on the Fondaco dei Tedeschi." 

Master Drawings, volume 15, number 1 (Spring 1977), pages 31-44. 
Carmean E. A., Jr. "Morris Louis and the Modern Tradition: Part II, Cubism; 

Part III, Impression." Arts Magazine, volume 51, number 2 (October 1976), 

pages 112-117. 
. Notes on Anne Truitt. [Exhibition catalogue.] Charlottesville, Virginia: 

University of Virginia Art Museum, October 1976. 

"Morris Louis and the Modern Tradition: Part IV, Fauvism; Part V, 

Later Matisse." Arts Magazine, volume 51, number 3 (November 1976), 
pages 122-126. 

"Morris Louis and the Modern Tradition: Part VI, Abstraction." Arts 

Magazine, volume 51, number 4 (December 1976), pages 116-119. 

-. "Juan Gris Fantomas." Arts Magazine, volume 51, number 5 (January 

1977), pages 116-119. 

"Les Fleurs de Malraux." [Review] Picasso's Mask, by Andre Malraux. 

The Washington Post, January 2, 1977. 
Collins, Jane D. "Plural/Singular Headings for Art Media: an ARLIS/NA 

Position Paper." ARLIS/NA Newsletter, volume 4, number 6 (October 

1976), page 171. 
Edelstein, J. M. [Review] Black Sun: The Brief Transit and Violent Eclipse of 

Harry Crosby, by Geoffrey Wolff. The New Republic, volume 175, number 

19 (November 6, 1976), pages 25-26. 
. [Review] The Death of Venice, by Stephen Fay and S. Knightley. The 

New Republic, volume 176, number 5 (January 29, 1977), pages 34-36. 

-. [Review] William Caxton, by George Painter. The New Republic, vol- 

ume 177, number 27, (July 2, 1977), pages 37-38. 

Fine, Ruth Eileen. Ernest Haskell: 1876-1925. [Exhibition catalogue] Bruns- 
wick, Maine: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 1976. [Introductory essay 
under the name of Ruth Fine Lahrer] 

. Watercolors by Robert Murray and Toni Onley. [Exhibition cata- 
logue] Philadelphia: Olympia Galleries, Ltd., 1976. [Introductory essay under 
the name Ruth Fine Lehrer] 

-, editor. "Notes from the Women's Caucus." Art Journal and News- 

letter, College Art Association, 1977. 
Lewis, Douglas. "Jacopo Sansovino, Sculptor of Venice." In symposium, 
Titan: His World and His Legacy (The Bampton Lectures in America). New 
York: Columbia University, October 16, 1976. 

328 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

. "A New Book of Drawings by Francesco Muttoni." Arte Veneta, 

volume 30 (1976), pages 200-214. 

"Sculpture, XIII to XX Century." In The National Gallery of Art, 

edited by John Walker. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1976. 

-. "Interrelationships between Media in Palladio's Domestic Designs." 

[Paper for joint session] The Renaissance in Italy, meetings of the College 
Art Association and the Society of Architectural Historians, Los Angeles, 
February 3, 1977. 

"The St. Petersburg Bronzes of Barye's War and Peace." Pharos, 

volume 14, number 1 (May 1977), pages 1-12. 

-. "Patronage of Sixteenth-Century Architects by the Venetian Patri- 

ciate." [Paper for conference] Patronage in Renaissance Europe. The Folger 

Institute of Renaissance and Eighteenth-Century Studies, Washington, 

D.C., May 20, 1977. 
Powell, Earl A., III. "Manierre Dawson's Woman in Brown." Arts Magazine, 

September 1976, pages 76-77. 
. "Morton Schanberg: The Machine as Icon." Arts Magazine May 1977, 

pages 122-123. 
Robison, Andrew. Paper in Prints [Exhibition catalogue] Washington, D.C. : 

National Gallery of Art, 1977. 
. [Reviews] Piranesi: Etchings and Drawings, by Roseline Bacou; and 

Piranesi, by Jonathan Scott. The Print Collector's Newsletter, volume 8, 

number 2 (May-June 1977), pages 48-49. 
Russell, H. Diane. [Review] Les dessins de Stefano Delia Bella, by Francoise 

Viatte. Art Bulletin, September 1977. 
. "Reviews of Four Books on Venetian Drawings." Master Drawings, 

volume 14, number 3 (Autumn 1976). 

"Walter Pater and John Addigton Symonds: A Raking View." [Paper 

for session] Art and Homosexuality: Classical to Modern Times. College 

Art Association of America, February 1977. 
Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Perspective, Optics and Delft Artists around 1650. 

New York: Garland Press, 1977. 
. "Gerard Houckgeest and Emmanuel de Witte: Architectural Painting 

in Delft." Simiolus, volume 8, number 3 (1975-1976), pages 167-185. 

"Constantijn Huygens and Early Attitudes towards the Camera Ob- 

scura." History of Photography, volume 1, number 2 (1977), pages 93-103. 
-. "De geschiendenis en bekoring van 'De Molen'." De Kroniek van het 

Rembr andthuis , volume 29, number 1 (1977), pages 20-32. 

-. [Review] Johannes Vermeer, by Albert Blankert. The Art Bulletin, 

volume 59 (1977), pages 439-441. 

Appendix 6. Publications of the Staff I 329 

APPENDIX 7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 

Smithsonian Fellows pursue research problems in Smithsonian facilities and 
collections in collaboration with professional staff members. 


Program in American and Cultural History 

Alfred P. Hurley, Ph.D., Princeton University. History of the United States 
Air Force, with Forrest C. Pogue, Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research, 
from August 1, 1976, through July 31, 1977. 

Warren B. Walsh, Ph.D., Harvard University. Impact of selected senior mili- 
tary colleges upon their graduates, especially their influence toward nonmili- 
tary responses to problems of United States national security, with Forrest C. 
Pogue, Eisenhower Institute for Historical Research, from January 1, 1977, 
through June 30, 1977. 

Program in Anthropology 

M. James Blackman, Ph.D., Ohio State University. Study of the obsidian and 
"steatite" from Tel-e Malyan, Iran, with William W. Fitzhugh, Department of 
Anthropology, and Jacqueline S. Olin, Conservation Analytical Laboratory, 
from December 1, 1976, through November 30, 1977. 

Claire M. Cassidy, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin. Historical analysis of char- 
acter and distribution of New World Treponematoses, with Donald J. Ortner, 
Department of Anthropology, from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 

Steven L. Cox, Ph.D., Harvard University. Analysis of Dorset Eskimo archeo- 
logical collections from Southampton and Walrus Islands, N.W.T., Canada, 
with William W. Fitzhugh, Department of Anthropology, December 1, 1976, 
through November 30, 1977. 

Loretta Fowler, Ph.D., University of Illinois. Historical development of Arapa- 
hoe political institutions, with John C. Ewers, Department of Anthropology, 
September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Program in Astrophysics 

John Huchra, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology. Near-infrared photo- 
graphic survey of the palactic plane on the 48" Schmidt, complementary to 
the Palomar Sky Survey; also a study of metal abundance in galaxies from 
emission lines; a study of variability of Seyfert galaxies; and the extension of 
theoretical models of galaxy evolution to systems with differing metal and 
helium abundances, with George Field, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, from September 20, 1976, through September 20, 1977. 

330 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Charles Lada, Ph.D., Harvard University. Studies of interstellar cloud forma- 
tion and star formation, with A. E. Lilley, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, from July 1, 1976, through June 30, 1977. 

Alan M. Levine, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Research in 
X-ray astronomy, with Riccardo Giacconi, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Mark J. Reid, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology. Studies in radio as- 
tronomy, with George Field, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from 
September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Program in Earth Sciences 

R. John Knight, Ph.D., McMaster University, Ontario, Canada. A sedimento- 
logical and mineralogical study of selected basins of the Hellenic Trough in 
the eastern Mediterranean Sea, with Daniel J. Stanley, Department of Paleo- 
biology, from December 1, 1976, through November 30, 1977. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Jozef Grabowski, Ph.D., Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland. Structure and 
function of phycobiliproteins and their natural complexes in the process of 
photosynthesis, with Elisabeth Gantt, Radiation Biology Laboratory from July 
1, 1976, through June 30, 1977. 

David W. Hopkins, Smithsonian-Eppley Fellow, Ph.D., University of Califor- 
nia, San Diego. Solar energy in the ultraviolet and blue spectral regions and 
possible effects on plant growth and development caused by changes in en- 
vironmental conditions, with William H. Klein, Radiation Biology Laboratory, 
from August 1, 1976, through July 31, 1977. 

Merten H. Jabben, Ph.D., University of Freiburg, Germany. The action of 
phytochrome on the flowering response of wintex barley, with Gerald F. 
Dietzer, Radiation Biology Laboratory, from May 24, 1976, through April 30, 

Douglas W. Mock, Ph.D., University of Minnesota. Nocturnal adaptations in 
neotropical night herons, with Eugene S. Morton, National Zoological Park, 
from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Galen B. Rathbun, Ph.D., University of Nairobi, Kenya. Studies of the terri- 
torial and pair-bonding behaviors of captive Elephantulus rufesceus (Macro- 
scelididae) and the significance of scent marking, with John F. Eisenberg, 
National Zoological Park, from October 1, 1976, through September 30, 1977. 

Rasanayagam Rudran, Ph.D., University of Maryland. The ecology and be- 
havior of the red howler monkeys of Guatupo National Park in Venezuela, 
with John F. Eisenberg, National Zoological Park, from May 1, 1976, through 
April 30, 1977. 

Stephen N. Turitzin, Ph.D., Stanford University. Foliage canopy architecture 
and the efficiency of solar energy capture by a salt-marsh ecosystem, with 
Bert G. Drake, Radiation Biology Laboratory, from November 15, 1976, 
through November 14, 1977. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Gregory D. Bentz, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh. Postcranial adaptations in 
the osteology and myology of hummingbirds, with Richard L. Zusi, Depart- 
ment of Vertebrate Zoology, from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 I 331 

Robert S. Carney, Ph.D., Oregon State University. Distribution and syste- 
matic affinities of Antarctic holothurians of the order Elasipoda Theel, with 
David L. Pawson, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, from November 1, 
1976, through October 31, 1977. 

Russell W. Graham, Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin. Pleistocene mammals 
of the Valsequillo fauna, Pueblo, Mexico, with Clayton E. Ray, Department of 
Paleobiology, from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Gerardo Lamas, Ph.D., University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Systematics and evolu- 
tion of American Dismorphiinae, Danainae, and Ithomiinae, with William D. 
Field, Department of Entomology, from July 1, 1976, through June 30, 1977. 

Jan J. Roth, Ph.D., University of Colorado. The parietal eye, an evolutional 
approach to thermoregulation, with Nicholas Hotton III, Department of Paleo- 
biology, from October 1, 1976, through September 30, 1977. 

Program in the History of Art 

Rena N. Coen, Ph.D., University of Minnesota. Coleridge's Kubla Khan and 
Cole's Voyage of Life, also Jacque-Louis David in the Wild West, with William 
H. Truettner, National Collection of Fine Arts, from September 1, 1976, 
through August 31, 1977. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Joan Bromberg, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin. Impact of electrical technology 
and laboratory techniques upon the concepts of electromagnetism, 1840-1940, 
with Bernard S. Finn, Department of Science and Technology, from November 
1, 1976, through October 31, 1977. 

R. Douglas Hurt, Ph.D., Kansas State University. Agricultural technology and 
farmer organizations on the Great Plains, with John T. Schlebecker, Depart- 
ment of Industries, from June 15, 1976, through June 14, 1977. 

Thomas F. Jaras, Ph.D., Georgetown University. Research on the impact of 
transoceanic submarine telegraphy on society, with Bernard S. Finn, Depart- 
ment of Science and Technology, from November 1, 1976, through May 31, 1977. 

Program in Tropical Biology 

John D. Cubit, Ph.D., University of Oregon. The effects of grazing on succes- 
sion in marine algae, with Peter W. Glynn, Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute, from October 1, 1976, through September 30, 1977. 

William E. Glanz, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley. Community ecol- 
ogy of small mammals in Panama emphasizing arboreal species, with Nicholas 
D. Smythe, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from January 1, 1977, 
through December 31, 1977. 

David Janos, Ph.D., University of Michigan. The synecology of vesicular- 
arbuscular mycorrhizae, with Dr. Nicholas Smythe, from January 1 to May 

Douglas W. Schemske, Ph.D., University of Illinois. A coevolutionary analysis 
of plant-animal interactions in the genus Costus (Zingiberaceae), with Robert 
L. Dressier, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from January 1, 1977, 
through December 31, 1978. 

332 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Program in American and Cultural History 

Hazel D. Garcia, Ph.D. candidate, University of Wisconsin. Communications 
structure during the westward movement to Kentucky, 1769 to 1792, with Peter 
Marzio and Carl Scheele, Department of Applied Arts, from August 1, 1976, 
through July 31, 1977. 

Hans L. Paeffgen, Ph.D. candidate, University of Michigan. The Berlin block- 
ade and airlift — a study in Cold War diplomacy, with Forrest C. Pogue, Eisen- 
hower Institute for Historical Research, from July 1, 1976, through June 30, 

Steven J. Zeitlin, Ph.D. candidate, University of Pennsylvania. An analysis of 
the content and structure of the family story in America, with Robert H. 
Byington, Division of Performing Arts, from October 1, 1976 through Septem- 
ber 30, 1977. 

Program in Anthropology 

Sara L. C. Bisel, Ph.D. candidate, University of Minnesota. The nutritional 
status of a Greek Bronze Age population, with J. Lawrence Angel, Department 
of Anthropology, from February 1, 1977, through September 30, 1977. 

Miguel A. Pazos, University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Specialized training 
in archeological conservation emphasizing conservation and preservation of 
perishable archeological materials, with Clifford Evans, Jr., Department of 
Anthropology, from May 15, 1976, through August 15, 1976. 

Jerome Schaefer, Ph.D. candidate, University of Arizona. Archeological inves- 
tigations of a late Roman community in the Negev, with Gus W. Van Beek, 
Department of Anthropology, from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 

Ann M. P. Shaw, Ph.D. candidate, Northwestern University. A study of short- 
term population dynamics in the American Southwest, with Douglas H. Ube- 
laker, Department of Anthropolgy, from August 1, 1976, through July 31, 1977. 

Program in Astrophysics 

Marc Aaronson, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Infrared observations 
and stellar synthesis models of galaxies, with Giovanni Fazio, Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory, from September 1, 1976, through May 31, 1977. 

Scott E. Butler, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Charge exchange calcu- 
lations, radiative and collisional processes, with Alexander Dalgarno, Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 1, 1976, through May 31, 

Eric D. Feigelson, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Research projects in 
extra-galactic and high-energy astrophysics, with Riccardo Giaconni, Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 1, 1976, through May 31, 

Jules P. Halpern, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Imaging studies of soft 
X-ray objects with Riccardo Giaconni, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 
from September 1, 1976, through May 31, 1977. 

Sten Odenwald, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Comparative studies of 
giant Cd galaxies which are radio quiet and strong radio sources, with George 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 i 333 

B. Field, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 1, 1976, 
through May 31, 1977. 

Carleton R. Pennypacker, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Research on 
galactic and extra-galactic objects which vary with speed in the infrared, with 
Costas Papaliolios, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from September 
1, 1976, through May 31, 1977. 

Stephen C. Perrenod, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Evolution of hot 
gas in clusters of galaxies, with George B. Field, Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, from June 17, 1976, through December 17, 1976. 

Ira M. Wasserman, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Studies in gravita- 
tion theory and relativistic and high energy astrophysics, with George B. Field 
and S. Weinberg, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, from June 1, 1976, 
through August 31, 1976. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Peter V. August, Ph.D. candidate, Texas Tech University. Population ecology 
of a tropical small-mammal community, with John F. Eisenberg, National Zoo- 
logical Park, from June 15, 1976, through June 14, 1977. 

Margaret A. O'Connell, Ph.D. candidate, Texas Tech University. Population 
ecology of neotropical rodents, with John F. Eisenberg, National Zoological 
Park, from June 15, 1976, through June 14, 1977. 

Rebecca Gay Troth, Ph.D. candidate, University of Michigan. Field research 
on the problem of community distribution and dynamics of Bombax ceiba and 
its survival tactics, with Dan H. Nicolson, National Herbarium, from February 
1, 1976, through January 31, 1977. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

John B. Heppner, Ph.D. candidate, University of Florida. A revision of the 
North American Glyphipterygidae, with W. Donald Duckworth, Department 
of Entomology, from August 1, 1976, July 31, 1977. 

Katherine M. Muzik, Ph.D. candidate, University of Miami. Systematics and 
zoogeography of Indo-Pacific octocorals, with Frederick Bayer, Department of 
Invertebrate Zoology, from June 1, 1976, through May 31, 1977. 

Alan H. Savitsky, Ph.D. candidate, University of Kansas. The intergeneric 
relationships of xenodontine snakes, with George R. Zug, Department of Ver- 
tebrate Zoology, from July 1, 1976, through June 30, 1977. 

David E. Schindel, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Intrapopulational 
variability during changing environments — a case study of Pennsylvania gas- 
tropoda of the United States, with Ellis L. Yochelson, Department of Paleo- 
biology, from February 15, 1976, through February 14, 1977. 

John Utley, Ph.D. candidate, Duke University. Systematic studies of Theco- 
phylloid Vriesea species (Bromeliaceae), with Lyman B. Smith, Department of 
Botany, from January 1, 1977, through December 31, 1977. 

Program in the History of Art 

L. Bruce Darling, Ph.D. candidate, University of Michigan. Development of 
Kumano Mandara paintings, especially the Kumano Miya Mandara, with 
Harold P. Stern, Freer Gallery of Art, from November 1, 1976, through April 
30, 1977. 

334 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Mitchell D. Kahan, Ph.D. candidate, City University of New York. Subjective 
trends in American art in the 1930s, surrealism and magic realism, with Lois 
M. Fink, National Collection of Fine Arts and Cynthia J. McCabe, Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden, from November 1, 1976, through October 31, 

Marc E. Krug, Ph.D. candidate, University of Chicago. A social realist vision 
of the Great Depression, with Joshua C. Taylor, National Collection of Fine 
Arts, from September 1, 1976, through May 31, 1977. 

Melinda A. Lorenz, Ph.D. candidate, University of California, Santa Barbara. 
DeStijl theory and its relationship with American geometric abstraction, 1930- 
1950, with Lois M. Fink, National Collection of Fine Arts and Cynthia J. 
McCabe, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, from February 1, 1977, 
through September 30, 1977. 

Miranda McClintic, Ph.D. candidate, New York University Institute of Fine 
Arts. Paintings of twentieth-century sculptor David Smith, with Joshua C. 
Taylor, National Collection of Fine Arts, from May 1, 1976, through April 30, 

Harold B. Nelson, Jr., Ph.D. candidate, State University of New York, Bing- 
hamton. The image of the self and the other in the paintings and drawings of 
Romaine Brooks, with Adelyn Breeskin, National Collection of Fine Arts, from 
October 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Patrick L. Stewart, Jr., Ph.D. candidate, University of Delaware. Precisionism 
— avant-garde and tradition in American art, 1915-1935, with Charles W. 
Millard III, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, from September 1, 
1976, through July 31, 1977. 

Gilbert T. Vincent, Ph.D. candidate, University of Delaware. Artistic percep- 
tions of eighteenth-century America from 1870 to 1920, with Lois M. Fink, 
National Collection of Fine Arts, from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 

Barbara A. B. Wolanin, Ph.D. candidate, University of Wisconsin. Arthur B. 
Carles, 1882-1952, Philadelphia colorist, with Inez Garson, Hirshhorn Museum 
and Sculpture Garden, from May 1, 1976, through October 31, 1977. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

David A. Hounshell, Ph.D. candidate, University of Delaware. The "American 
System" of manufacturing, 1850-1930, with Robert C. Post, Office of the 
Director of the Museum of History and Technology, from October 1, 1976, 
through September 30, 1977. 

Allan A. Needell, Ph.D. candidate, Yale University. Max Planck's contribution 
to the quantum theory, 1910-1917, with Paul Hanle, National Air and Space 
Museum, from September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

John W. Servos, Ph.D. candidate, Johns Hopkins University. Kahlenberg and 
Noyes, an axis for development of physical chemistry in the United States, 
with Jon B. Eklund, Department of Science and Technology, from September 
1, 1976, through August 31, 1977. 

Program in Tropical Biology 

Charlotte Gyllenhaal-Davis, Ph.D. candidate, University of Chicago. The effect 
of diversity of agricultural plant communities on the rate of loss of nutrients 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 I 335 

from the ecosystem in slash-and-burn agriculture, with Dr. Olga Linares. July 1, 
1976 to June 30, 1977. 

Steven G. Hoffman, Ph.D. candidate, University of California at Santa Bar- 
bara. The sociobiology of two tropical reef fishes, with D. Ross Robertson, 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from February 1, 1977, through 
January 31, 1978. 

Harilaos A. Lessios, Ph.D. candidate, Yale University. Evolutionary divergence 
of shallow-water sea urchins of the two coasts of Panama, with Roberta 
Rubinoff, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, from April 1, 1976, through 
March 31, 1977. 

John Pickering, Ph.D. candidate, Harvard University. Reproductive strategies 
of the wasp, Polistes canadensis, with Donald Windsor, Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute, from June 1, 1976, through May 31, 1977. 

Program in American and Cultural History 

Devon Miller, Yale University. An examination of the subject matter of the 
Harry T. Peters "America on Stone" collection of lithographs, 1830-1870, with 
Rodris Roth, Department of Cultural History. 

Robert Rydell, University of California, Los Angeles. America's international 
expositions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries — racial under- 
pinnings of Utopian artifacts, with Herman Viola, Department of Anthro- 
pology, and Wilcomb Washburn, Office of American Studies. 

Deborah Schaefer, Texas Tech University. The history of taste as seen in the 
costume of political figures, with Margaret Klapthor, Department of National 
and Military History. 

Program in Anthropology 

Joseph Porter, University of Texas. Captain John G. Bourke, 1846-1896, and 
his role in the development of the Bureau of American Ethnology, the Ameri- 
can Folklore Society, and the role of government in late nineteenth-century 
American science, with John Ewers, Department of Anthropology. 

Program in Environmental Sciences 

Pamela Clark, Clemson University. Mathematical modeling of biological pro- 
cesses, specifically concerning data collected on carbon dioxide exchange of 
vegetation as dependent upon light intensity, with Bert Drake, Radiation 
Biology Laboratory. 

Kerry Malson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Research 
on the development of techniques which will determine pasture forage pro- 
duction and utilization by exotic hoofstock, with Christen Wemmer, National 
Zoological Park's Conservation and Research Center. 

Jeanne Roush, University of Oklahoma. Primate studies — social organization 
among the great apes, with Devra Kleiman, National Zoological Park. 

Program in Evolutionary and Systematic Biology 

Bruce Beehler, Princton University. Compilation and analysis of data on alti- 
tudinal distribution of New Guinea forest birds, with George E. Watson, 
Department of Vertebrate Zoology. 

336 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Ralph Chapman, University of Rochester. An examination of character dis- 
placement in Cambrian ptychopariid trilobites, with Richard Grant, Depart- 
ment of Paleobiology. 

Yenbutra Songsakdi, Chulalonghorn University, Thailand. Curatorial and sys- 
tematic studies of museum mammal collections, with Richard W. Thorington, 
Jr., Department of Vertebrate Zoology. 

Program in the History of Art 

Diane Robbins, University of Michigan. Edith Halpert and the Downtown 
Gallery, with Garnett McCoy, Archives of American Art, and Judith Zilczer, 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

Program in the History of Science and Technology 

Robert Block, University of California, Los Angeles. William John McGee, 
1853-1912, a geographical analysis of an interdisciplinary scientist, with James 
Glenn and Herman Viola, Department of Anthropology. 

Eda Fowlks, University of Minnesota. Study of auxiliary steam engine and 
locomotive devices and suspension bridges, with John White, Department of 
Science and Technology. 

William Pretzer, Northern Illinois University. Technology and work culture in 
nineteenth-century American printing, with Elizabeth Harris, Department of 
Applied Arts. 

Marc Stern, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The potters of Tren- 
ton, 1850-1890, with Susan Myers, Department of Cultural History. 

Program in Tropical Biology 

Susan Farabaugh, University of Maryland. Sources of selection on pair com- 
munication behavior of Thryothorus wrens in Panama, with Neal Smith, 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 


Malcolm Daniel, Trinity College, Hartford. Research projects in the Education 
Department and general study of museum procedures, with Edward P. Law- 
son, Department of Education. 

Deborah Fenton, Stanford University. Participation in museum activities in 
the educational and curatorial departments, with Edward P. Lawson, Depart- 
ment of Education. 

Beatrice Kernan, Trinity College, Hartford. Research and curatorial work in 
the painting and sculpture departments, with Edward P. Lawson, Department 
of Education. 

David Penney, New York University. Research and study in the educational 
and curatorial departments, with Edward P. Lawson, Department of Education. 

Kimerly Rorschach, Brandeis University. Research and general study projects 
in the Education Department, with Edward P. Lawson, Department of Edu- 


Lewis Kachur, Columbia University. Research for cataloguing modern graphics 
and paintings from the recent Woodward Foundation gift, with Lois M. Fink, 
Office of Research and Professional Training. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 I 337 

Jan Lendman, University of Buffalo. Work on post-tour booklet for elementary 
school teachers who have led groups touring the Museum, with Peter Berming- 
ham and Margery Gordon, Office of Education. 

Kim Sichel, Brown University. Work with exhibitions staff installing summer 
shows at the National Collection and at the Renwick Gallery, with David 
Keeler, Office of Exhibition and Design. 


Victoria Page, Northern Virginia Community College. Sorting and identifying 
marine nematodes, with W. Duane Hope, Department of Invertebrate Zoology. 

Debra Ann Rudik, Gallaudet College. Research and instruction in archival 
studies, with Richard Lytle, Smithsonian Archives. 

Jil Swearingen, Northern Virginia Community College. Preparing leaf speci- 
mens by leaf-clearing process, research on leaf families, and study of leaf 
architectural features, with Leo Hickey, Department of Paleobiology. 


Mahdokht Javidpour, Belgrade University, Yugoslavia. Study of Gastropoda, 
with Norman F. Sohl and Ellis Yochelson, Department of Paleobiology, from 
November 15, 1976, through January 15, 1977. 


Tjako Singleton Mpulubusi, National Museum and Art Gallery, Gaborone, 
Botswana. Cataloguing ethnographic material; conserving and repairing eth- 
nographic material; registration; storage; exhibition techniques including 
photography, model-making, lighting, and preparation of labels using silk- 
screen and lettraset, with William Fitzhugh, Department of Anthropology, and 
Eugene Behlen, Department of Exhibits, from April 1, 1976, through March 31, 


Suzanne Kennedy, Michigan State University. Intern in exotic animal medicine, 
with Dr. Mitchell Bush, Office of Animal Health, from June 1, 1976, through 
September 1, 1977. 


Virginia F. Butera, Johns Hopkins University. Research and study of the dif- 
ferent aspects and functions of the various departments at the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts, with Patricia Chieffo, Office of Research and Profes- 
sional Training, from September 1, 1976 through July 31, 1977. 


James S. Berkman, Harvard University. Research for the preparation of an- 
notations for volume three of the Joseph Henry Papers, with Arthur Molella, 
Assistant Editor, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Bruce Craig, George Washington University. Assisting the Anthropology De- 
partment Information Specialist answering letters and doing research on in- 
quiries from the public, with Ruth Selig, Department of Anthropology. 

Vicki Enerson, Carroll College. Study of all phases of graphic production 
techniques and practices, with Joseph W. Saunders, Office of Exhibits Central. 

338 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Richard H. Efthim, University of Massachusetts. Projects in collections man- 
agement and specimen preparation, with Frederick Collier, Department of 

Kenneth Fannelli, American University. Studies in cataloguing, indexing, and 
interpreting historical manuscripts relating to nineteenth-century American 
science and culture, with Arthur P. Molella, Assistant Editor, Joseph Henry 

Josephine Ferrugia, University of Maryland. Research on the history of Rock 
Creek Cemetery and the history of rural cemeteries, with James Goode, Cura- 
tor, Smithsonian Institution Building. 

Sarah L. Henderson, Lake Forest College. Study in museum registration tech- 
niques; orientations in the fields of textile analysis, conservation of museum 
objects, techniques of exhibit presentation; and research in the libraries and 
the National Archives, with Donald Kloster, Department of National and 
Military History. 

Alison Herlihy, University of California, Berkeley. Research at Smithsonian 
Libraries and at the Library of Congress for historical material to be used in 
annotations for the Papers of Joseph Henry, with Marc Rothenberg, As- 
sistant Editor, Joseph Henry Papers. 

Stephanie Higgins, Scripps College. Work as house manager for the Puppet 
Theatre and assistant house manager for the winter concert series and box- 
office assistant for both, with B. C. May, Division of Performing Arts. 

W. Joy Hughes, George Fox College. Studies to learn skills and procedures 
needed to make the Division of Performing Arts function, with Suzanne 
Roschwalb, Division of Performing Arts. 

Nancy Kessler, Skidmore College. Assisting in the preparation of a major 
museum exhibit, learning exhibits production techniques and practical ex- 
hibits techniques, with Edith Mayo and Herbert Collins, Department of Na- 
tional and Military History. 

Peggy Levere, Wellesley College. Social and architectural research on various 
public and private demolished buildings, with James Goode, Curator, Smith- 
sonian Institution Building. 

Julia McCoy, American University. Research relating to the cultural and 
architectural history of prominent demolished Washington, D.C., buildings, 
with James Goode, Curator, Smithsonian Institution Building. 

James McNally, New York University. Researching, collating, and describing 
the data sources that relate to the changes resulting from the Immigration 
and Nationality Act of 1965, with Roy S. Bryce-Laporte, Research Institute 
for Immigration and Ethnic Studies. 

David Moin, State University of New York at Binghamton. Work with the 
Smithsonian News Bureau, with Gerald Lipson, Office of Public Affairs. 

Kimberly Morris, University of Pittsburgh. Work as assistant to fellows in 
the Woodrow Wilson Center; participation in active functions of Office of 
International Programs and Office of Seminars and Symposia, with Zadnek 
David, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars; Kennedy 
Schmertz, Office of International Programs; and Wilton Dillon, Office of 
Seminars and Symposia. 

Brenda Ray, Emma Willard School. Conservation and restoration of South- 
west American Indian pottery collection and also a fit study of tibia from 
bison antiquus from a Colorado site, with Jane Norman and Dennis Stanford, 
Department of Anthropology. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 1 339 

Christine Reese, University of Pennsylvania. Research assistant for the de- 
velopment of the Roots of Civilization Hall at the Museum of Natural His- 
tory, with Robert K. Evans, Department of Exhibits. 

Sue Rudo, American University. Research on the cultural and architectural 
history of prominent buildings in Washington, D.C. which have been demol- 
ished, with James Goode, Curator, Smithsonian Institution Building. 

Jane Saginaw, University of California, Berkeley. Assisting with the survey 
of collections and selection of specimens and with the development of exhibit 
planning and script writing for the Old World Archaeology exhibit, with 
Robert K. Evans, Office of Exhibits. 

Gary Smith, The Lindenwood Colleges. Study to gain practical experience in 
marionette theatre production including manipulating the marionettes, light- 
ing, sound, construction, setting up budget, initial financing, advertising, and 
booking, with Phyllis Nierendorf, Nicolo Marionette Company, Division of 
Performing Arts. 

Kathleen Spudis, University of North Carolina. Study in museum registra- 
tion techniques, conservation of museum objects, techniques of exhibit pres- 
entation, and research in the libraries and in the National Archives, with 
Donald Kloster, Department of National and Military History. 

Lisa A. Wagner, University of Massachusetts. Research on African weapons 
from Belgian Congo in order to identify them, with Gordon Gibson, Depart- 
ment of Anthropology. 

Larisa Wanserski, Northwestern University. Assisting in ongoing aspects of 
publicity and promotion of programs sponsored by the Division of Performing 
Arts, including press release and program note composition, writing copy for 
newsletter, and general assistance, with Suzanne Roschwalb, Division of Per- 
forming Arts. 


Animal Health 

Mark Goldstein, Cornell University 

Jay Gould, Cornell University 

Eileen Hathaway, University of Pennsylvania 

Lynn Kramer, Ohio State University 

Animal Collection Management 
Thomas E. Keefer, University of Texas 

Zoo Education, Exhibits and Graphics 
Diana Kwong, Scripps College 


Richard H. Bruner, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 

Tessa Bunnag, George Washington University 

Glenn Crystal, George Washington University 

David J. Donofrio, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 

Michael Gross, George Washington University 

340 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Margaret Mitchell, Washington Technical Institute 
Elizabeth Neely, Blue Ridge Community College 
Leopoldo Paasch, George Washington University 
Page Perry, National Cancer Institute 
John M. Fletcher, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 
Robin Townsend, George Washington University 
Robert C. Trucksa, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology 

Wildlife Conservation 

Joel Bradburne, Warren County High School 

Chantel Cohen, Goddard College 

Louanne DiPalma, Patterson College 

Kerry Malson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 

Susan Merritt, Mount Holyoke College 

Andrea Smith, Patterson College 

Zoological Research 

Charles Brady, Ohio University 

R. Penn Chu, University of Maryland 

Todd Davis, George Washington University 

A. Lang Elliott, University of Maryland 

Susan Farabaugh, University of Maryland 

Rebecca Field, Johns Hopkins University 

Kenneth Green, Johns Hopkins University 

Bruce Groff, University of Maryland 

Robert Hoage, University of Pittsburgh 

William Principe, New Mexico State 

Steve Ralph, University of Washington 

Elizabeth Scheibel, Mount Holyoke College 

Christine Schonewald, University of Maryland 

Susan Wilson, Free University 

Paul Woodward, University of Maryland 


Douglas Allchin, Bucknell University. Upland Plant Ecology, Dr. Dennis 

Robert Baker, University of Maine. Outdoor Environmental Education 
Curriculum Development, Dr. John Falk. 

David Nash Collier, University of North Carolina. Estuarine Molluscan 
Fauna, Mr. Robert Cory. 

Mark Jansen, University of California, Santa Cruz. Chemistry of Air-Water 
Interface, Dr. David L. Correll. 

Jeannine Koshear (2 terms), University of California, Santa Cruz. Structure 
and Function of Communities of Terrestrial Vertebrates and Anthropods, 
Dr. James Lynch. 

Bruce Louks, University of California at Davis. Estuarine Microbiology, 

Sharon Maves (3 terms), University of California at Berkely. Outdoor 
Environmental Education Curriculum Development, Dr. John Falk. 

Appendix 7. Academic Appointments in Fiscal Year 1977 I 341 

Jim Mills, Earlham College. Structure and Function of Terrestrial Animal 
Communities, Dr. James Lynch. 

Douglas Reece, University of Missouri at Columbia. Structure and Function 
of Terrestrial Animal Communities, Dr. James Lynch. 

Patricia Valentine (2 terms), Barnard College. Psychological Effects of Out- 
door Experiences, Dr. John Balling. 

Mark Whiting, Utah State University. Attached Diatom Communities on 
Higher Aquatic Vascular Plants, Dr. Maria Faust. 


The Edward John Noble Foundation 

Mark Bertness, University of Maryland 

William Cade, University of Texas 

Phyllis Coley, University of Chicago 

Holly Downing, Smith College 

Hugh Drummond, University of Tennessee 

Christina Dubov, San Francisco State University 

Herbert Kaufman, John Hopkins University 

Harilaos Lessios, Yale University 

Marcia Litte, Cornell University 

Deedra McClearn, Harvard University 

Nicholas Volkman, State University of New York 

Kentwood Wells, Cornell University 

EXXON Corporation 

Tania Beliz, Universidad de Panama 

Cesar Benalcazar, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 

Fabiola Silva, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 

Patricia Chacon, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia 

Milton Clark, Universidad de Panama 

Vielka Quintero, Universidad de Panama 

Rafael Rivera, Universidad de Panama 

Ibero Sarmiento, Universidad de Panama 

Juan del Rosario, Universidad de Panama 

Henry B. and Grace Doherty Foundation 

Eric Fischer, University of California, Berkeley 

Peter Pressley, University of British Columbia, Canada 

Ronald Thresher, University of Miami 

342 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

APPENDIX 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution 
In Fiscal Year 1977 

As a trust instrumentality of the United States, the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion has received federal support since it was established in 1846 to carry 
out the terms of James Smithson's will. Appropriated funds have long 
provided important additions to the trust funds, donated by Smithson and 
subsequent benefactors, to enable the Institution to carry out its respon- 
sibilities for research and exhibition of the national collections and main- 
tenance of the valuable objects and records of science, history, and culture 
entrusted to the Institution. 

The Smithsonian's basic trust funds have provided the Institution with 
the element of flexibility and independence essential to its creative, inno- 
vative growth. Trust funds traditionally have made possible many of the 
research, acquisition, and educational programs which are central to the 
Smithsonian's present resources and achievements. 

The Smithsonian is extremely grateful to the foundations, corporations, 
and individuals listed below for their gifts and bequests and contributing 
memberships in the Smithsonian Associates. 


$100,000 or more: 

Anonymous S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. 

The Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 


$10,000 or more: 

American Commercial Barge Line Dr. and Mrs. Herbert E. Hawkes 

Company Mrs. James Stewart Hooker 

Anonymous Janet A. Hooker Charitable Trust 

The Arcadia Foundation International Council for 
Ashland Oil, Inc. Bird Preservation 

The Brown Foundation Estate of Grover Loening 

Mrs. Helen W. Buckner Mr. Richard Manoogian 

CBS Foundation, Inc. The Charles E. Merrill Trust 

Peter C. Cornell Trust Milliken Foundation 

Crowley Maritime Corporation Mobil Oil Corporation 

Doubleday & Company, Inc. National Geographic Society 
The Eppley Foundation for Research New York State Council on the Arts 

EXXON Corporation Edward John Noble Foundation 

Max C. Fleischmann Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Rinzler 

The Ford Foundation Mr. and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 343 

$10,000 or more — continued 

Rockefeller Brothers Fund 
The Rockefeller Foundation 
The Ruth and Vernon Taylor 

The Tinker Foundation Incorporated 
The Tobacco Institute, Inc. 
Union Mechling Corporation 

Dr. and Mrs. Jeremy P. Waletzky 
DeWitt Wallace Fund, Inc. 
Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
The Weatherhead Foundation 
Matilda R. Wilson Fund 
World Wildlife Fund 

$2,000 or more: 

Miss Janice M. Aime 
Amax Foundation, Inc. 
American Can Company 
American Institute of Marine 

American Ornithologists Union 
American Society of Interior Design 

Educational Foundation 
Amos Press, Incorporated 
Mrs. Evelyn F. Bartlett 
The Bass Foundation 
Bath Iron Works Corporation 
Mrs. Patricia D. Beck 
Mr. David P. Becker 
Mrs. Betty L. Bergman 
Edith C. Blum Foundation 
Book of the Month Club 
Mrs. John L. Bradley 
Burlington Industries Foundation 
Butterick Fashion Marketing Company 
Canal Barge Company, Inc. 
Cargo Carriers, Incorporated 
Chevron Chemical Company 
CIBA-GEIGY Corporation 
Classical America 
Colt Industries Charitable 

Foundation, Inc. 
Copernicus Society of America 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Corroon 
Mr. and Mrs. Ron Dante 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Arnold Daum 
Diamond Shamrock Corporation 
Mr. David Dibner 
Dillingham Corporation 
Dixie Carriers, Inc. 
The Henry L. and Grace Doherty 

Charitable Foundation, Inc. 
Dow Chemical U.S.A. 
The Charles Engelhard Foundation 
Mrs. Sarah G. Epstein 
EXXON Company, U.S.A. 

Mrs. Gertrude Helen Fay 

Finlay Department 

Benson &. Edith Ford Fund 

Eleanor Clay Ford Fund 

Mr. S. S. Forrest, Jr. 

Sumner Gerard Foundation 

Dr. Gordon Gibson 

Gladders Barge Line, Inc. 

Evan Gebhard Gourgaud Foundation 

Mr. Charles A. Greenfield 

The Griffis Foundation, Inc. 

Mr. R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 

Mr. Louis W. Hill, Jr. 

Mr. George W. Hilton 

The Hoffman-LaRoche Foundation 

Mrs. Everett T. House 

Ingram Barge Company 

Interdisciplinary Communication 

Associates, Inc. 
The Island Foundation 
Mrs. Ronald D. Jeancon 
Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney 
Coe-Kerr Gallery, Inc. 
Samuel H. Kress Foundation 
The Lauder Foundation 
Mr. Howard Lipman 
S. C. Loveland Co., Inc. 
The Magowan Family Foundation, Inc. 
Mrs. Robert A. Magowan 
The Marriott Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. William Marsteller 
Brooks and Hope B. McCormick 

McDonald's Corporation 
McGregor Fund 
Dr. and Mrs. A. Melamed 
Mr. Paul Mellon 
Michigan Council for the Arts 
The Midgard Foundation 
Mrs. Margaret Carnegie Miller 
Morey Machinery, Inc. 

344 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

$1,000 or more — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas B. Morgan 
The National Needlework Association 
The Ohio River Company 
The Ohrstrom Foundation 
Peretz Fund of the Combined 

Jewish Philanthropies of 

Greater Boston, Inc. 
Ellis L. Phillips Foundation 
The Pioneer Foundation 
Polaroid Foundation, Inc. 
The Quaker Oats Company 
Rachelwood Foundation 
Ralston Purina Trust Fund 
Mr. David Rockefeller 
Mr. John D. Rockefeller 
Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller 
Arthur Ross Foundation 
Schering Corporation 
Mrs. Gertrude Schweitzer 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

Miss Elsie Shaver 

Mr. Sidney Singer, Jr. 

Steelcase, Inc. 

Miss Elizabeth Stein 

Steinway & Sons 

St. Joe Minerals Corporation 

The Florence Louchheim Stol 

The Stroh Brewery Company 
Stroheim & Romann 
Mr. John S. Thacher 
The Valley Line Company 
Mr. Richard W. Weatherhead 
The Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Lewis A. Weeks 
Wenner-Gren Foundation 
Weyerhaeuser Company 
The Wyeth Endowment for 

American Art 

$500 or more: 

American Philosophical Society 


Mr. Henry Arnhold 

Mr. and Mrs. Stuart B. Avery 

Mr. Barry Bingham, Sr. 

Mr. Stephen Brickel 

Dr. G. Arthur Cooper 

Corning Glass Works Foundation 

Mr. G. G. Cornwell 

Mrs. Priscilla Cunningham 

Mrs. Rita M. Cushman 

Joseph C. Domino, Inc. 

General Electric Company 

GF Business Equipment, Inc. 

Mrs. Carol Guyer 

Estate of Lazaar Henkin 

Miss Ruth L. Hewitt 

Mrs. Amy E. Higgins 

Miss Milka Iconomoff 

IU International 

The JDR 3rd Fund 

Estate of Charles A. Lindbergh 

Mr. Donald B. Marron 

Mr. and Mrs. John Mayer 

Mrs. Margaret D. McKee 

Mrs. Constance L. Mellen 

National Audubon Society 

Mr. David L. Pearson 

Mr. Sidney N. Shure 

United States Postal Service 

Upper Mississippi Towing Corporation 

Mrs. Edward P. Williams 

Miss Mary Knowles Wisner 

We also gratefully acknowledege other contributions in excess of 
$100,000 received from approximately 1,100 contributors in 1977. 


The Contributing Members of the Smithsonian National Associates sup- 
port the Institution's work through annual contributions of $50, $100, 
and $500. In the past year the contributing membership doubled from 
885 to 1,616 and maintained a renewal rate of 85 percent. 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 345 

The James Smithson Society was created in 1977 to encourage and 
recognize major gifts to the Smithsonian Institution. This Society, which 
is the highest order of the Contributing Membership in the Smithsonian 
Associates, is comprised of two membership categories. Annual members 
are individuals who make unrestricted contributions of $1,000 to $24,999 
annually. Life Members are those who give $25,000 or more either in 
monetary gifts or additions to the collections. 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges the generous sup- 
port of the James Smithson Society Charter members, 1977 Life members, 
and the Contributing Members of the Smithsonian Associates. 

Life Members 


Mr. and Mrs. Gerald M. Best 
Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block 
Mr. Thomas M. Evans 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Logan 


Mr. and Mrs. Louis Kaufman 


Mr. Duncan L. Edwards 

Mr. and Mrs. Don C. Harrold 

Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Kainen 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund C. Monell 
Judge and Mrs. G. Burton Pearson 
Mr. and Mrs. John Paul Remensynder 
Dr. and Mrs. Hans Syz 
Mr. Barry Yampol 

Dr. David Landau 

Mr. and Mrs. Abraham Rattner 
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Rinzler 
Mr. and Mrs. Morton Silverman 

Annual Members ($1,000 and above) 

Mr. and Mrs. William 5. Anderson 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

Walter H. Annenberg 
Mrs. Evelyn Bartlett 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Hood Bassett 
Mr. Henry C. Beck, Jr. 
Mrs. Henry C. Beck, Jr. 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

Ralph E. Becker 
Mrs. Harry Payne Bingham 
Mr. and Mrs. A. Smith Bowman 
Mr. and Mrs. Delong Bowman 
Mr. and Mrs. John Adams Bross 
Mr. Keith S. Brown 
Mrs. Keith S. Brown 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

Philip W. Buchen 
Major General and Mrs. 

Daniel J. Campbell 

Mr. and Mrs. George P. Caulkins, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Home Charles 

Mr. and Mrs. Walker L. Cisler 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard P. Cooley 

Mr. Marshall B. Coyne 

Miss Louise Crane 

Mr. Kenneth M. Crosby 

Mr. Joseph F. Cullman III 

Mr. and Mrs. Leo Daly III 

Mr. and Mrs. Justin Dart 

Mrs. Kathryn W. Donaldson 

Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Donnell II 

Mr. and Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 

Mr. John T. Dorrance, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Morton Downey 

Mrs. Dorothy D. Eweson 

The Honorable John Clifford Folger 

Mrs. John Clifford Folger 

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred C. Glassell, Jr. 

346 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Annual Members — continued 

Mr. Jerome L. Greene 

Mr. John Bradley Greene 

Mrs. John Bradley Greene 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert C. Greenway 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. Greer, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. Armand Hammer 

Mr. and Mrs. William L. Hanley 

Mrs. W. Averell Harriman 

John and Lucia Heard 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. Herring 

The Honorable and Mrs. 

Frank N. Ikard 
Mr. and Mrs. George H. Jacobus 
Mr. and Mrs. George Frederick 

Jewett, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Warren Kampf 
The Honorable and Mrs. W. John 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Hart Kinney 
The Honorable and Mrs. Philip M. 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold F. Linder 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Magowan 
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard H. Marks 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

William McChesney Martin, Jr. 
The Honorable and Mrs. George C. 

The Honorable and Mrs. Robert M. 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry S. McNeil 
Dr. and Mrs. Ruben F. Mettler 
Mrs. Clifford Michel 
Mr. and Mrs. John D. Murchison 
Dr. Josephine L. Murray 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

Paul H. Nitze 
Mr. Ricard R. Ohrstrom 

The Honorable and Mrs. Daniel 

The Honorable and Mrs. Jefferson 

Mr. and Mrs. George S. Pillsbury 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis F. Polk 
The Honorable Frederick W. Richmond 
Dina Merrill Robertson 
Mr. John J. Robertson 
Dr. and Mrs. Milton L. Rock 
Mr. and Mrs. William R. Salomon 
Mr. and Mrs. B. Francis Saul II 
Miss Ottilie Schillig 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur A. Seeligson, Jr. 
Dr. and Mrs. James H. Semans 
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Siegel 
Mr. David G. Skinner 
Mr. and Mrs. C. Grove Smith 
The Honorable and Mrs. Gerard C. 

Mrs. Edith C. Steinbright 
Miss Marilyn L. Steinbright 
Mrs. Gardiner Symonds 
Mr. Franz G. Talley 
Mrs. Franz G. Talley 
Mr. and Mrs. Vernon F. Taylor, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. George E. Tener 
The Honorable and Mrs. Clark W. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wynant Davis 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Woods Vest, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin Welles 
Mr. and Mrs. Brayton Wilbur, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Morton H. Wilner 
Mr. James O. Wright 
His Excellency Ardeshir Zahedi 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS ($500 and above) 

Mr. George H. C. Arrowsmith 

Mr. Richard Lee Birchler 

Mr. Alfred P. Brooks 

Ms. Frances Sells Doss 

Mr. Atwater Kent 

Mr. F. M. Kirby 

J. A. MacDonald Foundation 

Mr. Leroy W. Mink 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert N. Minutillo 

Mr. and Mrs. Mandell J. Ourisman 

Ms. Deborah L. Perry 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Roberts 

Mr. and Mrs. Page W. Smith 

Mr. Marshall Steele 

Mrs. Arthur H. Sulzberger 

Miss Cecile G. Timolat 

Mrs. Noam D. Zelman 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 347 

DONOR MEMBERS ($100 and above) 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 

Mr. Woodley Allen 

Mrs. Elizabeth G. Amory 

Mr. and Mrs. David R. Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Anderson 

Mr. Emmett D. Anderson 

Mr. Joseph R. Anderson 

Mr. Myron Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. R. 5. Antes 

Mr. John D. Archbold 

Mr. Fred C. Babcock 

Mr. and Mrs. Morton W. Bachrach 

Mr. Alan Baer 

Mr. and Mrs. Smith Bagley 

Mr. John E. Baker 

Mr. Warren Baker 

Lieutenant General and Mrs. 

Earl W. Barnes 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Bartlett 
Mr. and Mrs. John Bartlett 
Ms. Lucille Bass 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Pat Beaird 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Beck 
Colonel and Mrs. George C. Berger 
Mr. and Mrs. John H. Bernard 
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Bernett 
Mr. and Mrs. Steven Bershader 
Dr. and Mrs. E. A. Bestard 
Mr. H. Harold Bishop 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Eric Black 
The Honorable and Mrs. Robert O. 

Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Blumberg 
Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Bogan 
Mr. and Mrs. Mel H. Bolster 
Ms. Joan V. Bonk 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Borowsky 
Mr. and Mrs. John Boyd 
Mr. Maxwell Brace 
Miss Eugenie Rowe Bradford 
Mr. and Mrs. Glenn M. Branch 
Mr. J. Bruce Bredin 
Dr. and Mrs. S. B. Brinkley 
Mr. F. Carroll Brown 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick B. Bryant 
Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Buhler 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

William A. M. Burden 
Mr. and Mrs. I. Townsend 

Burden III 
Mrs. Jackson Burke 
Mrs. Julia T. Burlen 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry W. Burns 
Dr. and Mrs. J. A. Burwell 

Mr. Marion B. Busch 

Mr. E. T. Byram 

Mr. and Mrs. James M. Byrne 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles M. Cabaniss 

Dr. G. W. Cage 

Mrs. Eleanor Rixson Cannon 

Dr. Francis Caponegro, Jr. 

Mr. William I. Cargo 

Mr. and Mrs. Leo A. Carten 

The Honorable and Mrs. Henry E. 

Catto, Jr. 
Ms. Priscilla M. Christy 
Mr. Blake Clark 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerald L. Clark 
Captain and Mrs. Richard Cobb 
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas W. Coffey 
Colonel and Mrs. Russell C. Coile 
Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Colon 
Dr. George W. Conner 
Mr. Leonardo Contardo 
Mr. and Mrs. J. A. Corbet 
Ms. Patricia d w Counts 
Mr. and Mrs. David M. Crabtree 
Mr. Stephen F. Crum 
Mr. and Mrs. Alan M. Dachs 
Mr. and Mrs. Keith Davis 
Ms. Caroline de Weinberg 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. Dean 
Mr. and Mrs. David R. Dear 
Mr. Hal P. Demuth 
Dr. and Mrs. Lewis Hilliard Dennis 
General Jacob L. Devers 
Mr. and Mrs. John Doherty 
Mr. George Arntzen Doole 
Mr. Alden Lowell Doud 
Dr. Joseph S. Drage 
Mr. Wilson A. Draughon 
Mrs. Helen Jean Arthur Dunn 
Mr. Lawrence A. Ehrhart 
Mr. George M. Elsey 
Ms. Ann E. Erdman 
Mr. and Mrs. John G. Esswein 
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Evans, Jr. 
Colonel and Mrs. J. J. Felmley 
The Honorable William H. Fitzgerald 
Mr. Julius Fleischman 
Mr. Robert W. Fleming 
Mr. and Mrs. M. K. Fleschner 
Mr. David Fogelson 
The Honorable and Mrs. Edward Foley 
Mr. Richard E. Ford 
Mr. Earl M. Foreman 
Miss Helen E. Forshier 
Ms. Perry J. Frank 

348 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Donor Members — continued 

Mrs. J. E. A. Freeman 

Mrs. Rowland G. Freeman 

Mr. M. C. Freudenberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur H. Fribourg 

Mr. William C. Frogale 

Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey S. Fuller 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Gardner 

Mr. T. Jack Gary, Jr. 

Mr. Barry K. Gibson 

Mr. and Mrs. T. K. Glennan 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Goldberg 

Colonel and Mrs. Julius Goldstein 

Mrs. Adolph Gottlieb 

Mrs. Bette C. Graham 

Mrs. Katharine Graham 

Mr. Lloyd Graham 

Captain and Mrs. C. A. Grandjean 

Dr. Sheila H. Gray 

Mr. and Mrs. John H. Groth 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth M. Grubb 

Mr. Joseph Guilietti, Jr. 

Mr. John F. Gunnell 

Mr. and Mrs. Alvin Guttag 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Haas 

Mr. John L. Hafenrichter 

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest V. Hallberg, Jr. 

Ms. Cynthia Hanby 

Mr. Gordon Hanes 

Ms. Morella R. Hansen 

Mrs. Philip A. Hart 

Mr. Thomas Hays 

Mr. and Mrs. Patrick Healy III 

Ms. Judith B. Heimann 

Ms. Alverne S. Hellenthal 

Mr. Ralph D. Helwig 

Mr. Jeffrey L. Hendry 

Ms. Genevieve Henning 

Ms. Nona G. Herndon 

Mr. George S. Heyer, Jr. 

Mr. Robert A. Hicks 

Mr. Alan R. Hill 

Dr. J. D. Hills 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Hinton 

Mr. and Mrs. L. Hoffman 

Mr. E. Robert Hofsas 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Holden 

Mr. William E. Horn 

Mr. Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Hughes 

Mr. R. Bruce Hunter 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Hunter 

Mr. Claude D. Hurd 

Mr. and Mrs. F. Irving Hutchings 

Mrs. S. T. Inglish 

Dr. Glenn James 

Mr. J. Ruskin Jelks, Jr. 

Mr. David B. Jenkins 

Mr. James L. Johnson 

Colonel and Mrs. F. M. Johnson, Jr. 

Ms. Anne Kaufman 

Mr. Daniel C. Kaye 

Mr. Peter M. Kehoe 

Mrs. George C. Keiser 

Mr. Stephen D. Kelly 

Mr. Harris L. Kempner 

Mr. Walter H. Kidd 

Mr. Charles T. Kindsvatter 

Dr. Harold King 

Dr. H. Kingsberry 

Mr. Edgar P. Kirsopp 

Mr. and Mrs. J. K. Knee 

Mr. Michael J. Koliss 

Mr. Laurence E. Korwin 

Mr. Barton Krawetz 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Scheffer Lang 

Mr. and Mrs. Anthony A. Lapham 

Dr. and Mrs. K. C. Latven 

Mr. Robert F. Law 

Ms. Candie C. W. Lee 

Mr. Edward L. Lembitz 

The Honorable and Mrs. 

Edward H. Levi 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Levine 
Dr. C. P. Lewis, Jr. 
Mrs. Katherine H. Lloyd 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Loewenstern, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. James P. Londergan, Jr 
Mr. Benjamin H. Long 
Mrs. John E. Long 
Mrs. Edward Macauley 
Mr. Anthony J. Maciorowski 
Mrs. J. Noel Macy 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard R. Mahlke 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mannes 
Mr. and Mrs. Larry B. Marton 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Maxwell 
Mr. Michael E. Mazer 
Mr. and Mrs. Terence McAuliffe 
Mr. Donald L. McCathran 
Mr. and Mrs. Lacy McClain 
Dr. and Mrs. John J. McGrath 
Mr. John S. Mclnnes 
Mr. Robert P. McKibbon, Jr. 
Mr. J. Frank Melcher 
Mr. Harold E. Mertz 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred A. Michaud 
Mr. and Mrs. John Miklas, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon K. Milestone 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 349 

Donor Members — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald E. Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Kirkbride Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter C. Miller 

Dr. Raymond Mize, Jr. 

Mr. Cardie N. Mooers 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Cotton Moore 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Edward Moore 

Mr. Charles W. Morris 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl J. Mulert, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Muncy 

Mr. G. R. Munger 

Mr. John F. Murphy 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund L. Murray 

Dr. Henry A. Murray 

Mrs. Albert T. Murri 

Mr. and Mrs. Bruce H. Nelson 

Dr. and Mrs. Dwight W. Newman 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund L. Nichols 

Mr. Thomas 5. Nichols 

Mrs. John Nuveen 

Mr. Robert O'Brien 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard F. O'Neil 

Mr. and Mrs. Guyon P. Pancer 

Miss Ruth Uppercu Paul 

Mr. Harry A. Paynter 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Wesley Peebles, Jr. 

Mr. Louis Peller 

Mr. William C. Penick 

Mr. James P. Perry 

Mr. Melvin G. Perry 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald A. Petrie 

Mrs. Charles Emory Phillips 

Ms. Rae H. Pickrel 

Mr. J. Pierce 

Mr. and Mrs. Dwight J. Porter 

Mrs. S. Prentice Porter 

Ms. Dorothy B. Preslar 

Mr. Charles P. Price 

Mr. Douglas S. Price 

Dr. and Mrs. Jerold Principato 

Mrs. Dow Puckett 

Mr. Cyrus J. Quinn 

Dr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Rafey 

Mr. William Rausch 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael M. Rea 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene L. Reagan 

Mr. Vaughan J. Rees 

Dr. Michael J. Reilly 

Mr. Don Rhodes 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Richards 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren Richards 

Mr. James H. Ripley 

Ms. Jane F. Roberts 

Mrs. David Roberts III 

Mr. Walter P. Robinson, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel J. Rosenfeld 

Dr. and Mrs. John W. Rouse, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Alan K. Rubin 

Dr. Maryon W. Ruchelman 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy R. Russo 

Mr. Henry Sabatell 

Dr. and Mrs. Abner Sachs 

Mr. and Mrs. David Sapadin 

Mr. and Mrs. Morton Schomer 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Schroffel 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick P. Schubert 

Mr. Lloyd E. Schuster 

Mr. James G. Schwade 

Mr. James L. Scott 

Ms. Marjorie H. Scribner 

Miss Carolynne Seeman 

Mr. James G. Shakman 

Mr. Peter L. Sheldon 

Mr. and Mrs. George Sherman 

Mrs. James Sinkler 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Sivard 

Mr. Nelson Slater 

Mr. Sanford Slavin 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond L. Smart 

Mr. and Mrs. Dean Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence P. Snipper 

Dr. Marian A. Solomon 

Mr. Gary Staples 

Dr. and Mrs. T. Dale Stewart 

Mr. Louis Stifter 

Mrs. Marjorie Taylor Striker 

Commander Edward J. Sullivan 

Dr. Philip B. Sullivan 

Mr. David A. Sutherlund 

Mr. and Mrs. John A. Sweeney 

Ms. Martha Frick Symington 

Ms. May Day Taylor 

Ms. Linda Teixeira 

The Treuhaft Foundation 

Mr. John E. Toole 

Mr. and Mrs. George Toner 

Mr. and Mrs. David G. Townsend 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen A. Trentman 

The Truland Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Tull 

Mr. James M. Tully 

Mr. D. L. Turley 

Mr. David S. Turner 

United Steelworkers of America 

Dr. and Mrs. Philip Varner 

Dr. and Mrs. Jeremy P. Waletzky 

Ms. Barbara R. Walsh 

Lieutenant Colonel Ronald A. Walton 

350 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Donor Members — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Ray Watkins 

Mr. Arnold Watson 

Ms. Theresa C. O'Hara Watson 

The Honorable James E. Webb 

Mr. and Mrs. William Weber 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Wechsler 

Mrs. Mary Nan West 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Westreich 

Mrs. Edwin M. Wheeler 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter C. White 

Mr. and Mrs. Grover C. White, Jr. 

Mr. James L. Whitehead 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald E. Widmann 

Mr. Crocker Wight 

Mrs. Vivian Wildman 

Mr. W. T. Williams 

Mr. and Mrs. James A. Williamson, Jr. 

Mrs. Mark Winkler 

Dr. and Mrs. Allan Y. Wolins 

Mr. David W. Wood 

Mr. Clifford R. Wordell 

Mr. and Mrs. Herman Wouk 

Mr. C. L. Wright 

Mr. and Mrs. Nelson Wurz 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel E. Zimmerman 

SUPPORTING MEMBERS ($50 and above) 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard L. Abel 

Mrs. Ann Duncan Adams 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Adams 

Mr. Robert R. Aitken 

Mr. W. W. Alexander 

Dr. and Mrs. R. Eric Alving 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Amidon, Jr. 

Mr. John Amig 

Mr. Carl G. Anderson 

Mr. James G. Andrews 

Miss Rose C. Anthony 

Mr. and Mrs. M. B. Antrim 

Mr. and Mrs. John J. Arcuri 

Mr. Norman T. Ares 

Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph Arkin 

Mr. Earl A. Armbrust 

Mr. Jon H. Arneson 

Mr. Joseph S. Asin 

Mr. Ronald L. Auble 

Mr. John W. Auchincloss 

Mrs. Evelyn A. Azarchi 

Mr. William P. Babione 

Mr. Norman G. Bach 

Dr. B. Bacharach 

Mr. Geoffrey B. Baker 

Mr. Michael D. Baker 

Mr. Robert Quincy Baker III 

Mr. Kirk M. Balcom 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. Ball 

Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey Barnes 

Dr. H. David Barton 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Barton, Jr. 

Mr. James Bateman 

The Honorable and Mrs. Lucius D. 

Ms. Winifred H. Bauer 
Miss Virginia Bay 

Mr. and Mrs. Martin E. Bayol 

Mr. Charles F. Becker 

Mrs. D. R. Beggs 

Mr. Norman D. Belecki 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederic J. Bell 

Mr. and Mrs. John Bell 

Mr. Thomas Bellinger 

Mrs. Brenda C. Bennett 

Dr. Jeffrey Berenberg 

Ms. Carol J. Berg 

Mr. Richard G. Berger 

Ms. L. Bergland 

Mr. Samuel W. Bernheimer 

Dr. and Mrs. James E. Bernstein 

Mr. John O. Bertelli 

Dr. Richard S. Beverly 

Mr. William G. Beyer 

Mr. J. B. Bickenbach 

Mr. Joel Binenfeld 

Dr. and Mrs. James F. Bing 

Mr. and Mrs. F. Douglas Birdzell 

Mr. John A. Bishop 

Ms. Sharon Bishop 

Mrs. Sallie W. Bishton 

Ms. Jill S. Bixler 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Blackledge 

Mrs. Anthony F. Blanks 

Mr. A. E. Blevins 

Mr. Frank Bliss, Jr. 

Mr. Donn W. Block 

Admiral and Mrs. Robert H. Blout 

Mrs. Irma Kline Blumenreich 

Mr. David A. Bodner 

Mr. Robert F. Bodroghy 

Mr. and Mrs. August Boesche 

Mr. and Mrs. Victor L. Bonat 

The Honorable and Mrs. Philip Bonsai 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 351 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. Horace Booth 

Mr. Frederick W. Boots 

Mr. Arthur S. Borara 

Ms. Barbara L. Borchardt 

Mr. Vincent B. Boris 

Ms. Frances B. Bowen 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul A. Bowles 

Mr. John F. Boyd 

Colonel and Mrs. John R. Boyd 

Mr. John J. Boyd, Jr. 

Dr. P. H. Boyer 

Ms. Evelyn W. Bradshaw 

Mr. Raymond A. Brady 

Mr. Edward L. Brady II 

Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Bragan 

Dr. William L. Brannon, Jr. 

Dr. James C. Bray 

Mr. Gerald Brenner 

Mr. and Mrs. Terence R. Brewer 

Mr. Harvey K. Brock 

Mrs. George H. Brodie 

Dr. Michael Brody 

Mr. Edward T. Brooks 

Mr. Charles 5. Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold D. Brown 

Mr. J. James Brown 

Mr. James A. Brown 

Mrs. Marjorie K. Brown 

Dr. and Mrs. S. Weldon Brown 

Mr. William F. Brown 

Mr. Herbert S. Brownstein 

Mr. Donald J. Bruckmann 

Mr. and Mrs. Percival F. Brundage 

Mr. W. B. Bryant 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene J. Buehler 

Mr. and Mrs. George G. Bull 

Mr. Edward P. Bullock 

Mr. and Mrs. James M. Burger 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl B. Burkard 

Mr. R. K. Burkhart 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald Burklew 

Mrs. Clara May Burns 

Mr. Richard Scott Burow 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Bush 

Mr. John J. Byrne 

Mr. Paul T. Calderwood 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Calhoun 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Callahan 

Mr. and Mrs. Gregory M. Cambi 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Cameron, Jr. 

Mr. Richard Caminiti 

Mr. Richard C. Campany, Jr. 

Mr. William D. Campbell 

Mr. Lawrence E. Cantrell, Jr. 

Dr. Cesar B. Carabuena 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Carey 

Mr. Henry A. Carey, Jr. 

Mrs. B. L. Carlin 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Carlisle, Jr. 

Mr. Charles G. Carlyle 

Mr. and Mrs. Woolsey Carmalt 

Mr. Harvey Carmel 

Ms. Ruth W. Carney 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth S. Carpenter 

Mr. Philip L. Carret 

Mr. Kenneth J. Carroll 

Mr. and Mrs. Douglas H. Carter 

Mr. and Mrs. John A. Casey 

Mr. William B. Cassin 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis J. Castaldi 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund L. Castillo 

Mr. Sabastino J. Castro 

Mr. and Mrs. Kevin J. Catt 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Chackin 

Mr. and Mrs. James G. Chandler 

Mr. Paige L. Chandler 

Mr. Joel Chaseman 

Mrs. Harold W. Cheel 

Mr. and Mrs. Magnus E. Chelstad 

Mr. K. Dexter Cheney 

Mr. and Mrs. Timothy W. Childs 

Ms. Gabrielle Choy 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry C. Christie 

Mr. and Mrs. Page B. Clagett 

Mr. Ludwig R. Claps 

Mr. H. Lawrence Clark 

Dr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Clark 

Mrs. Eleanor J. Clausner 

Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Clifford, Jr. 

Mr. Lawrence W. Cobb 

Mr. Richard E. Cobb 

Colonel and Mrs. Eugene R. Cocke 

Mrs. B. A. Cody 

Mr. Hayward C. Coe 

Dr. and Mrs. David G. Cogan 

Mr. and Mrs. L. H. Cohan 

Mr. and Mrs. Aaron J. Cohen 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Cohen 

Mr. Bertram M. Cohen 

Mr. and Mrs. Ed Cohen 

Mr. Robert N. Cohen 

Mr. Ronald M. Cohen 

Commander and Mrs. Gerald L. Cole 

Mr. and Mrs. George C. Collett 

Ms. Anne T. Collins 

Mrs. J. F. Colwill 

Mr. Robert M. Comly 

Colonel J. M. Compton 

352 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mrs. Ethel Conlisk 

Mr. and Mrs. James R. Connell 

Mr. George A. Cook 

Ms. Margaret Cook 

Mr. C. M. Cooke, Jr. 

Mr. Thomas G. Corcoran, Jr. 

Mrs. Mildred S. Corrigan 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph J. Coselli 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald N. Coupard 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard V. Covell 

Mr. and Mrs. Ronald A. Cowan 

Mrs. Logan O. Cowgill 

Mr. C. W. Cox 

Mr. John Howell Cox 

Miss Mary L. Cox 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Cox 

Mrs. W. C. Cox 

Ms. Patricia E. Coyle 

Mr. Jesse L. Crabbs 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Creal 

Mr. and Mrs. 5. F. Creane 

Mr. Glenn R. Crocker 

Mr. F. L. Cromwell 

Ms. Linda F. Crouse 

Ms. Linda Cooper Crow 

Ms. Judith C. Croxton 

Mr. George A. Crump 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Culver 

Dr. and Mrs. W. T. Cunningham 

Mr. and Mrs. R. D. Cuthbertson 

Mrs. Chester Dale 

Mr. and Mrs. John H. Dalton 

Ms. Winifred B. Dana 

Mr. Ernest B. Dane 

Captain and Mrs. R. L. Daniels 

Mr. Herbert I. Dann, Jr. 

Dr. F. Danziger 

Colonel Joseph J. Darlak, M.D. 

Mr. and Mrs. F. Elwood Davis 

Drs. Nancy W. and William E. Davis 

Ms. Olivia Davis 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond T. Davis 

Mr. Robert J. Davis 

Dr. Walter T. Davison 

Mrs. Alva A. Dawson 

Ms. Donna A. de Corleto 

Mr. Hampton M. de Jarnette 

Mr. George B. de Lano 

Mr. Silvester de Thomasis 

Mr. Alan L. Dean 

Mr. Albert L. Dean, Jr. 

Ms. Marie B. Debacker 

Ms. Cassandra H. Deck 

Major General Oren E. Dehaven 

Mr. and Mrs. Wayne Richard Delaney 

Captain and Mrs. Victor Delano 

Mr. Howard Dellon 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew S. Deming 

Mr. Vinel E. Dent 

Mr. Eugene A. Derr 

Mr. E. P. di Giannantonio 

Miss Patricia Anne Dick 

Captain and Mrs. Paul F. Dickens 

Mr. and Mrs. Lowell Dightman 

Ms. Mary C. Dillingham 

Dr. Henry Dillon 

Mr. R. Samuel Dillon, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Dimick 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen T. Dittmann 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Douglas Diven 

Mrs. Alfa D. Dodge 

Mr. Austin F. Dohrman, Jr. 

Ms. Elizabeth Donahue 

Mrs. Maren L. Donohue 

Mr. David G. Donovan 

Ms. Sharon Kay Dooley 

Mr. Arthur F. Dorr 

Mr. James A. Dorsch 

Mr. David M. Dorsen 

Mr. Monroe D. Dowling 

Mr. John P. Doyle 

Mrs. James A. Drennan 

Major General Hans H. Driessnack 

Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Drill 

Ms. Collette M. Drobel 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Dubin 

Major and Mrs. Jules Dubois, Jr. 

Mr. A. P. Dumas, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter W. Duncan 

Miss Marjorie H. Dunham 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Stewart Dunn 

Lieutenant Colonel and Mrs. John J. 

Dr. Edgar Durbin, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Vernon James Dwyer 
Dr. Elizabeth M. Earley 
Mr. and Mrs. Lynn R. Eastridge 
Brigadier General and Mrs. Richard J. 

Mr. Robert Eberman 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore M. Edison 
Mr. Clarence W. Edminster 
Mr. William W. Edmunds 
Mr. Bert T. Edwards 
Mr. Chester R. Edwards 
Dr. Richard W. Efron 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles M. Egan 
Mr. George G. Eggleston 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution i 353 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Ehrlich 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Eichholz 

Mr. Edward L. Eisenstein 

Mr. Roger W. Eisinger, Sr. 

Mrs. Leila Eley 

Mr. Stuart Elfman 

Miss Lynette F. Eltinge 

Mr. J. C. Mason Emde 

Mrs. J. T. Emery 

Mr. and Mrs. Pleasanton H. Ennis 

Mrs. Lionel C. Epstein 

Mr. R. O. Erickson 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Ertman 

Mr. and Mrs. Karl Eurenius 

Mr. Timothy Evans 

Mr. Henri Eyl 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Fabricant 

Mr. Jim P. Farrell 

Mr. James E. Fearn 

Mr. Bruce F. Fein 

Mr. and Mrs. Irving Feist 

Mr. John F. Felter 

Mrs. Guido C. Fenzi 

Mr. Joseph C. V. Ferrusi 

Mr. Roy Feuchter 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas D. Finney, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. S. Greenhoot Fischer 

Mr. and Mrs. Joel H. Fisher 

Mr. Kenneth P. Fisher 

Ms. Maureen Fisher 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Fitzgerald 

Dr. and Mrs. A. L. Fjordbotten 

Mr. Lewis I. Flacks 

Mr. and Mrs. M. F. Flaherty 

Ms. Sally A. Flanik 

Mr. Edwin F. Fleischman 

Mrs. Julius Fleischmann 

Mr. Nicholas T. Fleischmann 

Mr. and Mrs. Martin Fleit 

Mr. and Mrs. Jerry L. Fletcher 

Mr. David Porter Fogle 

Mr. Albert A. Folop 

Mrs. Gunilla L. Foster 

Mr. John H. Foster 

Ms. Caroline R. Foulke 

Mr. Joel Burr Fowler, II 

Dr. and Mrs. Herman Frank 

Mr. and Mrs. de Jongh Franklin 

Mr. George J. Frazier, Jr. 

Mr. Donald E. Frein 

Colonel and Mrs. Clarence D. Fried 

Mr. and Mrs. William F. Frye 

Mr. and Mrs. Everett G. Fuller 

Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Fullerton 

Mr. Daniel L. Gaba 

Mr. Anthony J. Gaetano, Jr. 

Mr. H. B. Gambrell 

Mr. Edward Gartman 

Mrs. Virginia B. Garvey 

Mr. William Gasperow 

Ms. Rachel Gay 

Mr. Robert E. Gayer 

Miss Olga M. Gazda 

Mr. Zachary Paul Geaneas 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Geller 

Dr. K. L. Geoly 

Ms. Amanda E. George 

Ms. Nancy L. George 

Mr. Rodney W. George 

Mr. and Mrs. David Gevanthor 

Mr. John Ghiardi 

Ms. Frances A. Giacobbe 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth R. Giddens 

Mr. Lincoln J. Gilbert 

Mr. Robert S. Gillian, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. Roy S. Gillinson 

Mrs. Bernard Gimbel 

Mr. Melvin Gladstone 

Mr. and Mrs. Lester E. Glass, Jr. 

Mr. W. J. Godard 

Mr. Royal T. Godden 

Mr. John M. Goehner 

Mr. Norris S. Goff 

Mr. Robert N. Gold 

Dr. and Mrs. Donald Goldberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Goldman 

Mrs. Ted R. Goldsmith 

Mrs. Evelyn M. Goldstein 

Ms. Gwendolyn Goldstein 

Mr. Peter S. Goltra 

Miss Elinor Goodspeed 

Mr. Carroll A. Gordon 

Ms. Fredericka Y. Gordon 

Mr. and Mrs. William Goshorn 

Mr. and Mrs. R. M. Gotwald 

Ms. Kathryn R. Gover 

Mr. G. Gowans 

Mr. and Mrs. Moses J. Gozonsky 

Ms. Eva Graham 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Graham 

The David Graham Foundation 

Mr. Theodore W. Grahlfs 

Mr. William F. Graney 

Mr. and Mrs. John Grattan 

Dr. and Mrs. Frank D. Gray, Jr. 

Mr. Thomas E. Greathouse 

Colonel and Mrs. Thomas C. Green 

Dr. and Mrs. Louis Greenberg 

354 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Supporting Members — continued 

Dr. and Mrs. James B. Gregory 

Miss Jeanne Griest 

Mr. J. Donald Griffin 

Ms. Elisabeth Griffith 

Mrs. Gloria W. Griffith 

Mrs. Hubert L. Grigaut 

Mr. Robert Groberg 

Mr. and Mrs. David Grodsky 

Dr. and Mrs. C. D. Groover 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Gruber 

Dr. Grace H. Guin 

Mr. and Mrs. Hans Gunzenhauser 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. Haehnle 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Hagemeyer 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Halpern 

Mr. and Mrs. Theodore M. Hamady 

Mr. Ira J. Hamburg 

Mr. Courtnay C. Hamilton, Jr. 

Dr. and Mrs. William F. 

Hamilton, Jr. 
Mrs. E. P. Hand 
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Handiboe 
Mr. and Mrs. Lee T. Hannah 
Mr. and Mrs. William B. 

Hannum, Jr. 
Mrs. V. G. Hansen 
Mr. and Mrs. John M. Harar 
Mr. George D. Hardy 
Mr. J. H. Harms 
Mr. Ronald Harring 
Dr. James C. Harris 
Mr. Robert C. Harris 
Mr. and Mrs. Ellen H. Harrison 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry P. Hart 
Mr. L. M. Hart 
Mr. Peter M. Hart 
Mr. and Mrs. John Harwell, Jr. 
Colonel Lee C. Harwig, Jr. 
Mr. Warren W. Hastings 
Mr. George A. Hatzes, Jr. 
Mr. Philip H. Hazelton 
Mr. and Mrs. Vincent P. Healey 
Ms. Mercedes Hearn 
Mr. Joseph A. Heckman 
Major Charles E. Heimach 
Colonel and Mrs. Robert D. 

Heinl, Jr. 
Mr. Edward Heler 
Dr. and Mrs. L. M. Hellman 
Mr. Eric D. Henderson 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hennage 
Dr. Jane Ellen Henney 
Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Henry 
Dr. Walter L. Henry 

Ms. Deborah D. Herb 

Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Herkes 

Mr. William H. Hernandez, Jr. 

Mrs. Christian A. Herter 

Dr. and Mrs. Donald Hesby 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Hewitt 

Mr. Donald Hill 

Mr. Charles H. Himman 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Hinchcliff 

Mr. William M. Hines 

Mrs. J. H. Ward Hinkson 

Mr. Joseph U. Hinshaw 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles J. Hitch 

Mr. M. L. Hite 

Lieutenant Colonel and Mrs. John G. 

Mr. and Mrs. David S. Hoag 
Mr. John G. Hoecker 
Mr. Michael R. Hoffman 
Mr. Charles Beecher Hogan 
Ms. F. Lynn Holec 
Mr. Henry E. Holley 
Mr. and Mrs. L. J. Holroyd 
Mrs. Charles D. Holt 
Mr. Roger E. Holtman 
Ms. Laura V. Holtz 
Mr. Hume Horan 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Horning 
Mr. James R. Howe 
Mrs. Albert A. Hughes 
Mr. and Mrs. David L. Hughes 
Mr. and Mrs. Phillip S. Hughes 
Mr. John L. Hughes-Caley 
Mr. and Mrs. David R. Hull 
Mrs. E. H. Hulsey 
Mr. Vance Y. Hum 
Mr. and Mrs. James D. Hurd 
Mr. John Hutchinson 
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Idema 
Mr. William W. Idler 
Ms. Janet R. Inscore 
Mr. Harry Jackson 
Ms. Sandra Jacobi 
Mr. and Mrs. Ephraim Jacobs 
Mr. Nicholas Jacobs 
Mr. Harald W. Jacobson 
Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence I. Jacobson 
Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Jacoby 
Mr. Joseph M. Jaron 
Mr. William L. Jarrell 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas E. Jenks 
Mr. W. N. Jerson 
Mr. and Mrs. David D. Johnson 
Dr. Donald A. Johnson 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 355 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward N. Johnson 

Mr. and Mrs. Irwin B. Johnson 

Ms. Nancy H. Johnson 

Mr. Robert E. Johnson 

Miss Charlotte Jones 

Mr. and Mrs. Wayne V. Jones 

Mr. G. Quinton Jones, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Jones, Jr. 

Mr. Mitchell F. Jones, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael Joseph 

Mrs. Ann F. Joyce 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert H. Jung 

Mr. John M. Kalbermatten 

Mr. and Mrs. Milton Kaplan 

Dr. and Mrs. Arnold Kaplin 

Mr. James B. Karickhoff 

Mr. D. C. Kaufman 

Ms. Ruthanne Kaufman 

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Kaye 

Mr. and Mrs. Ira Kaye 

Mr. E. J. Kazanowski 

Ms. Catherine Kazmierczak 

Mrs. James F. Keefer 

Mr. and Mrs. Earl W. Keegan 

Mr. S. Keeler 

Mr. Thomas M. Keeling 

Ms. Eleanor Kehoe 

Mr. David L. Keir 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene A. Keller 

Mr. Robert C. Keller, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Kellert 

Mr. and Mrs. William Kenety 

Ms. Anna Marie Kent 

Judge and Mrs. Allen R. Kenyon 

Mr. Andrew A. Kerhulas, Jr. 

Mr. William R. Kerivan 

Mr. John Kicak 

Mr. T. J. Kimmel 

Mr. Robert Y. Kimura 

Mr. Gordon E. King 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. 

Captain and Mrs. Alexander L. 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Klein 
Mr. Kenneth W. Klein 
Ms. Roswitha J. Klement 
Mr. Lawrence G. Knecht 
Mr. Wily W. Knighten 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Knorr 
Mr. John W. Knowles 
Ms. Jean R. Knutsen 
Mr. and Mrs. Allison J. Koberg 
Mr. and Mrs. Rolph A. Kohler 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Kogod 

Mr. David E. Koranek 

Dr. and Mrs. M. C. Korengold 

Mr. Larry Koziarz 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Kraas 

Mr. Michael Kraft 

Mr. Albert Kramer 

Mrs. Howard D. Kramer 

Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Kranker 

Ms. Nanette Krieger 

Major and Mrs. A. N. Kropt 

Miss S. Victoria Krusiewski 

Mrs. George F. Kugler, Jr. 

Mr. Raoul Kulberg 

Mr. Stanley J. Kuliczkowski 

Ms. Mary A. Kumpe 

Colonel and Mrs. J. Scott Kurtz 

Dr. and Mrs. Otto A. Kurz 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Kwalwasser 

Mr. William P. la Plant, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Achille la Pointe 

Ms. Ruth M. la Pointe 

Ms. Benay la Rock 

Mr. and Mrs. Erwin Lachman 

Mr. Albert J. Laflam 

Mrs. Kama Laird 

Mr. Glenn G. Lamson, Jr. 

Mr. John Lanchak 

Mrs. Marilyn Lane 

Mr. and Mrs. Felix J. Lapinski 

Mr. Hugh Leroy Latham 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles E. Law, Sr. 

Mr. John T. Lawrence 

Ms. Ella Jean Layman 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank J. Leahy, Jr. 

Mr. Wilfred M. Leatherwood, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Lederer, Jr. 

Mr. James A. Lee 

Mr. and Mrs. W. David Lee 

Mr. Marion S. Leech 

Colonel and Mrs. Jack L. Leggett 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley W. Legro 

Mr. and Mrs. Stan Leibner 

Ms. Jacqueline F. Leng 

Mr. and Mrs. Curt Leonard 

Ms. Ethelynne H. Leonard 

Lieutenant Colonel Richard J. Leonard 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Lerner 

Mr. and Mrs. Harald R. Leuba 

Mr. Daniel W. Leubecker 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl M. Leventhal 

Mr. Robert Levine 

Mr. Herman D. Levy 

Mr. and Mrs. David A. Lewis 

356 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest E. Lewis 

Mr. H. D. Lewis 

Mr. Morgan Lewis 

Mr. and Mrs. Martin Lichtenstein 

Mr. Raymond Lieberman 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Liebhardt 

Mr. Frank W. Lindenberger 

Mr. Frank S. Linder 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Lindgren 

Dr. and Mrs. D. A. Lindquist 

Mrs. Jean C. Lindsey 

Miss Jane T. Lingo 

Mr. R. Robert Linowes 

Mr. and Mrs. Sol M. Linowitz 

Mr. William Liss 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. List 

Dr. Kathleen E. Lloyd 

Dr. P. Loe 

Mr. and Mrs. Jerome T. Loeb 

Ms. Ursula G. Lohmann 

Dr. Sonja Loncarec 

Mr. Tom H. W. Loomis 

Mr. Duarte A. Lopes 

Mr. Arnold Lorbeer 

Mr. John G. Lorenz 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Loube 

Dr. Ira S. Lourie 

Mr. Richard G. Loutsch 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Low 

Mr. William Lowenthal 

Mr. Harry Lunn 

Dr. and Mrs. Joseph W. Luquire 

Mr. Norman W. Lutkefedder 

Ms. Margaret R. Lynch 

Mrs. Elizabeth MacMillan 

Mr. Herbert C. Macey 

Mr. and Mrs. James L. Mack 

Mr. T. Macklin, Jr. 

Ms. Mary R. MacMartin 

Mr. J. Robert MacNaughton 

Mr. Rex A. Maddox 

Mrs. James T. Magee 

Captain Ronald L. Magee 

Mrs. Isabel C. Mahaffie 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert A. Mainzer 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Mallchok 

Dr. and Mrs. Richard F. Manegold 

Mr. Robert W. Mann 

Mr. E. Manuel Manning 

Mr. and Mrs. D. Manns 

Major and Mrs. George S. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Tyler Marcy 
Mr. John W. Margosian 

Mrs. R. A. Marmet 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew W. Marshall 

Mr. Barton A. Marshall 

Mr. Richard Heeman Marshall 

Mrs. Elizabeth Martin 

Mrs. William Marvel 

Miss Priscilla Mason 

Mrs. Barbara F. Masur 

Mr. P. H. Mathews 

Dr. and Mrs. A. B. Mauger 

Ms. Freda J. Mauldin 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles E. May 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis Mayle, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph S. Mazza 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman H. McCabe 

Mr. Thomas L. McCamley 

Mr. and Mrs. Martin E. McCavitt 

Mrs. Betty McComsey 

Colonel Stephen McCormick 

Mr. John P. McCullough 

Mr. Matthew B. McCullough 

Mr. Allan R. McDonald 

Mr. Charles Vincent McDonald 

Dr. and Mrs. James P. McDonald 

Mr. and Mrs. Grover R. McDowell 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. McEachen 

Mr. and Mrs. Donn McGiehan 

Mr. James P. McGranery, Jr. 

Mr. Hugh F. McGrath 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth C. McGuiness 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip L. McHugh 

Dr. Richard J. Mcllroy 

Mr. and Mrs. B. B. McKay 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard R. McLauglin 

Dr. and Mrs. R. R. McMeekin 

Mr. Thomas M. McMurray 

Mr. J. Jerome McNally 

Dr. J. Malcolm McNeil 

Ms. Betty M. McQueen 

Ms. Emily M. McQueen 

Mr. W. W. McWhinney 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert D. Mead 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Medalie 

Dr. Barbara A. Mella 

Mrs. Dorothy B. Melville 

Mrs. R. B. Menapace 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis W. Mendonsa 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman J. Merksame 

Mrs. Ida C. Merriam 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Merritt 

Mr. David Messent 

Mr. and Mrs. L. Meyer 

Ms. Marilyn Meyerhoff 

Mr. Edwin Charles Michael 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 357 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. John D. Michael 

Dr. David B. Michaels 

Ms. Patricia Milford 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward A. Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. G. O. Miller 

Mr. L. Allen Miller 

Mr. Milo E. Miller 

Mr. Warren G. Miller 

Mr. M. H. Miller 

Ms. Justine Milliken 

Mr. Donn Minnium 

Dr. and Mrs. John Minna 

Dr. Emile R. Mohler, Jr. 

Mr. Robert M. Molitor 

Colonel and Mrs. Kenneth L. Moll 

Mr. and Mrs. George D. Monk 

Dr. Frederick Paul Montana 

Mrs. E. P. Moore 

Mr. James Moore 

Mr. Leonard Moretz 

Ms. Margaret Morgan 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren R. Morrow 

Mr. and Mrs. John Mudd 

Mrs. Anita Mueller 

Mr. and Mrs. Ted Mueller 

Mr. Burnaby Munson 

Mr. Robert C. Murdock 

Mr. Patrick J. Murphy 

Dr. Frank J. Murphy 

Dr. and Mrs. Donald A. Myers 

Mr. John Rodman Myers 

Miss Lucile Myers 

Mr. Peter B. Myers 

Dr. and Mrs. Joel B. Nadler 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Nadolski 

Ms. Alixa Naff 

Mr. Robert Naugle 

Mr. Thomas W. Nawn 

Ms. Mary T. Nealon 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Newby 

Mr. Leland J. Newell 

Mr. and Mrs. William Newlin 

Mr. Robert Newman 

Mr. Gary Ray Newport 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred J. Newton 

Mr. Robert L. Nichols 

Mr. Roger A. Nickles 

Mrs. F. C. Noble 

Major and Mrs. Gerald T. Nolan 

Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Nordin 

Mr. Giles R. Norrington 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack R. Norwood 

Mr. David P. Notley 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael P. Novelli 

Colonel C. K. Nulsen 
The Honorable and Mrs. 

Sam A. Nunn 
Mr. and Mrs. Carey B. O'Conner 
Ms. Patricia H. O'Connor 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul T. O'Day 
Mr. and Mrs. A. E. O'Donnel 
Mr. Thomas O'Hare 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry O'Regan 
Mr. Owen Oates 
Colonel J. W. Oberg 
Mrs. John B. Ogilvie 
Mr. and Mrs. Graden E. Okes 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul A. Oliver 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth P. Olson 
Mr. Robert C. Olson 
Mr. Cyrus Omidyar 
Mrs. Carolyn C. Onufrak 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas D. Orr 
Mr. and Mrs. E. G. Osbourne 
Mr. and Mrs. David Osnos 
Mr. Allan W. Ostar 
Mr. W. W. Owens 
Mr. William T. Owens 
Mr. George E. Paleologos 
Dr. and Mrs. Michael N. 

Commander Everett A. Parke 
Mrs. Alice Mengel Parker 
Mr. Charles M. Parker 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Parnell, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald H. Patrick 
Mr. Jeffrey Ewen Patterson 
Ms. Helen Ann Patton 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley J. Pawlowski 
Mr. Charles W. Payne 
Mr. Raymond Pearlstine 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold A. Pedersen 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Walter Peltason 
Mr. Clarence Pennington 
Mr. William C. Pennington 
Mr. George E. Perez 
Mr. Thomas W. Perry, Jr. 
Mr. Tucker W. Peterson 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Philibert 
Mrs. Joseph B. Philips 
Captain and Mrs. Charles Phillips 
Ms. Ruth Phillips 
Mr. and Mrs. Adrien Picard 
Mr. James H. Pickford 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Pierce 
Ms. Jeanette B. Pispek 
Mr. Stanley B. Plotkin 
Mr. and Mrs. Dexter S. Plumlee 

358 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. Michael G. Pohlod 

Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Polston 

Mr. and Mrs. Leo Pompliano 

Mr. Frank T. Pope, Jr. 

Mr. Bernard L. Poppert 

Mr. and Mrs. Rodman Porter 

Mr. Paul J. Posner 

Mr. John N. Postak 

Mr. Paul E. Postelnek 

Ms. Laura R. Potter 

Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Povich 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Preston 

Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Pribus 

Mr. and Mrs. Reuben P. Prichard 

Mr. R. W. Pritchard 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Probst 

Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey A. Prussin 

Ms. Inez L. Pulver 

Dr. Regina A. Puryear 

Mr. Daniel M. Radcliffe 

Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Rankin 

Dr. Carl L. Rasak 

Dr. and Mrs. Walton A. 

Rathbun, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Ravner 
Ms. Isabel M. Rea 

Mr. and Mrs. John Grandin Reading 
Mr. Jack Reams 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Philip Reberger 
Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Rector 
Mr. and Mrs. Thorburn Reid 
Mr. Michael L. Restaine 
Mr. F. F. Reynolds 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank M. Reynolds 
Mr. John Arthur Reynolds 
Mrs. John B. Rhinelander 
Mr. Joseph A. Rice 
Mr. and Mrs. Michael A. 

Mr. and Mrs. William W. 

Ms. Brenda Lee Richter 
Dr. Monira K. Rifaat 
Mr. James R. Rivera 
Mr. and Mrs. John H. Rixse, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell B. Roberts 
Mr. and Mrs. F. L. Robertson 
Mr. Paul Robindeaux 
Dr. Max Robinowitz 
Mr. Hamilton Robinson 
Mr. Roy Antony Robson 
Dr. and Mrs. S. David Rockoff 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Rollins 
Mr. John J. Roome 

Mr. William Rose III 

Mr. Gerald A. Rosen 

Mr. Marvin Rosenberg 

Mr. Leon I. Rosenbluth 

Mr. R. M. Rosenthal 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert S. Roslyn 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Ross 

Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Rossen 

Mr. Robert J. Rovang 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas E. Rowland 

Mr. Jim L. Russell 

Mrs. John Barry Ryan 

Mr. Herbert C. Ryding, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hachemi Saada 

Mr. and Mrs. Marvin P. Sadur 

Ms. Mary L. Safrit 

Dr. and Mrs. David L. Salmon 

Mr. Stephen M. Salny 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Salzman 

Mr. Arthur R. Sando 

Mr. and Mrs. Julius Sankin 

Mrs. Joseph C. Satterthwaite 

Mrs. Robert P. Sattler 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Francis Saul II 

Mr. and Mrs. Thorndike Saville 

Mr. Michael F. Sawyer 

Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Sayers 

The Very Reverend and Mrs. 

Francis B. Sayre 
Ms. Catherine M. Scannell 
Mr. Charles W. Schaffer 
Mr. and Mrs. Radford Schantz 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Scheips 
Mr. Ronald J. Schellhase 
Mr. Robert J. Schemel 
Mr. and Mrs. James H. Scheuer 
Dr. Basil A. Schiff 
Ms. Penelope Schleifer 
Mrs. Anita Schlem 
Mr. John C. Schleter 
Mrs. Julian L. Schley 
Ms. Antoinette B. Schmahl 
Mr. Harvey B. Schneider 
Ms. Judy L. Schneider 
Mr. and Mrs. Harvin Schneiderman 
Mr. Jacques J. Schoch 
Mr. William E. Schremp 
Miss Greta Schuessler 
Dr. and Mrs. William J. Schultis 
Mr. and Mrs. Leslie I. Schwartz 
Mrs. Morton L. Schwartz 
Major and Mrs. T. E. Schwartz 
Mr. Tommy Schwartz 
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin K. Schwarz 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 359 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. C. W. Scott 

Dr. Wayne Scott 

Mr. Allen J. Seeber 

Mr. and Mrs. Gene F. Seevers 

Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd R. Seiling 

Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Max Selig 

Mr. Lee C. Seligman 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Sellers 

Ms. Catherine H. Sells 

Mr. Sol Seltzer 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward E. Sergent 

Mr. Sherman J. Sexton 

Dr. Gordon T. Shahin 

Dr. James J. Shanley 

Mr. and Mrs. Willis H. Shapley 

Mr. John F. Shaw 

Dr. Robert L. Sherman 

Mr. and Mrs. Wiliam W. Sherwin 

Mr. William G. Shields 

Mr. John D. Shilling 

Mr. Rufus Shivers 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry Shoub 

Colonel B. S. Shute 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman S. Siegel 

Mr. Alexander W. Sierck 

Ms. Ellen Vera Sigal 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack Silberman 

Dr. Henry K. Silberman 

Dr. Frank Silver 

Ms. Evelyn Silverglit 

Mrs. John Farr Simmons 

Mrs. Ellen Hanna Simmons 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard K. Simmons 

Mr. Robert M. Simmons 

Mrs. Charles Simon 

Mr. Matthew H. Simon 

Mr. Stanley Simon 

Dr. and Mrs. James D. Singletary 

Lieutenant Colonel David T. Sites 

Ms. Anne Smalet 

Colonel and Mrs. C. Haskell Small 

Mr. B. A. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold Smith 

Mr. Hugh Stewart Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Pitts Smith 

Mrs. L. M. Smith 

Mrs. Myron B. Smith 

Dr. and Mrs. Scott M. Smith 

Ms. Shirley A. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Timothy D. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry Snodgrass 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald Snyder 

Mr. and Mrs. Saul Snyder 

Mr. Robert W. Snyder II 

Mrs. Robert A. Sonneborn 

Mr. and Mrs. Hugh M. South 

Mr. W. J. Spargo 

Mr. Edward W. Spears 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Spiegelblatt 

Mr. Gary W. Spokes 

Mr. G. Sprague 

Dr. Daniel L. Stabile 

Mr. Richard W. Stafford 

Mr. and Mrs. Julius Stanges 

Mr. Ronald A. Stanley 

Mrs. Edythe E. Stauffer 

Mr. Stuart L. Strauss 

Dr. Colby S. Stearns 

Mr. William R. Stehle 

Dr. Marjorie L. Stein 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Z. Steinway 

Mr. and Mrs. Leo M. Stepanian 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Stephens 

Ms. Elizabeth M. Stern 

Mr. Jeffery A. Stevens 

Mr. Richard W. Stickell 

Dr. Serena Stier 

Mr. John S. Stiles, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul K. Stockmeyer 

Mrs. Tegner Stokes 

Mr. J. Jacques Stone 

Dr. and Mrs. K. A. Strand 

Mrs. Richard H. Stratton 

Mrs. R. Strickhart 

Dr. and Mrs. Joseph Stuart 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Stutzer 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard L. Sugarman 

Ms. Elizabeth Sullam 

Mr. Eugene T. Sullivan 

Mr. Dwight Y. Sumida 

Mr. Donn E. Summers 

Lieutenant General and Mrs. Gordon 

Sumner, Jr. 
Mr. Charles A. Suter 
Mr. David E. Suttle 
Mr. Robert L. Swart, Jr. 
Mr. W. M. Swatek 
Dr. and Mrs. Edgar Sweren 
Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Swetlow 
Mrs. Mary Davidson Swift 
Mr. Richard O. Swim 
Mr. Gerald L. Swope 
Mr. Harry F. Swope III 
Mr. and Mrs. James McK. Symington 
Dr. I. R. Tabershaw 
Mr. Worthington Heaton Talcott 
Mr. and Mrs. Pier Talenti 

360 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. James J. Tanner 

Dr. Vincent A. Taraszkiewski 

Mr. Curtis W. Tarr 

Mrs. Benjamin E. Tate 

Miss G. E. Tatting 

Dr. Joel M. Taubin 

Ms. Hilda Taylor 

Mr. Julian M. Teal 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph H. Teller 

Mr. Peter A. Ten Eyck 

Mr. Joseph M. Tessmer 

Mr. Alfred Thieme, Jr. 

Ms. Linda R. Thompson 

Mr. and Mrs. Brian Thompson 

Ms. Mary Edith Thomson 

Mr. D. S. Thome 

Mrs. B. W. Thoron 

Mr. George Tievsky 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon M. Tiger 

Mr. and Mrs. Sylvan M. Tobin 

Mrs. Stirling Tomkins 

Mrs. Dorothy Townsend 

Mr. Henry R. Traubitz 

Mr. Thomas T. Traywick, Sr. 

Mrs. S. Diane Treat 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Trigg III 

Mr. Warren L. Tripp 

Mr. and Mrs. Lynn A. Trobaugh 

Mr. Jabes Glen Trott 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Buel Trowbridge 

Mr. S. C. Tupman 

Mr. Walter A. Turchick 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Turkeltaub 

Mr. John H. Turner 

Mrs. A. G. Tuthill 

Mr. George E. Tuttle 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul E. Tychsen 

Dr. Winston M. Ueno 

Mrs. Judith Falk Unger 

Mr. Anthony S. Vaivada 

Lieutenant Egbert N. P. Van Es 

Mr. Charles O. Van Horn 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph C. Vanzant, Jr. 

Commander and Mrs. 

Joseph C. Vanzant 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Vass 
Ms. Emily W. Vaughn 
Captain Robert E. Vaughn 
Mr. John M. Veatch 
Mr. John M. Venditti 
Mr. Wallace W. Voigt 
Mr. and Mrs. Elmer E. Wachter 
Mr. and Mrs. John P. Wagner 
Mr. and Mrs. Milo Waldes 

Ms. Clara B. Walker 

Mr. and Mrs. George E. Walker 

Dr. and Mrs. Lawrence W. Walker 

Mr. A. E. Wall 

Mr. and Mrs. Jay R. Wallace 

Mrs. Elizabeth D. Walsh 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. Walsh 

Dr. and Mrs. William T. Walter 

Mr. James M. Walton 

Mrs. Harry Wagner 

Drs. Henry and Celia Ward 

Mr. John S. Ward, Jr. 

Mr. Lewis T. Waters 

Ms. Susan C. Watkins 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph C. Watts 

Colonel and Mrs. Louis V. Watwood 

Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Weaver 

Dr. Hamilton B. Webb 

Ms. Beverly Weber 

Mr. Fred Week 

Mr. Larry A. Wehr 

Mrs. Shelley M. Weicker 

Mr. Norman Weiden 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank A. Weil 

Miss Ruth M. Weiland 

Mr. J. K. Weinman 

Mr. Edmund Wellington, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Oscar M. Wells 

Dr. and Mrs. Douglas C. Wendt 

Mrs. Beth Werner 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard J. Wertheimer 

Mr. Otto R. Wessel 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry E. Westphal 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Wharton 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald R. Wheaton 

Mr. George Y. Wheeler 

Mr. Thomas J. Whelan 

Ms. Gloria Whipple 

Mr. and Mrs. Ben White 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip C. White 

Mr. Reider J. White 

Mrs. Robert K. White 

Ms. Verna H. White 

Mrs. Joseph M. Whitson 

Mr. G. William Whyers 

Mr. and Mrs. John E. Wickman 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Wilbur 

Mr. Julius Wile 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Wiley 

Major General and Mrs. H. L. Wilkers 

Mrs. Richard E. Wilkie 

Mr. J. Harvey Wilkinson 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Willard 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman C. Willcox 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 361 

Supporting Members — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Arnold 

Clarke Williams 
Mr. E. H. Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul J. Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. E. I. Williams, Jr. 
Colonel E. J. Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Williamson 
Mr. and Mrs. John K. Willis 
Mr. and Mrs. Morton H. Wilner 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Foss Wilson 
Mr. L. E. Wilson 
Mr. and Mrs. Luke W. Wilson 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald E. Wilson 
Mr. Robert W. Wilson 
Mrs. Milton Wilson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Curtin Winsor, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Milton S. Winters 
Mrs. Flora Jane Winton 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip B. Wisman 
Colonel Ralph M. Wismer 
Mr. Russell R. Witherow 
Ms. Miriam R. Witlin 
Mr. Gilbert A. Wolf 
Mr. Claude R. Wolfe 
Mrs. Saralyn V. Wolff 
Ms. Audrey J. Wolfinger 

Mr. and Mrs. David B. Wood 

Mr. David L. Wood 

Mr. George E. Woodin 

Mr. and Mrs. William Woodward 

Mr. and Mrs. William Work 

Mrs. Frank L. Wright 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth M. Wright 

Mr. Walter Ray Wright 

Mr. Christopher B. Wry, Jr. 

Ms. Jane W. Wuchinch 

Mrs. Leslie H. Wyman 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip D. Yaney 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles D. Young 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. Young 

Mr. Kenneth R. Youngert 

Mr. N. P. Ytterday 

Mr. Daniel H. Zafren 

Mr. Peter Zagarella 

Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence G. Zambotti 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Zauner 

Mr. Thomas G. Zee 

Mrs. John H. Zentay 

Mr. A. B. Zimmer 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Zinn 

Dr. S. S. Zungoli 

Mr. and Mrs. Gunter Zweig 


Miss E. S. Abernethy 

Mrs. Frances Allensworth 

Mr. and Mrs. Wilfrid J. Amisial 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas D. Anderson 

Mr. William L. Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. Mark Edwin Andrews 

Miss Basile Anglin 

Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Appel 

Mr. Arthur R. Armstrong 

Mrs. Michael Arpad 

Mr. and Mrs. S. 5. Auchincloss 

Miss Cheryle Ann Aurecchione 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul L. Austin 

Mrs. Donald A. Baillie 

Mrs. N. Meyer Baker 

Mr. and Mrs. Christopher C 

Mrs. Paul F. Barham 
Mr. and Mrs. A. M. Barnes, Jr. 
Mr. Charles J. Barnes 
Mrs. Genevieve Barth 
Dr. Helen Batchelor 
Mrs. D. Bronson Beeler 
Mrs. Katherine H. Benedict 
Mr. and Mrs. Merrill Berkley 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Pierre Bernard 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter S. Blair 

Miss Frances Blank 

Mr. and Mrs. Morris B. Blumberg 

Mrs. Julian S. Boardman 

Mrs. Dean E. Bowen 

Miss Helen G. Boyajian 

Miss Virginia I. Boy-ed 

Miss Dorothea Bourne 

Miss Helen Brandt 

Mrs. J. Elliott Braucher 

Mrs. Mary M. Brennan 

Mrs. Nan Broeder 

Mr. and Mrs. Leon Brown 

Mr. William A. Bryson, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald P. Buchanan 

Mrs. William E. Carey 

Mrs. Charles W. Caldwell 

Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Carrico 

Ms. Mary Carson 

Miss Linda L. Castiglioni 

Ms. Anne M. Chute 

Miss Irene W. Clark 

Mrs. Travis H. Clark 

Mr. Ludwig Claps 

362 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Foreign Study Tour Participants — continued 

Mr. and Mrs. Joe R. Cobern 

Mr. and Mrs. Sydney M. Cone, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Valentine J. Connolly 

Mrs. Lois Lorton Cook 

Miss Mary Cooley 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Coplan 

Judge and Mrs. Leo W. Corkin 

Mr. Perry Cott 

Mr. Albert H. Cousins, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Crain, Jr. 

Mrs. Gus Cranz, Jr. 

Mrs. Elizabeth P. Cressman 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Cutler 

Mr. and Mrs. Krest Cyr 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Dabney 

Dr. and Mrs. Gilbert Dalldorf 

Mrs. Ethel M. Danenhower 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry Daniel 

Dr. Helen E. Daniells 

Mrs. Abraham W. Danish 

Miss Susan Darling 

Mrs. Robert Daugherty 

Mrs. L. D. Dennis 

Miss Celeste A. DeRosa 

Mr. and Mrs. Laurence B. Dodds 

Mrs. H. Whitney Dodge 

Mrs. Kenneth M. Doty 

Miss P. M. Douglas 

Mrs. William G. Dreisbach 

Mrs. J. Patrick Dunne 

Miss Virginia M. Dusel 

Mrs. Tom J. Eals 

Mr. and Mrs. James S. Earley 

Mr. and Mrs. Kent D. Eastin 

Mr. and Mrs. Herman J. Eckrich, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. E. Donald Elliott 

Mrs. Foster Ellis 

Dr. Felice M. Emery 

Miss Margaret Emery 

Mr. and Mrs. Jackson P. English 

Miss Pamela A. Eros 

Dr. and Mrs. L. Whiting Farinholt, Jr. 

Mrs. George Farkas 

Mr. and Mrs. Earl Farmer 

Miss Sarah M. Ferguson 

Mr. F. Irwin Finch 

Ms. Louise Russell Finnoff 

Mrs. Florence M. K. Fischer 

Mr. and Mrs. Russel H. Fowler 

Dr. and Mrs. J. Robert Fox 

Miss Karen Fox 

Mr. and Mrs. Eli Frank, Jr. 

Mrs. Andrew A. Fraser 

Mrs. Mary Kraft Frey 

Dr. and Mrs. Julian H. Frieden 

Mrs. Lorraine Gallagher Freimann 

Mrs. Frederick F. Fuessenich 

Mrs. Helen Gates 

Mrs. Dorothy Gardner 

Miss Mary C. Ginkiewicz 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Shuler Ginn 

Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Gleason 

Canon and Mrs. C. Leslie Glenn 

Mr. and Mrs. Ezra Glaser 

Miss Maria Elena Gonzalez 

Mrs. James Lippincott Goodwin 

Mr. and Mrs. William C. Gouldsbury 

Miss Cornelia Gross 

Mr. and Mrs. Jerome B. Grossman 

Mrs. Kathryn L. Haas 

Ms. Juanita R. Hagan 

Mrs. Henry G. Hager 

Mrs. Grace E. Haggett 

Mrs. Forbes Hall 

Miss Anita Kay Hardy 

Mrs. Jacqueline A. Harris 

Mrs. Elizabeth C. Harrison 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Hattersley 

Miss Margery C. Hawley 

Miss Gertrude E. Heare 

Mrs. Kathleen C. Heinlein 

Mrs. Nelson Helm 

Mrs. Robert N. Hennessy 

Captain and Mrs. C. R. Herms 

Mrs. Richard R. Hobbins 

Mr. and Mrs. A. George Hoffman 

Mrs. Martin E. Hogan, Jr. 

Miss Honor M. Hollinghurst 

Mr. Donald Phillip Holloway 

Mrs. James Holman 

Miss Elizabeth B. Hone 

Mr. and Mrs. Alvin K. Hottle 

Mr. and Mrs. Morton B. Howell 

Mrs. N. C. Huber 

Mrs. Hugo G. Huettig, Jr. 

Mrs. Aline W. Hugus 

Miss Hana Hurdalkova 

Miss Barbara Hyde 

Mr. and Mrs. William Ireland, Jr. 

Miss M. Roberta Irwin 

Mrs. Marian Isern 

Mr. and Mrs. Leslie A. Jacobson 

Mr. and Mrs. Gustave Jamart 

Mrs. Marguerite S. Jansky 

Miss Joan L. Janssen 

Mrs. Randall Jarrell 

Dr. and Mrs. John F. Jewett 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Johnson 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 363 

Foreign Study Tour Participants — continued 

Mrs. Jane Strausbaugh Johnson 

Dr. Mary W. Juday 

Mr. and Mrs. C. S. Justman 

Mr. and Mrs. William B. Kacian 

Miss Ilona Karka 

Dr. and Mrs. James R. Karns 

Mr. Erich Kauders 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew 5. Keck 

Mrs. John T. Keliher 

Mrs. Carolyn Kent 

Mr. and Mrs. Morris Ketchum, Jr. 

Mr. Walter H. Kidd 

Mr. William B. Kight 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene M. Kramer 

Mrs. Millicent T. Lang 

Mrs. Ralph M. Larson 

Miss Betty McCluer Lee 

Mr. and Mrs. Halleck Lefferts 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. Leib 

Miss Marguerite LeLaurin 

Mrs. Lucy B. Lemmon 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Willard Lende 

Mr. H. W. Lende, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. Lende 

Mr. and Mrs. George Levin 

Dr. and Mrs. Bjorn Lih 

Mr. and Mrs. Owen S. Lindsay 

Mrs. Anne C. Little 

Mrs. Roy H. Lively 

Miss Juliet Lohr 

Miss Anna L. Loze 

Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Lynch 

Miss Florence Maple 

Dr. and Mrs. Miles R. Markley 

Miss Janet R. Marks 

Mr. and Mrs. Lealon E. Martin 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Martin 

Mr. Gunnar Maske 

Mrs. Otto 5. Mayer 

Mrs. George W. McCall 

Mrs. David L. McCarroll 

Mrs. T. Clyde McCarroll 

Mrs. Franklin A. McCarthy 

Mr. and Mrs. Gerald S. McCarthy 

Mr. and Mrs. William C. McClintock 

Mrs. James R. McCredie 

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. McCutcheon 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. McGreevey 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene C. McHenry 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard F. McMurdie 

Miss Mabel E. McNary 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. McNary 

Mr. Donald C. McVay 

Professor August Meier 

Mrs. Pearl Mering 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold W. Metz 

Mrs. Karl E. Meyer 

Mr. Charles B. Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. N. Barr Miller 

Mrs. Erma C. Milne 

Miss Margaret D. Mitchell 

Mrs. Paul H. Mockett 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph A. Morgan 

Mr. Joseph W. Morrisey 

Miss Mabel M. Morrison 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Lane Morthland 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas G. Nanney 

Mrs. Eleanor R. Nelson 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph B. Neiser 

Mrs. R. H. Nichols 

Mrs. George J. Nowak 

Dr. and Mrs. Walter Nudelman 

Mr. and Mrs. Bernard T. O'Connor 

Mrs. Martin B. O'Connor 

Mrs. James M. E. O'Grady 

Mrs. Edith M. Olmstead 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel J. O'Neil 

Mr. and Mrs. Noel 5. O'Reilly 

Mrs. Henry D. Ormsby 

Mr. and Mrs. Stewart Orton 

Mr. and Mrs. George Armstrong Ott 

Mr. and Mrs. George Page 

Mr. and Mrs. William S. Page 

Mrs. Robert Pansky 

Professor and Mrs. John H. Parry 

Dr. and Mrs. Harold H. Parsons 

Mrs. Charles F. Passel 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Pearsall 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Wesley Peebles, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. George W. Petersen 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald A. Petrie 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Pettit 

Mrs. Grace T. Pfister 

Mrs. Albert R. Pierce, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry H. Pierce, Jr. 

Miss Phyllis Platz 

Mr. Douglas K. Porteous 

Mrs. Florence T. Powell 

Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Quittner 

Miss Margaret Rathbone 

Miss Lois Reddin 

Mrs. Thomas Reese 

Mrs. Vera G. Ricci 

Mrs. Elizabeth P. Richards 

Mrs. J. A. Rogers 

Mrs. John Rood 

Miss James Bruce Ross 

Mrs. C. R. Rudolph 

364 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Foreign Study Tour Participants— continued 

Mrs. Roberta Ruliffson 

Mr. and Mrs. Rucker Ryland 

Mr. Loren C. Sage 

Miss Wilma Sain 

Mrs. Jane M. Sasse 

Miss Catherine Satterlee 

Miss Harriet Schofield 

Mrs. Benjamin Schiffer 

Mrs. Henry A. Schroeder 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Sheehan 

Mr. and Mrs. Gustav Schwab 
Mrs. Jerome W. Schwabe 
Miss Frances Scudder 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold J. Selinsky 
Miss Bonnie L. Selinsky 
Mr. and Mrs. Guy Seward 
Miss Marjorie T. Siapno 
Mrs. Lawrence D. Silvernale 
Miss Edith Sircom 
Ms. Karyn E. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. R. Neil Smith 
Dr. and Mrs. Raymond Smith 
Ms. Margery N. Snyder 
Miss Laura M. Standifer 
Mrs. Edmund A. Stanley 
Dr. and Mrs. James V. Stewart 
Mrs. Arthur Stockstrom 
Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Lamar Stone 
Mrs. L. G. Stone 
Mrs. Thomas A. Stone 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Strasser 
Mr. and Mrs. John F. Strayer 
Mr. and Mrs. Dexter Strong 
Mrs. Patricia Styles 
Miss Margherita Tarr 
Miss Regina Tarr 
Mrs. Margaret M. Taylor 

Miss Suzanne S. Taylor 

Mrs. Constance W. Thompson 

Mrs. Donna Thompson 

Mrs. Ellen G. Thompson 

Miss Sara A. Thompson 

Mrs. Anna L. Thornbury 

Mr. and Mrs. Bela C. Tifft 

Miss Cora J. Tripp 

Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Tunnard 

Mr. and Mrs. William R. Tupper 

Miss Catherine P. Waddle 

Mrs. W. Clyde Ward 

Mrs. Dorothy Warner 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold C. Warnock 

Mrs. Robert B. Waters 

Mrs. Horton Watkins 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Douglas Webb 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick S. Webster 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. 

Mr. Fern G. Wendt 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold I. Westcott 
Mrs. Howard Wheeler 
Miss Frances E. Whitehead 
Mr. and Mrs. Ross Whitney 
Mrs. Vivian Wildman 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward M. Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Williams 
Mrs. George Wohl 
Mrs. Ralph O. Wood 
Mrs. Josephine O. Woodbury 
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Wright 
Mrs. William C. Wright 
Mrs. David Yerkes 
Mr. and Mrs. William K. Yost 
Ms. Marian C. Young 
Mr. and Mrs. Russell A. Young 



Caterpillar Tractor Company First Federal Savings Bank and 

Commercial National Bank of Peoria Loan Association of Peoria 


Albert Trostel & Sons Company 
Allen-Bradley Company 
Allis-Chalmers Corporation 
Badger Meter, Inc. 
Bucyrus-Erie Company 

Cutler-Hammer, Inc. 
First Wisconsin National Bank 
Harnischfeger Corporation 
Herman Falk Memorial Foundation 
Marine National Exchange Bank 

Appendix 8. Benefactors of the Smithsonian Institution I 365 

Financial Co-Sponsors, Regional Program — continued 

Marshall & Ilsley Bank 
Northwestern Mutual 

Life Insurance Company 
Rexnord, Inc. 

Wisconsin Electric Power Company 
Wisconsin Gas Company 
Wisconsin Telephone Company 


The Bundy Foundation 
The Ford Motor Company Fund 
General Motors Corporation 
Manufacturers National Bank 
of Detroit 

National Bank of Detroit 
Parke, Davis and Company 
Stroh Brewery Company 


Alaska Airlines 

The Boeing Company 

The Bon Marche 


Pacific National Bank of Washington 

Peoples National Bank of Washington 
Rainier National Bank 
SAFECO Corporation 
Seattle-First National Bank 

Ideal Basic Industries 

Mountain Bell 


Curtis L. Carlsen Foundation 
Dayton Hudson Foundation 
First Bank System, Minnesota Affiliates 
General Mills Foundation 

International Multifoods Corporation 
Minneapolis Star & Tribune Company 
Minnesota Gas Company 
Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing 

Northern States Power Company 
Northwest Bancorporation 
Northwestern Bell Telephone 

Northwestern National Life 

Insurance Company 
Peavey Company 
The Pillsbury Company 
St. Paul Dispatch & Pioneer Press 

366 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

APPENDIX 9. List of Donors to the Smithsonian Institution in 
Fiscal Year 1977 

The Board of Regents and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
join with the entire staff in thanking all of the Institution's friends for 
their generous financial support and for their gifts to the collections. If 
perchance the name of any donor has been omitted from the following 
list, it is an inadvertence and in no way diminishes the Institution's 
gratitude. Many gifts were received from donors who prefer to remain 
anonymous; the Smithsonian wishes to thank them for their generosity. 



Donors to the Furnishings Collection 

Arpad, Michael, Washington, D.C. : two oil portraits by E. Frazer Andrews. 
Brown, Peter Mack, Washington, D.C: Empire drop-leaf table. 
Ching-Hua, Shou, Hong Kong, British Crown Colony: Chinese painted scroll. 
Clark, Sylvia, Washington, D.C: pair of bell jars of mounted birds. 
Cleveland, George M., Tamworth, New Hampshire: Regency desk originally 

owned by President John Quincy Adams. 
Howland, Richard H, Washington, DC: cottage bedroom suite; three 

Gothic Revival armchairs. 
Kruger, Jennifer C, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Elizabeth Revival side chair. 
Medinger, Elizabeth (estate of): Colonial Revival writing table and six chairs; 

oriental rug, Empire armchair, oil portrait. 
Riggs National Bank, Washington, DC: roll top desk by J. K. Rishel 

Furniture Co., Williamsport, Pennsylvania. 
Stark, Lucy C, Uniondale, Pennsylvania: Elizabethan Revival side chair. 


Donor of Financial Support Ms. Carol Guyer 

Donors to the Collections 


American University Library: 40 lantern glass slides from 1918 Lick 

Observatory photographs of the moon. 
Imogene McCausland: 5 color paintings of moon rock thin sections. 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 367 


Adams, Paul W. : Norden bombsight prototype. 

American Airlines: Boeing 707 model. 

Antique Airplane Association: Japanese aircraft engine. 

Australian Embassy: Royal Australian Air Force insignia. 

Baas, Michael R. : American Airlines aircrew badges. 

Bonelli, Mrs. Piero: Navigational sextant. 

Campbell, Mrs. George W. : Life vest from USS Macon. 

Carey, Colonel E. F., Jr.: Medals commemorating Lindbergh's flight 

Davis, T. H. : Boeing 737 model. 

Delta Airlines: Lockheed L-1011 model. 

Donaldson, Rev. F. L. P.: Gyroscopic inclinometer, World War I, and 1930 

pilot's license. 
Doolittle, James R: USAAF World War II uniform. 
Gaynor, Brig. Gen. Robert M.: USAAF insignia. 
General Electric Co.: CF6 fanjet engine. 
Greenamyer, Darryl: Grumman F8F-1 Conquest I. 

Hall, Theodore A.: Elevator rib, Bell XP-59; cam shaft, Curtiss Reims Racer. 
Hamilton Standard Div., United Technologies: Hamilton Standard model 

Harris, Norma L. : Delta Airlines stewardess uniform. 
Howard, Roland M. : Piper J-3 Cub. 
Japan Air Lines: Stewardess uniform. 
James, Teresa D. : Service uniform. 
Karen, Jay Frazee: Pan American purser's uniform. 
Lamport Foundation: Anti-G suits. 

Larkford, Mrs. Gladys: "Hindenburg" cup and saucer. 
Loening, Grover, estate: Loening memorabilia. 
Lopez-Garcia, Zalo: Lindberg banquet menu. 
Moore, Mrs. Halsey S. : Civilian flight clothing, c.1927. 
Morehouse, Silas A.: Antique propeller. 
Moro, Mrs. Francis: Metal aircraft skis. 
National Airlines: Boeing 727 model. 
Parsons, Mrs. Edwin C. : Uniform and accessories, Lafayette Escadrille, 

World War I. 
Piff, Celia: Civil Air Patrol insignia. 
Rattner, Arnold: Martin B-10 model. 

Royal Air Force, Great Britain: Battle of Britain tableau. 
Ryder, Roger F. : World War II recognition models. 
Smith, Stanley H. : Uniform, U.S. Army helicopter pilot, Viet Nam. 
Trans World Airlines: Boeing 707-331B model. 
Walshe, Mrs. Elqyn: Ford tri-motor can chairs. 
Walton, Nancy Bird: De Havilland Leopard model. 
Western Airlines: Douglas M-2. 


Barlow, Ronald and Douglas Drexler, Centereach, New York: Star Trek 

memorabilia and replicas. 
Museum of Science, Boston: Apollo guidance and navigations optical unit. 
Thiokal Corporation, Elkton, Maryland: Bullpup A and B rockets; Collections 

of early Reaction Motors, rockets and parts. 
Mount, Wadsworth W., Warren, New Jersey: Grapnel rockets and equipment. 
Bell Aerospace, Buffalo, New York: Minuteman propulsion equipment. 
Rockwell International, Downey, California: Minuteman guidance package. 
USAF Hospital, Edwards AFB, California: MOD spare suit and accessories. 

368 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

USAR Armament Museum, Eglin AFB, Florida: Mighty Mouse rocket. 
Estes Industries: Rocket models. 

Jones, Jean, Alexandria, Virginia: Discoverer 17 Recovery parachute. 
Director of Quality Control, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich: Congreve rocket 

White, Robert L., Alexandria, Virginia: Plastic rocket models. 
Union Carbide Corp., Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Apollo Lunar Surface Return 

Container components. 
National Aeronautic Association, Washington, D.C. : Money carried on 

Apollo flights; Apollo-Soyuz Test Program Record Book. 


Archibald, Robert J., Needham, Massachusetts: NC-4 photographic album. 
Balchen, Mrs. Bernt, Chappaqua, New York: Autographed envelope with 

signatures of Bernt Balchen and Floyd Bennett. 
Bodine, John W., Morrisville, Pennsylvania: Color transparencies of Ford 

Buranelli, Felicity, New York, New York: Rudyard Kipling medal. 
Crome, Ernest, Queensland, Australia: Historic envelopes bearing the 

signatures of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan posted Darwin, Australia, 

June 29, 1937, the last of any records of the fatal "Round the World 

Flight"; another envelope has the signatures of Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt and 

Captain Roy Pickering, who piloted the Liberator bomber across the Pacific 

in 1943, when Mrs. Roosevelt visited the troops in the battle zones. 
Dillenbeck, John Charles, Brackney, Pennsylvania: Sheet music, Lindbergh, 

the Eagle of the U.S.A. 
Fiske, Mrs. Gardiner, Southern Pines, North Carolina: Folio of color prints on 

the "Moon Hoax" designed by Italian artists in Naples in 1836, based on 

the discoveries by Sir. John Frederick William Herschel. Eighteenth-century 

oil painting on ballooning by an unknown French artist. 
Giurco, Loredana Sgueglia, New York, New York: "Moon Lady Ball" 

memorabilia and "Round Moon and Star" tile. 
Grinberg, Paul, Jr., Bethesda, Maryland: New York Times, May 20, 1927, 

Hanley, Honorable Julian R., Warsaw, New York: Dole race to Hawaii 

photographic album. 
National Aeronautics Association, Washington, D.C: Archival files of world 

aerospace records. 
Raabe, Petricia, McLean, Virginia: Charles Lindbergh plate, commemorating 

his transatlantic flight May 20-21, 1927. 
Schumaker, Terry, Carbondale, Illinois: Photographic slides of the Apollo 

missions, 70 space postcards and Apollo 7 to 17 vinyl decals. 
Science News, Inc., Washington, D.C: Archival files of aerospace and 

astronomical data. 
Space Photos, Houston, Texas: Complete set of space slides. 
Steen, Richard, Washington, DC: Robert Osborn cartoons and other naval 

air memorabilia. 
Thaden, Louise M., High Point, North Carolina: Women in aviation 

autographed photographs. 
Tuttle, Dr. Frederick B., Washington, DC: Aerospace education books and 

set of all NASA educational publications. 
United States Navy. Naval Historical Center, Washington, DC: Aeronautical 

report of tests conducted on wind-tunnel models of projected naval aircraft. 
Wheaton, Elmer P., Portola Valley, California: Rocket and guided missile 


Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 369 

Williamson, William, Belize City, Belize: Collection of 50 Charles A. 
Lindbergh commemorative stamps. 

Donors to the NASM Art Collections 

During the year, forty-five offers to donate works of arts were made to 
the National Air and Space Museum. After careful review, the following 
works were accepted. 
Balchen, Mrs. Bernt: Eight drawings and watercolors by the late Bernt 

Bayless, Raymond (artist) : Twelve miniature paintings of aircraft and lighter- 

than-air ships. 
Butler, H. Russell Jr.: Two paintings by Howard Russell Butler, The Earth 

as Seen from the Moon, and The Eclipse of 1923. 
Chamberlin, Craig (artist): Soring II, a three-dimensional painting. 
Charles A. Lindbergh Memorial Fund Committee: Lindbergh Arrives Over 

Paris, a reproduction of a painting by Robert Carlin. 
Cooke, Mrs. H. Lester: 21 paintings and drawings from the collection of the 

late H. Lester Cooke. 
Edward Gottlieb and Associates, Ltd.: Metnorial to Fallen Spacemen, a 

sculpture by Paul Van Hoeydonck. 
Fiske, Mrs. Gardiner H. : The Aerostat, a painting by an unknown artist. 
Ortlip, Paul (artist) : Four documentary drawings of the Apollo 12 and 14 

Sharp, Anne (artist): Moonshot I, a print. 

Solomon, Jack: Captain Eddie and Flying Fool, lithographs by Merv Corning. 
Speiser, Stuart: NC-4, a painting by Edward Wilbur. 
TRW Defense and Space Systems Group: Robert H. Coddard and Wilbur 

and Orville Wright, collages by John Desatoff. 
Venezuela: Delta Solar, an architectural sculpture by Alejandro Otero. 
Wang, Ming (artist): Full Blast and a scroll painting. 


Donors of Financial Support 

Waletzky, Dr. and Mrs. Jeremy P.: in support of field studies of child 

behavior and human development in isolated cultures. 
Women's Committee of the Smithsonian Associates: in support of research 

film studies in Nepal. 
Rachelwood Foundation: to support research film studies of the Kayapo 

Indians in Brazil. 
Epstein, Mrs. Lionel C. : toward support of ongoing research film studies in 


Donors and Collaborative Acquisitions 

Melville J. Herskovits Library of Northwestern University Library: 34,000 

feet of film shot by Melville J. Herskovits in Africa and the Caribbean. 
Jones, Clifford Reis: 3,376 feet of film documentation on art, ritual, and 

drama in South India. 
Baker, Aloha W. : 4,000 feet on the Bororo tribe of Matto Grosso, Brazil, 

shot in the 1920s. 
Tokyo String Quartet: Tape recordings of eight performances at the 

Corcoran Gallery of Art using the rare seventeenth-century Amati 


370 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Donors of Financial Support 

Dr. R. Tucker Abbott 


Bausch & Lomb 

John D. Conklin 

David N. Damkaer 

Thomas J. Delendick 

Diamond Shamrock Corporation 

Dow Chemical 

Eberbach Corporation 

Exxon Corporation 

Frederick County Rock and Mineral 

Sumner Gerard Foundation 

Restricted Trust Fund Donors 

Canfield Fund. 
Chamberlain Fund. 
Drake Fund. 
Roebling Fund. 
Springer Fund. 

Dr. Gordon Gibson 

The Griffis Foundation, Inc. 

Bertha I. M. Gudelsky 

Gayle A. Heron 

Mrs. Amy E. Higgins 

National Capital Shell Club 

National Geographic Society 

Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 

St. Joe's Mineral Company 

Sperry and Hutchinson Company 

Mrs. Daniel E. Tolbert 

Robert A. Vines 

Virgil Hillyer Fund. 
Walcott Fund. 

National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration Fund. 

Donors to the National Collections 


Aarhus University, Herbarium 

Jutlandicum, Denmark. 
Academy of Natural Sciences 

of Philadelphia. 
Academy of Sciences, USSR. 
Academy of Sciences, California. 
Adelaide, University of. 
Adelphi, University of. 
Agriculture, U.S. Dept. of: 

Agricultural Research Service; 

Forest Service Herbarium. 
Agriculture, University of, 

The Netherlands. 
Alabama Power Company. 
Alberta, University of, Canada. 
Albion College. 
Allan Hancock Foundation. 
Allyn Museum of Entomology. 
Alpine Exploration. 
American Museum of 

Natural History. 
Amoco Production Company. 
Architect of the Capitol, U.S. 
Arizona State University: Herbarium. 
Arizona, University of. 
Arkansas University Herbarium. 
Atomic Energy Commission, U. S. 
Auburn University. 

Auckland University, New Zealand. 
Australian Museum, Australia. 
Baltimore Zoo, City of. 
Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. 
Belgrade, University of, Yugoslavia. 
Bergen, University of, Norway. 
Bermuda, Biological Station. 
Bernice P. Bishop Museum. 
Biosystematics Research Institute, 

Black Hills Minerals. 
Boston University. 
Botanical Museum and Herbarium of 

the State University, The Netherlands. 
Botaniches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 

West Germany. 
Bradeanum Herbarium, Brazil. 
Brigham Young University. 
British Museum of Natural History, 

British Phosphate Commissioners, 

Bundesanstalt fur Materialpriifung, 

West Germany. 
Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et 

Minieres, France. 
C. G. Stone Arkansas Geological 


Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 371 

California Institute of Technology. 
California Polytechnic State 

California State University. 
California, University of. Scripps 

Institution of Oceanography. 
Cambridge, University of, England. 
Canada, Centre for Mineral and 

Energy Technology. 
Canada, Geological Survey of, Canada. 
Canberra Botanic Gardens, Australia. 
Cantebury, University of, New Zealand. 
Cape Town, University of, South Africa 
Carleton, University of, Canada. 
Carnegie Museum of Natural History 
Case Western Reserve University. 
Center of Northern Studies, Vermont. 
Chulalongkorn, University of, 

Colorado Gem and Mineral 

Colorado University Museum. 
Colorado State University. 
Commerce, U. S. Dept. of: National 

Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- 
tration; Bureau of Standards. 
Commonwealth Scientific and 

Industrial Research Organization, 

Conchologists of the U. S. A. 
Connecticut, University of. 
Cornell University. L. H. Hortorium. 
Corning Community College. 
Corpus Christi Museum. 
Crystal Cavern Minerals. 
Crystals of India. 
Dauphin Island Sea Lab. 
Defense, U. S. Dept of: Air Force; 

Army; Navy. 
Delaware Museum of Natural History. 
Department of Scientific and 

Industrial Research, New Zealand. 
Diamond Sales Company. 
Duke University: Herbarium; Marine 

East Africa, University of, Nairobi 

East African Freshwater Fisheries 

Research Organization, Kenya. 
Ecole Nationale Superieure 

Agronomique, France. 
Edward J. Tripp Company. 
Empresa Brasileira de Paequisa 

Agropecuaria, Brazil. 
Environmental Protection Agency,U.S. 

Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, 

Essig Entomology Museum. 
Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium, 

The Netherlands. 
Fairchild Tropical Garden. 
Fairfax Hospital. 

Field Museum of Natural History. 
Florida A & M University. 
Florida Atlantic University. 
Florida International University. 
Florida State Board of Conservation. 
Florida State Museum. 
Florida, State of. 
Florida, State of, University. 
Florida, University of. State Museum. 
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 

West Germany 
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo. 
Fundacao Instituto Agronomico do 

Parana, Brazil. 
Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Argentina. 
Geological Museum, Egypt. 
Geologisk Museum-ved Kobenhavns 

Universitet, Denmark. 
Georgia, State of, Dept. of Natural 

Georgia, University of. 
Gettysburg College. 
Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, 

Canal Zone. 
Goteborgs Universitet, Sweden. 
Government Agriculture College, 

Government Chemical Laboratories, 

Guelph, University of, Canada. 
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory. 
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory 

Gulf International Trading Company. 
Gulf Specimen Company, Inc. 
Hansen Minerals. 
Harvard University: Botanical Museum, 

Geological Museum; 

Mineralogical Museum; 

Museum of Comparative Zoology. 
Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Japan. 
Hawaii, University of: Harold L. Lyon 

Arboretum, Manoa. 
Hawaii, University of — Manoa. 
Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. 
Health, Education and Welfare, U. S. 

Department of : Public Health Service. 
Herbario "Alberto Castellanos," Brazil. 

372 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Herbario de la Universidad de 

Panama, Republic of Panama. 
Herbario de Museum de Historia 

Natural da U.F.M.G., Brazil. 
Herbario "Barbosa Rodriques," 

Herbario Ovalles-UCV, Venezuela. 
Herbario Vargas, Peru. 
Herbarium Vadense, 

The Netherlands. 
Heron Island Research Station 

Hokkaido University, Japan. 
Hong Kong, University of, China. 
Idaho, State of: Department of 

Health and Welfare. 
Idaho State University Museum. 
Idaho, University of. 
India, Geological Survey of, India. 
Indiana University. 
Instituto de Botanica Darwinion, 

Institut fur Systematische Botanik 

der Universitat, West Germany. 
Institut Royal Sciences Naturelles de 

Belgique, Belgium. 
Institut Scientifique et Technique, 

Institute for Agricultural Research, 

Institute for Botanical Exploration. 
Institute for Systematic Botany, 

The Netherlands. 
Instituto Agronomico, Brazil. 
Instituto Botanico, Venezuela. 
Instituto de Biologia, Mexico. 
Instituto de Botanica, Brazil. 
Instituto de Conservacao da 

Natureza, Brazil. 
Instituto de Pesquisa e 

Experimentacao, Brazil. 
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da 

Amazonia, Brazil. 
Inter-American Tropical Tuna 

Interior, U. S. Department of the: 

Bureau of Sports Fisheries 

and Wildlife; Fish and Wildlife 

Service; U.S. Geological Survey; 

National Park Service; Office of 

the Secretary 
Iowa State University: Herbarium. 
Iowa, University of. 
Iranian National Museum of Natural 


Island Resources Foundation, Inc., 

Virgin Islands. 
Jamaica, Institute of, Jamaica. 
James Franck Institute. 
Jardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro, 

Jardin Botanico Dr. Rafael M. Moscoso, 

Dominican Republic. 
Johns Hopkins University. 
Justice, U. S. Department of: 

Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
Kansas, University of. 
Kennecott Corporation. See Southwest 

Mineral Associates. 
Kerala, University of, India. 
Kingston Polytechnic, England. 
Kobe University, Japan. 

Kumamoto University, Japan. 
Kyoto University, Japan. 
Lae, Government of Papua, 

New Guinea, New Guinea. 
Lamar University. 
Lehigh University. 
Living Design Corporation. 
Lockheed Center for Marine Research. 
Lomonosov, University of, USSR. 
Los Angeles County Museum of 

Natural History. 
Louisiana State University. 
Lund, University of, Sweden: 

Botanical Museum. 
Lutheran Homes, Inc. 
Lyko Mineral and Gem, Inc. 
Maine, University of. 
Malaya, University of, Malaysia. 
Marie Selby Botanical Gardens. 
Maryland, State of: Department of 

Research and Education. 
Maryland, University of. 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
Massachusetts, University of: Herbarium. 
Max-Planck-Institut fiir 

Verhaltensphysiologie, Germany. 
Mayaguez, Recinto Universitario de, 

Puerto Rico. 
McMaster University, Canada. 
Memorial University of Newfoundland, 

Miami University. 
Michigan, University of. 
Mid-Pacific Marine Laboratory, 

Marshall Islands. 
Mineralogical Museum an SSR, USSR. 
Mineralogical Research Company. 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 373 

Institut der Universitat, 

West Germany. 
Mineralogisk Museum, Denmark. 
Mineralogisk-Geologisk Museum, 

Minerals Unlimited. 

Normandeau Associates, Inc. 
North Carolina Marine Resources 

North Carolina State Museum. 
North Carolina State University. 
North Carolina, University of. 

Ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij, Nucleo de Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. 

The Netherlands. Office de la Recherche Scientifique 

Ministerio de Agricultura y Granderia et Technique Outre-Mer. 

Ministerio de Economia, Industria y 

Comercio, Costa Rica. 
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & 

Food, England. 
Minnesota, University of : Herbarium. 
Missouri Botanical Garden 

Missouri, State of: Department of 

Monkey Jungle, Inc. 
Montshire Museum of Science. 
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories. 
Moulmein College, Burma. 
Mt. Albert Research Center, 

New Zealand. 
Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, 

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Italy. 
Museu Botanico Municipal, Brazil. 
Museu Nacional, Brazil. 
Museu Paraense Emilia Goeldi, Brazil. 
Museum fur Naturkunde, 

West Germany. 
Museum National d'Histoire 

Naturelle, France. 
National Aeronautics and Space 

National Museum, Czechoslovakia. 
National Museum of Natural Sciences, 

National Museum of Victoria, 

National Science Museum, Japan. 
Natural History Museum, San Diego. 
Naturhistorishches Museum, Austria. 
Nebraska, University of. 
New Brunswick, University of, 

New England Diamond Corporation, 

New Hampshire, University of. 
New Mexico, University of. 
New Orleans, University of. 
New York Botanical Garden. 
New York Zoological Society. 
Newmont Mining Corporation. 

Oklahoma, City of: Zoo. 
Oklahoma, University of. 
Old Dominion University. 
Oregon, State of: Department of 

Geology & Mineral Industries. 
Oregon State University. 
Oxford, University of, England. 
Oxy Metal Industries Corporation. 
Pacific Biological Station, Canada. 
Pacific Southwest Biological Services. 
Pacific Tropical Botanical Gardens. 
Pala Properties International, Inc. 
Pet Farms, Inc. 
Phelps Dodge Corporation. 
Phuket Marine Biological Center, 

Pisces Publishing Corporation. 
Plumbago Mining Corporation. 
Portobello Marine Laboratory. 
Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba, Brazil. 
Puerto Rico, University of, Puerto Rico. 
Queen Victoria Museum and 

Art Gallery, Australia. 
Queensland Herbarium, Australia. 
Radford College. 
Research and Control Department, 

West Indies. 
Rhode Island, University of. 
Rhodes University: J.L.B. Smith 

Institute of Ichthyology. 
Rider College. 
Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic 

The Netherlands: Rijksherbarium. 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Australia. 
Royal Botanic Gardens, England. 
Royal Ontario Museum, Canada. 
Samoa, American Government of, 

San Carlos, University of, Philippines. 
San Diego Society of Natural History. 
San Diego Zoological Gardens. 
Saskatchewan, University of, Canada. 
Select Gem and Mineral Company. 
Seto Marine Biological Laboratory, 

Simon Kriger, Inc. 
South African Museum, South Africa. 

374 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

South Australia, Museum, 

South Carolina, University of. 
South Florida, University of: 

Southern Methodist University. 
Southern Mississippi University. 
Southwest Mineral Associates. 
Southwest Mineral Associates and 

Kennecott Corporation. 
St. Mary's College, Maryland. 
State Herbarium of South Australia, 

State University of New York. 
State, U.S. Department of: Agency 

for International Development; 

Office of Protocol. 
Station Marine D'Endoume et Centre 

d'Oceanographie, France. 
Stetson University. 
Sunderland Polytechnic, England. 
Swedish Museum of Natural History, 

Syracuse Gem and Mineral Society. 
Syracuse University. 
Systematisch-Geobotanisches Institut 

der Universitat, West Germany. 
Tasmania, University of, Australia. 
Tennessee Technological University. 
Tennessee, University of. 
Texas A & M University. 
Texas Game and Fish Commission. 
Texas Tech University. 
Texas, University of: Herbarium. 
TMK Inc. 

Toronto, University of, Canada. 
Treasury, U.S. Department of: 

Bureau of Customs. 
Tufts University. 
Union Tin Mines, South Africa. 

See Pringle, Dr. I. C. 
Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile. 
Universidad Central de Venezuela. 
Universidad de Chile, Chile. 
Universidad de Concepcion, Chile. 
Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica. 
Universidad de la Laguna, Spain. 
Universidad de Panama, Republic of 

Universidad del Norte, Chile. 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de 

Mexico, Mexico. 
Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, 

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 


Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 

Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, 

Universidad Nacional Tecnica de 

Cajamarca, Peru. 
Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil. 
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janiero, 

Universita Degli Studi di L'Aquila, Italy. 
Universita di Messina, Italy. 
Universitat Hamburg, West Germany. 
Universite d'Aix-Marseille, France. 
Universiteit van Amsterdam, The 

Universitetets Zoologiske Museum, 

University de Nice, University of, 

University of the South. 
Vermont, University of: and State 

Agriculture College. 
Victoria University, New Zealand. 
Virginia, State of: Department of 

Virginia Fisheries Laboratory. 
Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute: and 

State University. 
Virginia State Library. 
Volta Lake Research Project, Ghana. 
Wake Forest University. 
Walters State Community College. 
Ward's Natural Science Establishment, 

Washington, University of. 
Western Australian Museum, Australia. 
Western Carolina University. 
Western Foundation of Vertebrate 

Western Minerals. 

Western Ontario University, Canada. 
Wetlands Institute. 
Winnipeg, University of, Canada. 
Wisconsin State University. 
Wisconsin, University of: Herbarium. 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 
Wyoming, University of. 
Zona Universitaria, Mexico. 
Zoologisches Institute der Universitat 

Wien, Austria. 
Zoologisches Museum, West Germany. 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 375 


Abbott, Dr. William H. 

Adkison, Daniel L. 

Ainley, David G. 

Al-Far,Dr. D. M. 

Alexander, Mr. and Mrs. L. T. — See 

Kappes, J. 
Allen, Dr. H. W. 
Allison, Robert, Jr. 
Almeras, Dr. Y. 
Altenhofer, Dr. Ewald 
Amos, William H. 
Andersen, Dr. William A. 
Anderson, David 
Anderson, Robert J. 
Angle, J. P. — See Olson, Dr. Storrs L. 
Angell, Dr. Robert W. 
Angelo, Ray 

Aristarain, Dr. Lorenzo F. 
Ash, Dr. Sidney R. 
Ashby, Wallace L. 
Astary, Dr. J. C. 
Aumento, Dr. Fred 
Austin, Claudia J. 
Ayers, Harvard G. 
Bailey, Dr. Richard H. 
Baker, James H. 
Ball, Dr. George E. 
Bane, Gilbert W. 
Banks, Harold H., Jr. 
Baranowski, Dr. R. M. 
Barbehenn, Kyle R. 
Barber, John C. — See Olson, 

Dr. Storrs L. 
Barbosa, Carlos de Prado 
Baril, Steven 
Barnard, Dr. J. L. 
Barnett, Roger C. 
Barrell, Dr. Joseph 
Barrero Aviles, Sr. Antonio 
Bartholomew, Dr. M. J. 
Bauer, Mrs. Hugo C. 
Baumann, Dr. Richard W. and 

Cross, Jarrett L. 
Bean, Dr. William C. 
Behrstock, Robert A. 
Belkin, Dr. John N. 
Benedict, Dr. Bruce R. 
Benier, Dr. Christiane Stern 
Bennett, Dr. Fred 
Bennison, Dr. A. P. 
Benson, Dr. Richard 
Bentivoglio, A. 

Bentivoglio, P. — See Bentivoglio, A. 
Bergman, Fred W. 

Berlinger, Bernard E. 
Beus, Dr. Alexei 
Blair, Dr. David 
Blake, Mrs. Doris H. 
Blanchard, Andre 
Blasdell, Francis S. 
Block, Dale W. 
Blount, Mrs. Percy J. 
Blow, Warren 
Blume, Dr. Richard R. 
Boerner, P. D. 
Boggs, Robert 
Bokermann, Werner C. A. 
Bolli, Dr. Hans M. 
Boone, Mrs. Connie 
Boone, Mrs. Hollis Q. 
Boothe, Billy B. 
Boucot, Dr. Arthur J. 
Bowsher, Dr. Arthur L. — See 

Bennison, Dr. A. P. 
Brewer, George 
Bricker, Garth 

Brinson, Gail M. and Nasca, Anthony V 
Broadley, Donald G. 
Bronnimann, Dr. Paul 
Brown, C. J. 
Brown, Dr. Harley P. 
Brown, Dr. William L., Jr. 
Browne, Joseph E. 
Brownell, Robert L., Jr. 
Bruce, Murray 
Brumbach, William C. 
Bryan, W. B. 
Buchanan, Kurt 
Budinger, Dr. Thomas F. 
Buranek, A. M. 
Burch, Mrs. Thomas A. 
Burchard, Dr. and Mrs. Ulrich 
Burgess, Dr. C. M. 
Burke, Dr. J. J. 
Burnham, Dr. Charles W. 
Burns, Jeff and Harbour, Mike 
Burreson, Dr. Eugene M. 
Bushnell, David I. 
Byers, Dr. George 
Cadee, Dr. Gerhard C. 
Calderon, Dr. Cleofe 
Campsie, Dr. John 
Canning, Kenneth 
Cannon, Bart 

Capriles, Dr. J. Maldonado 
Carlson, Dr. Ernest 
Carpenter, Mike 
Carpentier, Professor Fritz 

376 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Carr, Dr. Lloyd G. K. 

Case, Dr. Frederick W., II 

Castro, Socorro 

Causey, Dr. Nell B. 

Centala, Maxine M. 

Cernohorsky, Walter O. 

Chace, Frederic 

Chandler, J. H., Jr. 

Chapman, Dr. Philip 

Cheatum, Dr. Elmer P. 

Chen, Dr. Lain-Shen 

Child, C. Allan. — See Manning, 

Dr. R. B. 
Chuang, Dr. S. H. 

Ciochon, R. — See Ross, Dr. June R. P. 
Claffy, Mrs. Esther W. 
Clark, Dr. William 
Clark, Wayne E. 
Clarke, Dr. Arthur H. 
Clarke, Dr. J. F. Gates 
Clench, Dr. William J. 
Closs, Dr. Darcy 
Coats, Gordon A. 
Cohen, Mrs. Ann C. 
Cohen, Rebecca 
Coil, Clarence 
Coleman, Dr. Richard W. 
Collins, J. R. 
Copper, Dr. Paul 
Comely, Guy 
Cortes, Sr. Raul 
Covell, Dr. Charles V., Jr. 
Covich, Dr. Alan 
Crabill, Dr. Ralph E., Jr. 
Cressev, Dr. Roger F. 
Crook,'Dr. Wilson W., Ill 
Cross, Jarrett L. — See Baumann, Dr. 

Richard W. 
Crovo, Ellen 
Cuffey, Dr. Roger 
Cullinan, Michael 
Dahl, Dr. Arthur L. — See Manning, 

Dr. R. B. 
Darwin, Steven P. 
Davidson, Robert 
Davis, Cervantes 
Davis, Dr. Donald R. 
Davis, Jack R. 

Davis, Richard M. and Harvey, Dean E. 
Dawson, Dr. C. E. — See Manning, 

Dr. R. B. 
Dawson, J. B. 
De Gasparis, A. A. 
De Mire, Bruneau 
De Mott, Sally L. 
Degner, Drs. Otto and Isa 

De Souza Neiva, Getulio 

Del Rosario, Juane B. 

Del Solar, Dr. Enrique M. 

Delance, Dr. Jean-Henri 

Dellacasa, Giovanni 

Diaz, Humberto Granados 

Dietrich, Dr. Jacques E. 

Dietz, Robert E., IV.— Sec Hevel, Gary F. 

Dmitriev, Dr. Leonid 

Donaldson, Colin H. 

Dorsey, Mrs. Carl K. 

Downey, Maureen and Gust, Cynthia 

Doyen, Dr. John T. 

Dozier, Herbert L., Jr. 

Drever, Dr. H. I. 

Dubin, Dr. Dale B. 

Dunn, Mrs. Arthur Wallace 

Dunn, Mrs. Ethel L. 

Dunn, Peter J. 

Dushane, Mrs. Helen 

Ekis, Dr. Ginter 

Elliott, Dr. Nancy 

Embrey, Dr. Peter 

Emerick, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan 

Engleman, Dr. R. Dodge 

Enns, Dr. W. R. 

Erd, Dr. Richard 

Ernissee, Dr. John J. 

Ernst, Dr. W. G. 

Erwin, Dr. Terry L. 

Esmero, Lourdes 

Evans, Richard E. 

Ewing, Dr. Rodney C. 

Falster, Al 

Faulkner, Douglas 

Feinstein, Bernard 

Feldman, Dr. Howard R. 

Feldman, Dr. Rodney M. 

Feller, I. C. 

Ferguson, Dr. Douglas C. 

Ferguson, Dr. Lynn M. 

Ferris, Dr. Cliff D. 

Firth, E. T. 

Fischer, Capt. Carl O. 

Fischer, Dr. Roland L. 

Fischer, Joseph C. 

Fisher, George W. 

Flint, Dr. Oliver S., Jr. 

Folch-Girona, Joaquin 

Foord, Dr. Eugene E. 

Foote, Roger W. 

Ford, Virginia M. 

Fosberg, Dr. F. Raymond. — See Sachet, 

Foster, Dr. David E. 
Foy, Douglas 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 377 

Francis, Carl 

Frank, Dr. Peter W. 

Franklin, Kit 

Fredriksson, Dr. Kurt 

Freed, Charles E. 

Fudali, Dr. Robert F. 

Furimsky, Dan 

Gaines, Dr. Richard V. 

Garcia, Frank A. 

Garrison, Rosser W. 

Gaspard, Dr. Danielle 

Gauri, Dr. K. Lai 

Gauthier, Gilbert 

Gazele, Mrs. Josette 

Geest, B. S.— See Setzer, Dr. H. W. 

Geest, J. C— See Setzer, Dr. H. W. 

Gelena, Eduardo 

Gentry, Dr. Glenn 

Geoghegan, Mr. and Mrs. Philmore 

Germer, Mrs. Dorothy 

Gerstmann, Ewald 

Ghent, Dr. Edward D. 

Gibbs, Dr. Robert R. 

Girim, Dr. M. 

Glaser, Dr. John 

Glasscock, Pat 

Glenn, Dr. L. C. 

Gloyd, Howard K. 

Gold, Dr. D. P. 

Goll, Dr. Robert M. 

Goodfriend, Glenn A. 

Gordon, Dr. Dennis P. 

Grassle, Fred 

Greene, Phyllis. — See Greene, 

Greene, Sergeant 
Greenhall, Paul and Sharon 
Greenlaw, Addison E. and Nickerson, 

Grelick, Gary 
Grey, L. Paul 
Griffiths, Dr. Henry J. 
Gueze, Dr. Paul 
Guidotti, Dr. Charles V. 
Gunawardhane, Dr. W. T. T. P. 
Gurney, Dr. Ashley B. 
Gust, Cynthia. — See Downey, 

Haburay, Keitz 
Haderlie, E. C. 
Halsey, Mrs. Marion S. 
Handley, Dr. Charles O., Jr. 
Hanks, Fletcher 
Hanley, Mrs. Darelyn 

Harbour, Mike. — See Burns, Jeff 

Hardy, Dr. Alan R. 

Hardy, Dr. D. Elmo 

Harlan, Captain Harold J. 

Harman, Professor Walter J. 

Harmatuck, Peter J. 

Harper, Raymond 

Harris, Dr. Halbert M. 

Harrison, Richard V. 

Harrold, Mr. and Mrs. Don C* 

Hart, C. W., Jr. 

Hartgroves, William D. 

Hartman, Dr. W. D. 

Harvey, Dean E. — See Davis, Richard M. 

Hasinger, David J. 

Hatschbach, Dr. Gert 

Hattenschwiller, Peter 

Haugh, Dr. Bruce N. 

Hayward, Dr. Bruce J. 

Hayward, Dr. Bruce W. 

Hayward, Dr. Kenneth J. 

Head, Renee and Richmond, Robert 

Heaney, Larry R. — See Timm, Robert M. 

Heatwole, Harold 

Hedges, Frank R. 

Heiss, Dr. Ernst 

Hekinian, Dr. Roger 

Hentschel, Dr. Gerhard 

Herman, Dr. Fred 

Hermann, Dr. Scott J. 

Herzig, Alice 

Hevel, Gary F. and Dietz, Robert E., IV 

Heyer, Dr. W. Ronald. — See Zug, 

Dr. George R. 
Hieke, Dr. F. 
Higgins, Dr. Robert P. 
Hodges, Dr. Ronald W. 
Hoffman, Dr. Daniel 
Hoffman, Dr. Richard L. 
Hoffmann, Dr. H. J. 
Hogue, Dr. Charles L. 
Holder, Dr. Preston 
Holland, C. G. 
Holland, Dr. F. D., Jr. 
Hood, Mrs. Emily 
Hoover, Donald H. 
Horstmann, Dr. Klaus 
Houbrick, Dr. Richard S. 
Houser, Mrs. Gertrude 
Hovel, Haim 
Howden, Anne T. 
Howell, Dr. K. M. 
Hudson, Maxwell John 
Hueber, Dr. Francis M. 

* James Smithson Society member. 

378 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Hunsucker, Mrs. Diana 

Hunter, Nelson D. 

Husband, Dr. R. W. 

Husscher, Harold 

Hutchens, Lynn 

Hynes, Paul 

Irwin, Don 

Issiki, Dr. S. 

Jackh, Eberhard 

Jackson, George A. 

Jacobson, Morris K. 

Jacot-Gruillarmod, C. F. 

Jakob, Dr. Hans 

James, Audrey M. 

Janik, Mrs. Fred 

Jennings, Dr. D. T. 

Jensen, Lauritz A. 

Johns, P. M. 

Johnson, Don S. 

Johnson, Dr. C. D. 

Johnson, Dr. Guy M. 

Johnson, Dr. J. G. 

Johnson, Dr. Victor 

Johnson, J. E. 

Johnson, Mrs. George H. 

Johnson, Paul G. 

Johnson, Ralph 

Johnstone, Shelby C. 

Jones, Barry 

Jones, Dr. Meredith L. — See Manning, 

Dr. R. B.; Pawson, Dr. David L.; 

Rosewater, Dr. Joseph; Provenzano, 

Dr. Anthony J., Jr. 
Jones, Frederick. — See Banks, Harold H. 
Jones, Jerome 
Jones, Ray S., Jr. 
Joslyn, Priscilla K. 
Jourdan, Kenneth 
Jubran, George M. 
Jungles, Gerald 
Kadlecik, John M. 
Kahler, Mrs. Laura B. 
Kane, William F. 
Kaneshiro, Shigeru 
Kanmiya, Dr. Kenkichi 
Kappes, J. and Alexander, Mr. and 

Mrs. L. T. 
Kato, Dr. Akira 
Kaumeyer, Dr. Kenneth R. 
Kay, Dr. E. Alsion 
Keany, Dr. John 
Keister, Harry 
Kelly, Mackenzie L. 
Kelso, Dr. Leon 

Kendall, Elizabeth A. 

Kennedy, Daniel B. 

Kennedy, Irwin 

Kielbaso, J. W. and Pfaff 

Kimball, C P. 

King, Dr. Robert M. 

King, Vandall 

Kinser, Edwin C. 

Kiser, Stephen 

Kiser, William S. 

Kissin, Dr. Stephen A. 

Kistner, Dr. David 

Kittle, Dr. Paul D. 

Klitz, Burton F. 

Knowlton, Dr. George F. 

Knutson, Dr. Lloyd V. 

Koch, Raymond and Lucia 

Kohlmann, Dr. Bert 

Kohn, Dr. Alan J. 

Kono, T. 

Kordos, Craig 

Kordos, George and Kordos, Craig 

Kormilev, Dr. Nicholas A. 

Korowski, Stanley 

Kosnar, Richard A. 

Kramer, Dr. Donald L. 

Krauss, Dr. N. L. H. 

Kristiansen, Roy 

Krotki, Carl 

Kues, Dr. Barry 

Kulke, Dr. Holger 

Lago, Dr. Paul 

Lai Mohan, Dr. R. S. 

Lamberson, Janet O. 

Lamberts, Dr. Austin 

Laudau, Dr. David* 

Landing, Dr. Ed 

Lang, Dr. Judy 

Larson, Ron and Kathy 

Laudon, Dr. Lowell R. 

Laverty, Mr. and Mrs. John and 

Le Calvez, Dr. Y. 

Leakey, Mary 

Leduc, James W.— See Mclntyre; Thomas 
J.; Murdock, Wallace, Jr.; Robbins, 
Lynn W.; Setzer, Dr. H. W. 

Lee, Dr. Sin-Che 

Lee, Harry G. 

Leftwich, Rodney 

Lehmkuhl, Dr. D. M. 

Lekagul, Dr. Boonsong 

Leobrera, Mr. and Mrs. Carlos and Fely 

* James Smithson Society member. 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 379 

Leuschner, Ronald H. 

Levy, Lester S. 

Lewandowski, Robert 

Lewis, Dr. Robert E. 

Liebherr, Jim 

Linam, Dr. Jay 

Ling, Dr. Hsin Yi 

Linkletter, Leslie 

Linsley, Professor E. Gorton 

Lo, Esther and Wong, Wendy 

Longley, Dr. Glenn 

Looney, Mrs. Ch. T. G. 

Lord, Dr. Rexford D. 

Lowrie, Dr. D. C. 

Lubbock, Roger 

Luce, Philip M. 

Luethe, R. D. 

Lukoschus, Dr. F. S. 

Lyman, Orlando H. 

Macaulay, Mrs. Sarah F. 

MacBryde, Dr. Bruce 

Maclntyre, Dr. Ian 

Macior, Dr. Lazarus W. 

Magone, Hugh 

Magrath, Mrs. Louise 

Mahone, Bill 

Mallick, Dr. D. I. J. 

Malone, Mrs. Elsie 

Mancuso, Dr. Joseph J. 

Mangeri, Angel 

Mani, Dr. M. S. 

Mankins, Dr. Jerome 

Mann-Fischer, Dr. Guillermo 

Manning, Dr. R. B. — See Jones, 

Dr. Meredith L. 
Mapes, Dr. and Mrs. Royal H. 
Marcus, Dr. Eveline 
Martin, Norman 
Martin, Professor Robert M. 
Mason, Dr. Brian 
Mason, David C. — See Tucker, 

Dr. Charles E. 
Masters, Dr. Bruce A. 
Mather, Bryant 
Matheson, K. H., Jr. 
Mathur, Dr. R. N. 
Matsui, Masafumi 
Matthews, Dr. John 
Matula, Mrs. Vincent 
Maw, Ba. — See Ross, Dr. June R. P. 
Maxfield, Galen H. 
Mazurkiewicz, Michael 
McClurkin, Dr. J. I., Jr. 
McConnell, Dr. Duncan 
McFarland, Dr. Craig 
McGregor, Russell C. 

McGuinness, A. L. 

Mclntyre, Thomas J. — See Leduc, 

James W. 
McKeever, Ivan 
McKeever, Vincent 
McKinnerney, Marsha 
McKinney, James F. 
McLean, Dr. James H. 
McClellan, Jack H. 
McPherson, Dr. J. E. 
Medenbach, Dr. Olaf 
Medler, Dr. John T. 
Melloy, George F. 
Melson, Dr. William G. 
Merwin, Bertrand H. 
Messing, Charles G. 
Metzler, Eric H. 
Michener, Dr. C D. 
Middleton, Robert 
Mikhalevsky, Colonel Alex 
Miller, Carl F. 
Miller, Dr. Walter B. 
Miller, Dr. William E. 
Mills, Claudia 
Milne, Professor Lorus J. 
Milton, Dr. Charles 
Minch, Dr. Edwin W. 
Mingo, Terry M. 
Moldenke, Dr. Harold N. 
Montgomery, Earl 
Moore, Dr. Donald R. 
Moore, Dr. Paul B. 
Moore, Lyman 
Moore, Robert 
Morey, Dr. Elsie Darrah 
Morey, William J. 
Morris, Robert C. 
Morse, Dr. S. A. 
Moser, Dr. John C. 
Mulaik, Dr. Stanley B. 
Muller, Professor Klaus J. 
Mulloy, Dr. William 
Munroe, Dr. D. D. 
Murdock, Wallace P., Jr. — See Leduc, 

James W. 
Mutt, Jose A. Mari 
Muzik, Katherine 
Naftule, Roland 
Naples, Donald G. 
Nasca, Authony V. — See Brinson, 

Gail M. 
Natland, Dr. James 
Negendank, Dr. Jorg F. W. 
Nichols, Richard H., Jr. 
Nickel, Dr. Ernest H. 

380 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Nickerson, Stephen. — See Greenlaw, 

Addison E. 
Nicolson, Mrs. Alice C. 
Nigrini, Dr. Catherine A. 
Nimms, Dr. Andrew P. 
Noble, Harold A. 
Nolf, Dr. Bruce 
Nutting, William 
Obodda, Herb 
Odell, Reverend J. Mark 
Ogden, Dr. James 
Ogle, D. W. 
Olson, Dr. Storrs L. — See Angle, J. P.; 

Barber, John C. 
Oman, Dr. P. W. 
Opler, Dr. Paul 
Osgood, Dr. Cornelius 
Owen, Robert P. 
Paddock, Mrs. Andrew Billings 
Padilla, Manuel Cruz 
Palloni, Pam 
Palmer, Douglas 
Papezik, Dr. V. 5. 
Parker, Dr. Robert H. 
Parker, Professor Bruce C. 
Parmelee, Eleanor P. 
Passaglia, Dr. Elio 
Patterson, Mrs. Jefferson 
Pauszek, Mrs. F. H. S. 
Pawson, Dr. David L. See Jones, 

Dr. Meredith L. 
Payne, Dr. Jerry A. 
Pearson, Dr. David L. 
Pearson, Robert 
Peck, Dr. Stewart B. 
Peigler, Richard 
Penna, John L. 

Penner, Mr. and Mrs. Stanford 
Pequegnat, Dr. Willis 
Perault, Dr. Guy 
Perkins, Dr. Edwin M. 
Pessagno, Dr. Emile A., Jr. 
Petersen, Dr. James J. 
Petuch, Edward J. 
Pfaff, Mr.— See Kielbaso, J. W. 
Phebus, George E., Jr. 
Phillips, R. W. 
Pierite, Joseph A., Jr. 
Pilcher, Tommy 
Pinch, William W. 
Pine, Ronald H. 
Pingenot, Ron 
Pinhey, Dr. Elliot 
Piatt, Stephen 
Pletsch, Dr. Donald J. 
Pollack, Joseph A. 

Ponder, Dr. Winston F. 

Porter, Dr. Charles C. 

Post, Dr. James L. 

Potter, Charles W. 

Pratt, Dr. Harry D. 

Pratt, Dr. William L. 

Prew, Mrs. Laurie 

Priest, Amel 

Principe, William L. 

Pringle, Dr. I. C. and Union Tin Mines 

Provenzano, Dr. Anthony J., Jr. — 

See Jones, Dr. Meredith L. 
Pulawski, Dr. W. J. 
Puleston, Dr. Dennis E. 
Purnell, Harold W. T. and Purnell, 

Mr. and Mrs. L. M. 
Purnell, Mr. and Mrs. L. M. — 

See Purnell, Harold W. T. 
Quiggle, Dean 
Radwin, Dr. George E. 
Rageot, Roger 
Rahn, Russell A. 
Ralph, C. J. 
Rapalus, Joseph S. 
Ratcliffe, Dr. Brett C. 
Rathbun, Dr. Galin B. 
Ray, Dr. Clayton E. 
Reddell, Dr. James 
Rehder, Dr. Harald A. 
Reinert, Dr. John F. 
Rice, Cliff 
Rice, Dr. Mary E. 
Richards, Dr. R. Peter 
Richert, Dr. Thomas H. 
Richmond, Robert. — See Head, Renee 
Riddick, Mrs. Marceille 
Riesenberg, Dr. Saul 
Rimpoche, Mynak 
Ripley, Dr. S. Dillon 
Ripley, Mrs. S. Dillon 
Ritter, Donald A. 

Robbins, C. B.— See Setzer, Dr. H. W. 
Robbins, Lynn W. — See Leduc, James W. 
Robert, Mrs. Donald (Frances) 
Roberts, Mrs. Allen 
Robinson, Dr. A. G. 
Rohrlich, Professor Vera 
Rolston, Dr. L. H. 
Roper, Dr. Clyde F. E. — See Gibbs, 

Dr. Robert R. 
Rosado Neto, Dr. G. H. 
Rosenberg, William 
Rosenburg, Dr. Laurence C. 
Rosewater, Dr. Joseph. — See Manning, 

Dr. R. B.; Jones, Dr. Meredith L. 
Ross, Dr. H. H. 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 381 

Ross, Dr. June R. P.; Maw, Bo; 

San, Bo; and Ciochon, R. 
Ross, Martha J. 
Rossano, Sr. Carlini 
Rosser, Debbie 

Rossetto, Eng. Agro. Carlos Jorge 
Roth, Dr. Louis M. 
Rothstein, Joe 
Ruetzler, Dr. Klaus 
Ruhle, Dr. George 
Rulien, Neal 
Rushin, Carol J. 
Sachet, Marie-Helene and Fosberg, 

Dr. F. Raymond 
Sahama, Dr. Th. G. 
Sainfeld, Dr. P. 
Saito, Dr. Tsunemasa 
Salasoo, Dr. I. 

San, Bo. — See Ross, Dr. June R. P. 
Sando, W. J. 
Sato, Dr. Masataka 
Sauleda, R. P. 
Sazima, Dr. Ivan 
Schaffner, Dr. Joseph C. 
Scheltma, Dr. Rudy 
Schlepp, Eugene E. 
Schmitt, Dr. Waldo L. 
Schroeder, Dr. Robert E. 
Schroeder, Jack R. 
Schueler, Frederick W. 
Schuh, Joe 

Schupp, Mr. and Mrs. William 
Schuster, Guenter A. 
Scudder, G. G. E. 
Seiglie, Dr. George A. 
Serna, Hno. Marco A. 
Setzer, Dr. H. W.; Robbins, C. B.; 

Leduc, J. W.; Geest, J. C; Geest, B. S. 
Shapiro, Dr. Arthur M. 
Shapiro, Mrs. Rosalie 
Shaver, Robert G. 
Shaw, J. Kevin 
Sherman, William W. 
Shipley, J. R. 
Shojima, Yoichi 
Shourd, Dr. M. L. 
Siddons, Derek C. 
Sigurdsson, Dr. Haraldur 
Silleck, Mrs. H. Garrison 
Silsby, Scott 
Simkin, Dr. Thomas E. 
Simpson, Dr. Beryl 
Sinkankas, John 
Sklar, Mrs. Hilde 
Slater, Dr. James A. 
Smith, Charles G. 

Smith, Dr. Bob C, II 

Smith, Dr. Edward Laidlaw 

Smith, Frederick L. 

Smith, Haywood 

Smith, J. H., Jr. 

Snelling, Roy 

Spencer, Douglas R. 

Spengler, William F. 

Sperry, H. M. 

Spilman, T. J. 

Springer, Dr. Victor G. 

Stack, Richard 

Stanford, Dr. Dennis J. 

Steiner, Warren E. 

Stephan, Karl 

Stephenson, Quentin J. 

Stewart, John 

Stewart, Robert H. 

Steyskal, George C. 

Stockwell, Dr. Henry P. 

Stump, Adam 

Sun, Dr. Wesley K. C. 

Swabe, Richard 

Sweeney, Michael J. 

Sweibel, Julius 

Swindle, Lewis J. 

Switzer, Dr. George 

Szczytko, Stan 

Taggart, John H. 

Taki, Dr. Iwao 

Thomas, M. C. 

Thompson, Marrion E. 

Thompson, Mrs. Lee E. 

Thorington, Dr. Richard W., Jr. 

Thornton, Mrs. Sue 

Tilles, David 

Tillman, Dr. C. G. — See Bartholomew, 

Dr. M. J. 
Timm, Robert M. and Heaney, Larry 
Torrey, Michael 
Truedsson, Ake 
Trussell, Mrs. E. K. 
Tsukiyama, Hiroshi 
Tsuneki, Dr. K. 
Tucker, Dr. Charles E. — See Mason, 

Dr. David C. 
Tunnell, Dr. John W., Jr. 
Tuominen, Professor Heikki 
Turner, Mr. and Mrs. Milton 
Ulmer, Dr. Gene 
Valley, Dr. Karl 
Valley, Gerald 
Van Der Vecht, Dr. J. 
Van Loon, Mr. and Mrs. Philip S. 
Van Wambeke, Dr. L. 
Vidarte, Dr. Luis Muniz 

382 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Vigle, Gregory 

Vinet, Leonor 

Violovich, Dr. N. A. 

Vitaliano, Dr. and Mrs. Charles J. 

Vlodavetz, Professor V. I. 

Voegeli, David. — See Banks, 

Harold H. 
Vokes, Dr. Emily H. 
Von Neumann, Robert 
Voshell, Dr. J. R., Jr. 
Wah, Fong Yun 
Walker, M. O. 
Walsh, Philip S., Jr. 
Ware, Donald C. 
Waren, Anderson 
Warriner, Dr. Richard B. 
Watkin, Robert 
Watson, Dr. George E., Ill 
Weber, Mrs. Marcelle 
Weiss, Fredric 
Welbourn, W. Calvin 
Welker, Harold 
Wellington, J. W. 
Wells, Dr. John W. 
Wenzel, Robert 
Weske, Dr. John S. 
Westcott, Richard 
Wetmore, Dr. Alexander 
White, Dr. Graham B. 
White, John Sampson 
Whitmore, Dr. Frank C. 
Whitmore, Robert 
Widener, Millard E. 

Wielgus, Ronald S. 

Wilhelm, Kurt A. 

Wilkerson, Edith C. 

Willever, Donald 

Williams, Mr. and Mrs. L. T. 

Williams, Prosper J. 

Wilson, Dr. E. O. 

Wilson, Dr. Mildred S. 

Wilson, R. B. 

Witt, William L. 

Wittmer, Dr. Walter 

Wolfenden, Mrs. Hugh H. 

Womble, Edgar A., Jr. 

Wong, Wendy. — See Lo, Esther 

Word, Jack 

Wray, Dr. D. L. 

Wright, Dr. J. B. 

Wright; Dr. Steve 

Yamaguchi, Dr. Masashi 

Yedlin, Neal 

Yepez, Dr. F. Fernandez 

Yoder, Dr. H. S., Jr. 

Young, Jane S. 

Young, M. E. 

Yount, Victor 

Zardini, Rinaldo 

Zavortink, Dr. Thomas J. 

Zektzer, Jack 

Zibrowius, Dr. Helmut 

Zug, Dr. George R. and Heyer, 

Dr. W. Ronald 
Zweifel, Dr. Richard 

Donors of Financial Support 


S. I. Women's Committee: to purchase animals for the collection. 

Noble Foundation: to support research at the Conservation and Research 

Center, Front Royal, Virginia. 
World Wildlife Fund: for a study to reintroduce bird species to a a tropical 

forest preserve. 
SAFE International: for a study to reintroduce bird species to a tropical 

forest preserve. 
National Science Foundation: to study macaques Macaca sinica in Sri Lanka. 
Marine Mammal Commission: to study the social behavior of the Harbor Seal. 
Schering Corporation: to analyze antibiotic treatment of exotic animals. 


Mary B. Scheible 
Dr. Ellinor H. Behre 
Louisa B. Parker 

Members of the Navy's Anti-Ship 
Missile Defense Project 

Hazel S. Mays 
Ash Lawn 

Various in memorium of 
Dr. Paul Tamarkin 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 383 


Donors of Financial Support Eppley Foundation 

Donors of Financial Support 
Max. E. Fleishman Foundation Polaroid Foundation 


Donors of Financial Support 

The Henry B. and Grace Doherty Foundation 

Exxon Corporation 

Edward John Noble Foundation 


Donors of Financial Support 
$100 and above 

Mrs. Don E. Ahrens 

Mr. Arthur G. Altschul 

Mr. and Mrs. Denton Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. Wendell W. 

Anderson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis C. Baker 
Mr. Richard Brown Baker 
Mr. W. M. Banks 
Mrs. Harry A. Batten 
Mrs. James H. Beal 
Mrs. J. W. Beatman 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Benton 
Mr. and Mrs. James A. Beresford 
Mr. and Mrs. James Biddle 
Mrs. Anne H. Bing 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore D. Birnkrant 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Glenn Bixby 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Borman 
Mrs. Rena Bransten 
Mr. Charles L. Bricker 
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Brown 
Mr. J. Lawrence Buell, Jr. 
Mrs. Helen R. Busch 
Mr. and Mrs. E. A. Cafiero 
Dr. and Mrs. Sidney E. Chapin 

Mrs. Robert B. Clarke 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph F. Colin 

Mr. Gardner Cowles 

Mr. Trammell Crow 

Miss Ruth Cumming 

Mrs. Chester Dale 

Mr. and Mrs. Keith Davis 

Mrs. Maria M. de Medina 

Mrs. Albert de Salle 

Mrs. Amy Dobronyi 

Mrs. Frederick E. Donaldson 

Mr. James F. Duffy, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Saul H. Dunitz 

Mr. and Mrs. George M. Endicott 

Mr. Phil Esposito 

Mr. Bayard Ewing 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter W. Fisher 

Mrs. Frederic C. Ford, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Fredericks 

Mrs. John S. French 

Dr. and Mrs. E. G. Fischer 

Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence A. Fleischman 

Mrs. Gilchrist Fletcher 

Mr. B. H. Friedman 

Miss Elizabeth H. Fuller 

384 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Mr. David L. Gamble 

Mrs. Helen Getler 

Gilman Foundation, Inc. 

Mr. Howard Gilman 

Mrs. Bernard F. Gimbel 

Mr. and Mrs. Seth M. Glickenhaus 

Mrs. James L. Goodwin 

Mr. Alan L. Gornick 

Mr. and Mrs. William T. Gossett 

Mr. Charles M. Grace 

Miss Frances A. Gray 

Mr. and Mrs. Lester Gruber 

Mrs. Marina Kellen Gundlach 

Mr. Leo S. Guthman 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Haas 

Mrs. Robert G. Hartwick 

Mrs. Carleton C. Hascall, Jr. 

Mrs. Raymond Hawtin 

Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Heaton 

Mrs. Barbara Whipple Heilman 

Mrs. Horace S. Heim 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Hickman 

Mrs. George C. Hixon 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond J. Horowitz 

Dr. and Mrs. J. Stewart Hudson 

Mr. Frederick G. L. Huetwell 

Mr. and Mrs. A. D. Hulings 

Mr. and Mrs. James Humphry III 

IBM Corp. Design & Arts Program 

Mrs. Hepburn Ingham 

Mrs. Harrison Ivancovich 

Mrs. Augusta Jacobson 

Mrs. Edward C. Johnson Foundation 

Mrs. Henry C. Johnson 

Mr. Alfred Winslow Jones 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Frederick 

Kammer, Jr. 
Mrs. Virginia W. Kampf 
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob M. Kaplan 
Mr. and Mrs. Seymour Karbal 
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Karpel 
Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Kellman 
Mrs. Eugene Kingman 
Mr. and Mrs. Gustav D. Klimann 
Mrs. Patricia Knode 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. Koenigsberg 
Kriendler-Berns Foundation 
Mrs. Roger Kyes 
The Lachaise Foundation 
Mrs. William D. Laurie, Jr. 
Mr. Rensselaer W. Lee 
Mr. Arthur D. Leidesdorf 
Dr. and Mrs. I. H. Leopold 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold Love 

Mr. and Mrs. Russell Lynes 

Mrs. James B. Mabon 

Mrs. Elizabeth H. Maddux 

Mrs. Percy C. Madeira, Jr. 

Mrs. R. A. Magowan* 

Mrs. Frederick C. Matthaei 

Mrs. E. T. Meredith, Jr. 

Drs. Paul and Laura Mesaros 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Mrs. H. A. Metzger 

Mr. Byron R. Meyer 

Mr. and Mrs. Irving J. Minett 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Minowitz 

Dr. and Mrs. Coleman Mopper 

Galeria Juana Mordo, S.A. 

Mr. and Mrs. T. A. Murphy 

Miss Emily Nathan 

Mrs. Eldo Netto 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy R. Neuberger 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank J. Nussbaum 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Oroshnik 

Mr. Alfonso A. Ossorio 

The Pace Gallery of New York, Inc. 

Mrs. Bliss Parkinson 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack Perlmutter 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Lynn Pierson 

Mrs. Isabelle Polacheck 

The Honorable and Mrs. 

Leon B. Polsky 
Mr. and Mrs. William J. Poplack 
Mr. and Mrs. M. P. Potamkin 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert B. Ratner 
Mrs. Dorothy H. Rautbord 
Mrs. Paul H. Reinhardt 
Mr. and Mrs. E. P. Richardson 
Mr. and Mrs. Chapin Riley 
Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, 3rd. 
Dr. and Mrs. Michael Rollins 
Mrs. Madeleine H. Russell 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Scheuer 
Dr. and Mrs. P. J. R. Schlessinger 
Mr. and Mrs. Allan B. Schmier 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Schoenith 
Mr. and Mrs. Alan E. Schwartz 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick A. Sharf 
Mrs. Allan Sheldon III 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter M. Shontz, Jr. 
Signature Art Galleries, Inc. 
The George M. & Mabel H. Slocum 

Mrs. J. Scott Smart 
Mrs. Lawrence M. C. Smith 

* James Smithson Society member. 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 385 

Mr. and Mrs. Emmett G. Solomon 

Mr. and Mrs. Maury L. Spanier 

Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Stanton 

Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Steel 

Mr. and Mrs. Mark C. Stevens 

Mr. Stanford C. Stoddard 

Mr. Philip A. Straus 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Stroh 

Mr. Emmanuel Sulkes 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Alfred Taubman 

Mr. Eugene Victor Thaw 

Mrs. Louis Tishman 

Mr. and Mrs. Carsten Tiedeman 

Mr. and Mrs. Lynn A. Townsend 

Mrs. Hooper Truetner 

Mrs. Nelson Urban 

Mr. C. Carter Walker, Jr. 

Ms. Suzanne Walker 

Mrs. W. Clyde Ward 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Weinstein 

Mr. and Mrs. Jerome M. Westheimer 

Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Williams 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren R. Woodward 

Mr. Edward M. M. Warburg 

Mr. and Mrs. William J. Young, Jr. 

$500 and above 

Mrs. Laura M. Bishop 

Mrs. Ruth H. Brown 

Mr. George P. Denny, Jr. 

Mrs. Henry Hamilton Dewar 

Mrs. Allan D. Emil 

Mrs. George R. Fink 

Mrs. Theodore E. Gordon 

Mr. Harold E. Grove 

Mr. Joseph H. Hirshhorn* 

Mr. Donelson F. Hoopes 

Mrs. Mary M. Hupfel 

Miss Milka Iconomoff 

The JDR 3rd Fund 

Mr. and Mrs. John S. Judd 

Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Katzman 

$1,000 and above 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin A. Bergman 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Bradley 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Bunce 
The Bundy Foundation 
Dr. and Mrs. Irving F. Burton 
Dr. and Mrs. Burrill Crohn 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Arnold Daum 
Davies Charitable Trust 
Mr. and Mrs. Christian de Guigne 
Mrs. Alfred C. Harrison 
Benson and Edith Ford Fund 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Ford II 

(Walter & Josephine Ford Fund) 
Mr. and Mrs. William E. Friedman 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Glen 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry L. Goldberg 
Dr. and Mrs. Joseph R. Goldyne 
Mr. and Mrs. F. Herbert Hoover 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert A. List 

Kennedy Galleries, Inc. 

Mrs. Samuel C. Kohn 

Mr. Earle Ludgin 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. McNeil, Jr. 

Mrs. Henry Pearlman 

Mrs. Cornelia Perry 

Miss Shirley Polykoff 

Mrs. Dana M. Raymond 

Mrs. Edwin Rosenthal, Jr. 

Mrs. Joseph Rubin 

Mrs. Arthur A. Seeligson, Jr.* 

Mr. Stephen Shalom 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy W. Stevens 

Mr. Mason B. Wells 

Mrs. Guri Lie Zeckendorf 

Athol McBean Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Manney 
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Marsteller 
Dr. and Mrs. Abraham Melamed 
Mr. John F. Merriam 
Mr. and Mrs. Dan Oppenheimer 
Mr. William S. Picher 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Rubin 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl L. Selden 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Smits 
Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth 
Stroh Brewery Foundation 
Mrs. Richard H. Tyler 
Mrs. Paul Wattis 
Mrs. Osborne White 
Mrs. Robert Ready Williams 
The Wyeth Endowment 
for American Art 

James Smithson Society member. 

386 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

$5,000 and above 

The Brown Foundation, Inc. 

Mrs. W. Rodman Fay 

Eleanor Clay Ford Fund 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert H. Kinney* 

John A. McCarthy Foundation 
McGregor Fund 

Edward John Noble Foundation 
Viola E. Bray Charitable Fund 

Howard and Jean Lipman Foundation (Mr. and Mrs. William L. Richards) 

$10,000 and above 
Mr. Richard Manoogian 

Matilda R. Wilson Fund 

Donors to the Collections 

Blake, Mrs. Doris H. : papers of Doris H. Blake and Sidney F. Blake 

Boardman, Richard S. : taped reminiscences. 

Brooks, Mrs. Robert A.: papers of Robert A. Brooks. 

Buechner, Mrs. Helmut: papers of Helmut Buechner. 

Buzas, Martin A.: taped reminiscences. 

Cook, Peter G.: papers of Edwin A. Preble. 

Evans, Clifford: taped reminiscences. 

Givens, Earl and Stuart: 12-volume set of the Smithsonian Scientific Series. 

Hobbs, Horton H. : taped reminiscences. 

Kauffman, Erie G.: taped reminiscences. 

Mann, Mrs. William: papers of William Mann. 

Ray, G. Carlton: records of the Marine Mammal Program of the U.S. 

International Biological Program. 
Schmitt, Waldo L. : papers of Waldo L. Schmitt. 
Whipple, Fred L. : papers of Fred L. Whipple 


Donors of Financial Support ($1,000 and above) 

ASID Educational Foundation 
Mrs. Helen W. Buckner 
Burlington Industries Foundation 

Classical America 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Corroon 
Eva Gebhard Gourgard Foundation 
Janet A. Hooker Charitable Trust 
Lucy Worthham James Memorial 
— NY Community Trust 

Donors of Works of Art 

Mrs. Edward Armstrong 
Mr. Fritz Bamberger 
Mr. Will Barnet 
Mr. Charles Baskerville 
Miss Alice Baldwin Beer 
Mr. Reynard Biemiller 
Miss Julia Black 
Mr. Robert Blaich 

Lauder Foundation 

The Magowan Family Foundation 

Herman Miller 

Margaret C. Miller 

The Ohrstrom Foundation 

Arthur Ross Foundation 

Steelcase, Inc. 

Stroheim & Romann 

Mrs. Monroe Percy Bloch 

Mr. Edmond Casarella 

Mr. Christopher Castelli 

Mrs. Stephen Claflin 

Colonial Farmhouse Restoration Society 

of Bellrose, Floral Park, N.Y. 
Condotti, Ltd. 
Mr. Allyn Cox 

James Smithson Society member. 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 387 

Mrs. Wendell H. Cox 
Mr. Freeman Craw 
Defense Mapping Agency, 

Washington, D.C. 
Mr. Ismar David 
Miss Alice DeLamar 
Mrs. Barbara Orvis de Zalduondo 
Ms. Barbara Dodsworth 
Mr. Stan Dufford 
Mr. Kenneth Duprey 
Mr. Melvin Dwork 
Mr. Robert Ebendorf 
Mrs. Susanna Ebendorf 
Mr. Richard Etts 
Mr. Hal Fiedler 
Mr. M. Roy Fisher 
Mrs. J. A. Q. Franks 
Friends of Drawings and Prints 
Friends of Textiles Fund 
Mrs. Cora Ginsberg 
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Globus 
Mrs. John L. Handy, Jr. 
Mrs. Patricia G. Harris 
Mrs. Allison Bisgood Harwood 
Mrs. Frans van Heemstra 
Mrs. Stanley Herzman 
Mrs. Wayne Higby 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick D. Hill 
Mr. Earle Hiscock 
Miss Jane Howell 
Mrs. John Jay Ide 
Mr. Arata Isozaki 
Dr. James P. Johnson 
Johnson Wax Co.* 
Mr. Alexander Karpilov 
Mr. Robert C. Kaufmann 
Mrs. Karen Johnson Keland 
Mrs. Richard Koehne 
Mr. Joseph Konopka 
Mrs. Richard Kraus 
Mr. Wanyne E. Kulessa 
Lanerie Agnona 
Jack Lenor Larsen, Inc. 
Mrs. Camille Lehman 
Mr. Davie Lerner 
Ms. Riki Levinson 

Mr. Simon Lissim 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Russell Lynes 

Mrs. Susan Martits 

Mrs. William H. Mathers 

Miss Dorothy Mathews 

Mr. Roswell Miller* 

Mrs. Charles Montgomery 

Mrs. Gillian Moss 

National Museum of Modern Art, 

Tokyo, Japan 
New York State Historical Society, 

Cooperstown, N.Y. 
New York School of Design, Library 
Mr. Elliot Offner 
Mr. Abraham Ostrow 
Estate of Ella Ostrowsky 
Mrs. Elizabeth Page 
Mr. Charles Patterson 
Mr. Charles S. Payson 
Mr. Paul Peter Piech 
Mr. James Prestini 
Mr. W. G. Pulliam 
Mr. Boguslav Raphael 
Reed Wallpaper Company 
Ronnie Lace Sales 
Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 
Mrs. George Salter 
Mr. Karl Schrag 
Mrs. Celia Siegel 
Stanley Siegel Collection 
Miss Helen Snyder 
Mr. Milton Sonday 
Miss Margaret Spader 
Mrs. Lila Tyng 
Mrs. Jeanette van Raalte 
Mr. Thomas B. Van Steenbergh 
Mrs. Clara Waldeck 
Mrs. Marie Louise Wanner-Quarti 
Miss Jena Weiss 
Mrs. Joan Wheeler 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Wiesenberger 

Mrs. Russell Wise 
Mr. John B. Wisner 
Ms. Jeanyee Wong 
Miss Honor Youngs 


Donors of Financial Support 

The Chisholm Foundation 

Felix and Helen Juda Foundation 

The Midgard Foundation 

John S. Thacher 

Weatherhead Foundation 

Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 

* Pending. 

388 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Donors to the Harold P. Stern Memorial Fund 

The Chisholm Foundation 

Carl S. Cohen 

Naomi Dallen 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley J. Ellias 

Garamond Pridemark Press, Inc. 

Dorothy F. Hagberg 
The Island Foundation 
Richard W. Weatherhead 
The Weatherhead Foundation 

Donors to the Study Collection 

Bryan, Clarence: Near Eastern Lustreware vase. 

Department of Justice: Pair of six-panel Japanese screens by Tachibana 

Dobkin, Herman J.: Japanese painting, Self-Portrait of Priest Juin. 
Jurow, Irving: Chinese pottery figurine and Chinese pottery marbleized tripod 

with wooden cover. 
Pope, John A. : Shards from the Far East. 
Takashi, Yagioka: Japanese painting by Shunzan. 


Donors of Works of Art 

Mr. Joachim Jean Alberbach, 

Old Westbury, New York 
Batuz, Green Farms, Connecticut 
Mr. and Mrs. Bernhard Bechhoefer, 

Washington, D.C. 
Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block,* 

Chicago, Illinois 
Mrs. Michael Brenner, 

New York, New York 
Mrs. Rosalind Browne, 

Naples, Florida 
Mr. Arthur W. Cohen, 

New York, New York 
Mr. Thomas Evans,* 

New York, New York 
Mr. Edward Giobbi, 

Katonah, New York 
Harriet Griffin Gallery, 

New York, New York 
Mr. Joseph H. Hirshhorn,* 

Naples, Florida 
Leonard Hutton Gallery, 

New York, New York 
Dr. and Mrs. George A. Hyman, 

New York, New York 

Martha Jackson Gallery, 

New York, New York 
Louis K. Meisel Gallery, 

New York, New York 
Mr. Vincent Melzac, 

Arlington, Virginia 
Mr. Minoru Niizuma, 

New York, New York 
Mr. Max Protech, 

Washington, D.C. 
Mrs. Hans Richter, 

Locarno, Switzerland 
Mrs. Marion O. Sandler, 

Oakland, California 
Schoelkopf Gallery, 

New York, New York 
Smithsonian Resident Associates, 

Washington, D.C. 
Mr. William Scott III, 

New York, New York 
Mr. Bardyl R. Tirana, 

Washington, D.C. 
Mr. Eugene L. Vogel, 

Washington, D.C. 

Donors of Financial Support 

Corning Glass Works Foundation 

(Thomas Buechner) 
R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 
Bartlett H. Hayes 

James Smithson Society member. 

Thomas C. Howe 
David Lloyd Kreeger, 

Charitable Foundation 
The Magowan Family Foundation 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 389 

Mrs. Robert Magowan * 
Margaret D. McKee 
Paul Mellon 
Charles E. Merrill Trust 
Ogden Pleissner 

Donors of Works of Art 

Mr. and Mrs. William Howard Adams 

Mrs. Elsie K. Belmont 

Elizabeth C. Benton 

Dr. and Mrs. Roy W. Benton 

Brandywine Graphic Workshop 

Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin 

Dr. and Mrs. Canter 

Mrs. Otis Chatfield-Taylor 

Louis Cheskin 

Mrs. Marion McLean Davis 

Estate of George Demetrios 

Mr. and Mrs. Dale Holbrook Dorn 

Werner Drewes 

Robert B. Frank 

Beatrice Fenton 

The Fursman Foundation 

Wende and Geoffrey Gates 

Thomas George 

Mrs. Irma Goldbery 

Mr. and Mrs. Red Grooms 

Maurice Grosser 

Lena Gurr 

R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. R. Philip Hanes, Jr. 

Mrs. Richard L. Harkness 

Susan Morse Hilles 

Mrs. Jaquelin H. Hume 

William Huntington 

Martha Jackson Gallery 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Jager 

Mrs. Marion Javits 

Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Kainen * 

Jacob Kainen * 

Mrs. Morris Kantor 

Mrs. Harry Katz 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis Kaufman * 

Mr. and Mrs. Julian Kaye 

Mrs. Sidney Lawrence 

George B. Tatum 
Henry R. Traubitz 
University of Chicago Club of 

Otto Wittmann 

Marjorie D. Martinet 

Mrs. Robert B. Mayer 

Mr. and Mrs. Kevin McCann 

Frank McClure 

Mrs. Roderick Mead 

Vincent Melzac 

George C. Miller and Son, Inc. 

Jay Moon 

Mrs. B. J. O. Nordfeldt 

Estate of Ella Ostrowsky 

Mrs. Jefferson Patterson * 

Reverend De Wolf Perry 

Albert M. Pitcher 

Mrs. Elizabeth Pollock 

Mrs. Charles Prendergast 

Estate of Melville Price 

Abraham Rattner * 

Mrs. F. E. Reinert 

The Honorable Nelson Rockefeller 

Phyllis Rosen 

Mrs. Edgar L. Rossin 

Dr. James Rudel 

Daisy Shapiro 

Mrs. Mortimer Slotnick 

Society of Washington Printmakers 

William Speiller 

Lou Stovall 

Malby Sykes 

Mr. and Mrs. George B. Tatum 

Page Tigar 

Mrs. Beulah Tomlinson 

Washington Print Club 

Mrs. Bessie Wenger 

Robert O. Werlich 

Woodward Foundation 

Mahonri Sharp Young 

The Zorach Children 

Donors of Financial Support 


American Military Institute 
Belgian Embassy 
Stover and Kaufman 

United States Commission on 
Military History 

* James Smithson Society member. 

390 / Smithsonian Year 1977 


Doubleday & Company, Inc. 


Amos Press, Inc. 

British Broadcasting Corporation 


Amos Press, Inc. 


Gertrude Schweitzer 

Mr. Vincent E. Hoffman 
Mr. Sidney N. Shure 

The Bass Foundation 


The Honorable Corinne C. Boggs Butterick Fashion Marketing Company 

Mrs. Warren E. Burger 


Mr. Henry Arnhold 

Mr. and Mrs. John Mayer 


Mr. Donald H. Berkebile 

National Railway Historical Society, 


Colt Industries Charitable 
Foundation, Inc. 


Brooks and Hope B. McCormick 

Dr. Hans Syz * 

Washington, D.C. Chapter 
Mr. John H. White 

American Commercial Barge Line 

American Institute of Marine 

Ashland Oil, Inc. 
Bailey Coke Transport, Inc. 
Bath Iron Works Corp. 
Canal Barge Company, Inc. 
Cargo Carriers, Inc. 
Crowley Maritime Corp. 
Delta Concrete Company 
Dillingham Corp. 
Dixie Carriers, Inc. 
Joseph C. Domino, Inc. 
Exxon Company, U.S.A., Marine 

General Electric Co. 

General Stevedores, Inc. 
Gladders Barge Line, Inc. 
Professor George W. Hilton 
Ingram Barge Company 
S. C. Loveland Co., Inc. 
The Ohio River Co. 
Propeller Club of Ponce, Puerto Rico 
C. J. Thibodeaux and Co. 
The Tobacco Institute, Inc. 
Union Mechling (Dravo) 
Upper Mississippi Towing Corp. 
The Valley Line Company 
Womens Propeller Club, Port of 

New York 
Womens Propeller Club of the U.S., 

Port of Honolulu 

James Smithson Society member 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 391 

Friends of Music at the Smithso 

Miss Catharine F. Absalom 

Mr. Mark Adler 

Mrs. Elaine Albright 

Mrs. John W. Auchincloss 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Baks 

Mr. and Mrs. William P. Bebbington 

Mr. and Mrs. B. A. Bernard 

Celeste Bettino 

Miss Frances B. Bowen 

Harold H. Bredell 

Mrs. A. A. Brickhouse 

Mrs. Percy W. Brown 

Helen B. Burnham 

Mr. and Mrs. James H. Cannon 

Ms. Peggy Carrigg 

Mr. and Mrs. George M. Carroll 

Mr. and Mrs. Timothy W. Childs 

Mrs. Winston Childs 

Mrs. Beatrice Ciccarone 

Mrs. Thomas K. Cline 

Mr. and Mrs. George A. T. Donely 

Henry D. Duarte 

Benjamin S. Dunham 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert J. T. Emond 

Mrs. William Rodman Fay 

Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Foehl 

Dr. and Mrs. Rohert H. Furman 

Paul E. Geier 

Mrs. Isabella Grandin 

Alfred M. Granum 

Andrew Hamilton 

Mrs. Elizabeth Verner Hamilton 

Miss Martha B. Hancock 

Charles C. Hart 

Mrs. Charles E. Hewitt, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Himelhoch 

Mrs. Ruby Moss Hopkins 

Capt. E. E. Johnson 

Emily W. Jones 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Jones, Jr. 

Mrs. R. Keith Kane 

Dr. and Mrs. Seymour Kaufman 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry Keller 


Rainer K. Kraus 

Charlotte Y. Krever 

Mr. and Mrs. James F. Lawrence 

Miss Helen E. Levy 

Mrs. James Mallory 

Ella Jean Mark 

Mrs. Joan Martens 

Dr. and Mrs. Herbert C. Mayer 

Dr. John Russell Mason 

Miss Jean V. McGue 

Capt. and Mrs. Roger E. Melick 

Mrs. Loudon Mellen 

Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Meyer 

Mrs. Stephen V. C. Morris 

Mrs. Martha A. Nelson 

Forbes W. Polliard 

Elizabeth Protti 

Dr. and Mrs. Lawrence J. Radice 

Mrs. Sylvia F. Rekoon 

Miss Wilma Sain 

Bernard L. Schleeter 

Mr. and Mrs. William A. Shirer 

Mr. and Mrs. Milton L. Shurr 

Mrs. John Farr Simmons 

Davidson Sommers 

Mrs. Genevieve P. Sowa 

Mrs. Francis A. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. E. E. Stauber 

Miss Bessie Stein 

Steinway & Sons 

Miss Mildred F. Stone 

Mr. and Mrs. John Tebbel 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard H. Thompson 

Mrs. Allan H. Treman 

Dr. Betty M. Twarog 

Mr. and Mrs. Bronson Tweedy 

Mrs. John A. Watts 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Weber 

Mr. and Mrs. John M. Wells 

Adelaide R. Willis 

Mrs. Keith S. Wilson 

Barbara and Thomas Wolf 

Donors to the National Collections 

1977 Inaugural Committee (through Bardyl Tirana) : 30 objects associated 

with the 1977 inaugural activities (1977.0461). 
Mrs. Sarah Helen Abraham: 1 knife used for operation on President Garfield 

and 1 set including hypodermic, flashlight, plate (part of door on Grant's 

temporary tomb) (1977.0265). 
Acacia Mutual Life Insurance Company (through Martin M. Weaver and 

George R. Walter) : a collection of 119 items documenting an IBM 7070 

and an IBM 1401 computer system used by the donor (1977.0456). 
Adcraft Manufacturing Company (through Frank J. Sitzberger) : 19 buttons 

392 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

produced for the 1976 political campaign (1977.0262). 
Rita J. Adrosko: doll, "Nanette," and rubber doll head (322704). 
A-G-A Corporation (through Richard Malikowski) : 1 geodimeter, model 2 

Government of Aitutaki, Aitutaki Post Office, Postal Accounts (through the 

Resident Agent's Office) : 3 mint souvenir sheets and 19 mint postage stamps 

of Aitutaki (322738). 
Honorable Carl Albert: 4 gavels with historical association and a photograph 

portrait of donor (1977.0050). 
G. Norman Albree: 3 circular calculating rules designed by the donor and 

1 Japanese abacus (321674). 
Richard M. Alden: 1 magnetic drum from an RW-300 computer (309502). 
Elizabeth H., Mary Stewart and Richard H. Allen, Jr.: see Mrs. Eleanor Allan 

Allcraft Tool and Supply Co., Inc. (through D. F. Shannon): 4 silversmith's 

mallets and 8 silversmith's hammers (1977.0544). 
Allen-Mitchell and Company (through Frank P. Mitchell) : matched pair of 

steam engine indicators, and 1 other indicator (1977.0352). 
John S. Alley: 2 annual reports of the Town Officers for West Tisbury, 

Massachusetts. 1923 and 1927 (1977.0289). 
Malcolm G. Allison: 1 working model of 6-inch naval deck gun, WWI, made 

by the donor (1977.0096). 
Mrs. Abbie Alston (through Mrs. James A. Mathews) : 2 glass catheters, 

1 thermometer, 2 syringes with needles and cases, 2 IV clamps, 1 nozzle, 

1 atomizer bulb, and 1 clamp (322660). 
Dr. Ugo Amaldi: 1 scintillation hodoscope (1977.0531). 
American Bank Note Company (through Oliver Lednicer) : 1 ruling machine, 

1 pantograph, 1 stone press with litho stone transfer, 1 stone press — 
transfer, and 1 rotary ruling machine (1977.0486). 

American Bureau of Shipping (through Robert T. Young) : 1 copy of 
Record of American and Foreign Shipping, 1870 (1977.0616). 

The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (through Creston Herold) : 
6 patent models including 2 artificial legs, 1 collapsible crutch, 1 prosthesis 
— below elbow, 1 arm and forearm splint, and 1 wooden crutch (309032). 

American Institute of Marine Underwriters (through Carl E. McDowell) : 

2 brass stamps, 2 date stamps, 1 model of packet ship Underwriter, 
1 insurance policy on sloop Katy 1792, and 1 insurance policy on 
schooner Farmer 1788 (322690). 

American Legion Post No. 73: 1 US National Flag, 13 star, 1860-1890 

American Revolution Bicentennial Administration (through Richard Bain) : 

1 Bicentennial Flag (1977.0081). 
Mrs. H. Wilson Ames: See Ann F. Comm. 
Mrs. Lorraine C. Anderson: 3 stoles, 3 purses, 1 pair of hatpins, 1 coat, 1 

cloak, 1 shawl, 1 headband, 1 hat, and 1 lounging outfit (1977.0043). 
J. D. Andrew, Jr.: 17 items of memorabilia pertaining to the Hog Island 

Shipyard during WWI (1977.0003). 
Annin & Company (through Walter P. Kelley) : 6 flags including Bennington 

Flag, Betsy Ross, The Culpepper Minute Men, Bunker Hill Flag, 

The Gadsden, and Pine Tree (1977.0035). 
Anonymous: 1 boy's shirt, 1845-53 (320762); 1 man's suit (320857); 4,712 

specimens including, from Venezuela: 4 classical covers, 385 used classical 

postage stamps, 1603 mint classical postags stamps, and from Guinea: 

2720 mint postage stamps (322750); 2,422 mint postage stamps of 

Venezuela (322761). 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 393 

Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Assoc, (through James J. Whitsett): 

collection of 246 miscellaneous bearings and parts (1977.0585). 
Ann Antik in memory and to perpetuate the name of Marie Antik (through 

Richard L. Spire II, Esq.): 24 textile and related items (1977.0161). 
Bruno Antolini: 1 Democratic-Republican button (323443). 
The Army Times Publishing Company (through Melvin Ryder and Robert E. 

Schweitz): 3,206 US Army distinctive insignia, c. WWII (1977.0019). 
Henry Arnhold: 2 Meissen cup and saucer sets, 1 set with Watteau 

decoration and the other set with 2 landscapes (1977.0222). 
Stanley Artrite: 2 copies of a composite portrait of the Presidents with 

facsimiles of their signatures (1977.0130). 
Colonel Whitney Ashbridge: 1 document "The Uniform Dress of the 

Captains and Certain Other Officers of the Navy of the United States," 

August 27, 1802 (1977.0318). 
Colonel Whitney and Mary G. N. Ashbridge: 1 pair of man's breeches and 

2 woman's dresses (316364). 
Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co. (through Harold A. Eckman) : 1 underwriting 

desk (1977.0612). 
Mrs. Katherine McCarthy Aumann: 2 pairs of woman's shoes, 1 pair of girl's 

sandals, and 2 woman's hats (318992). 
Reserve Bank of Australia: group of Australian specimen banknotes (320775). 
Mrs. Lucille D. Ayres: guest ticket to the 1924 Democratic National 

Convention (322726). 
Waldemar A. Ayres: 1 calculator (310129). 

Sydney J. Ayrey: 1 Lippincott steam engine indicator (1977.0353). 
Mrs. Luzelle Sisk Babb (through Ida Love Taylor Jones, Judith W. Bebar, 

Dr. Charles A. Remond) : 1 corner cupboard used in Tennessee, first half 

of 19th century (1977.0124). 
Mrs. Louise N. Baca: 1 Spanish "Jo.Lo.Ar" pistol (317940). 
Mrs. Alice W. Badger: 3 19th-century American red earthenware mugs 

Dr. and Mrs. Theodore L. Badger: 2 stoppered, glass ewers decorated with a 

stenciled, enamel design of flowers and leaves (1977.0345). 
Alice Crew Baker: Boy's dress, c. 1887 (322597). 
Government of Barbuda, Philatelic Bureau, Post Office: 7 first day covers and 

17 mint postage stamp of Barbuda (323587). 
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Barnes: 9 glass negatives of Naval personnel and 

Naval activities, c. 1900 (321686). 
Joseph W. Barret, Jr.: 1 bottle of swamp-root (323634). 
Charles L. Bartlett: 1 parlor center table with marble top, Belter type 

Douglas Bashioum (through Michael Malloy) : 1 1-ounce bottle of mercury 

Irma Batroh: 34 personal items of Michael Batroh including 1 personal diary 

kept during WWI, 1 continuous service certificate in a leather case and 32 

postcards of US and foreign scenes (321634). 
Battle Creek Sanitarium Hospital (through Angela L. Bates, H. H. Hill, and 

Vernon L. Small) : 2 Kellogg chairs, 1 vibrating chair, 1 spa glass, and 

1 sinusoidal bath device (319025). 
Mrs. Serena S. Baum: catalogue of ceramics, pictures, etc. (316331). 
Bruce Bazelon: collection of 125 insignia dating from WWII through the 

1960s (1977.0083). 
Sarah Beach: 2 anti-Vietnam war protest posters painted by the donor 

Beacon Terminal Corporation (through Sherman E. Weiser) : underwriter's 

steam fire pump, Knowles (1977.0266). 

394 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Mrs. Marcia Humphreys Beat: 1 hand-tooled cowhide depicting events of 

historical interest during the past 200 years (1977.0205). 
Mrs. Mildred N. Beckert: see Mrs. Jean B. Thompson. 
Mrs. Melba Trilli Beckner, Delmo F. Trilli, Guido P. Trilli: Pearl jobbing press 

No. 11, manufactured by Golding & Co., Boston, circa 1900. Includes 6 

rollers, 2 chases, and an inking fountain (1977.0066). 
Clay P. Bedford: 1 English Collier flintlock revolver (1977.0271). 
Virginia Beets: 1 book entitled . . . To Form A More Perfect Union with 

subtitle Justice For American Women (323576). 
Eugene F. Behlen: 1 loom, 1 spool rack, and 1 reel (1977.0141). 
Edith A. and The Honorable Taylor G. Belcher: earthenware spittoon, US -1 

Mrs. Barbara Bell: 1 postcard photograph of President and Mrs. Harding and 

1 photo of The Capitol in winter (1977.0424). 
Mrs. Josephine T. Bell: 1 stained glass window made by W. H. Constable, 

London, England, 1876 (323498). 
Dr. Rosario Beauperthuy de Benedetti (through Alfred E. Grumwell) : Medal 

honoring Dr. Louis Beauperthuy, the discoverer of the yellow fever vector 

Thomas M. Benner: 1 Davis and Kidder magneto electric machine (321651) 
Steven M. Bergstein: 1 terrestrial telescope spyglass (322641). 
City of Berkeley Police Department (through Elijah G. Roger): 1 Berkeley 

Police Dept. "Lie Detector" (322715). 
Berkshire International Corporation (through Donald R. Schwartz) : 27 pairs 

of stockings and 2 stocking boxes (1977.0369). 
Ann A. Bernatitus: the first Legion of Merit Medal ever awarded bv the 

Armed Forces, presented to the donor during WWII, and associated items 

including an enamel miniature of the medal, a blue leather case, a framed 

citation for the medal signed by Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox, and a 

photograph of the donor at the time of award (321620). 
Florence S. Berryman in memory of Clifford Berryman: 1 Teddy Bear pin and 

124 original drawings of cartoons by Clifford Berryman (322733). 
Gerald M. and Harriet B. Best: 1 plantation locomotive "Olomana," 1883 

Dr. Laurence O. Binder: 34 photographs by Paul L. Anderson, 3 photographs 

by others, 1 Kodak enlarger, 1 Kodak timer, 17 bottles of photographic 

chemicals, 1 letter to Paul and Mollie Anderson, and 4 letters to Paul 

Anderson (320680). 
Bio-Design, Inc. (through Merrill Callum) : 1 Bio-Design ECG Transmitter 

Model TX-100 (1977.034). 
Mrs. William McC. Blair, Jr. : 4 woman's designer dresses, 2 woman's 

designer ensembles, 1 woman's designer pantsuit, 1 woman's designer coat, 

1 woman's designer dress with jacket, 1 woman's designer suit, 

1 woman's designer blouse, 5 pairs of woman's shoes, .2 woman's designer 

hats, 3 woman's purses (323581). 
Charles Blitzer: 1 first day cover and 1 presentation folder of the American 

Revolution Bicentennial postage stamp of India (322757). 
Mrs. Sam Blodget: fiberglass souvenir from 1939 World's Fair (1977.0454). 
Mrs. Reba Harden Bloom: 1 clear colorless glass pitcher engraved with a 

portrait of a dog and an inscription (323611); 9 piece desk set, and 1 

household receipt book c. 1890's (1977.0197); 1 form letter and 1 envelope, 

portions of which were typed on the typewriter at the Philadelphia 

Centennial Exposition (1977.0340). 
Jean B. Bloombergh: 1 photograph of Dr. Mary Edwards Walker, Civil War 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 395 

Surgeon and only woman ever to win the Congressional Medal of Honor 

Alfred Bloomingdale: collection of cartoons referring to Diners Club credit 

cards (320774). 
Board of Underwriters of New York (through Carl E. McDowell and S. A. 

Fain) : the first 6-minute books from the Board of Underwriters of New 

York, 1 seal of the National Board of Marine Underwriters, and 1 oil 

portrait of William Nielson (1977.0639). 
The Honorable "Lindy" Boggs: 5 objects relating to the donor and her 

chairing the Democratic National Convention (1977.0001). 
Dr. Russell V. Bowers: 1 ceramic penicillin culture pot (1977.0654). 
Doris M. Bowman: 1 red damask tablecloth, 1 wool work mat, and 1 spool 

rack (1977.0475). 
Mrs. A. J. Brachman: 2 suits, 2 pairs of shoes, and 1 jacket (319887). 
Colonel Robert D. Branagan: specialized series of "Barter Units" scrip issued 

by the United States Army Headquarters Command Barter Center in 

Frankfurt-Main, Germany 1946-1948. (1977.0416). 
M. Lelyn Branin: 27 examples of Warne and Letts kiln furniture 

(archeological fragments) (1977.0165). 
Banco Central do Brasil: Brazilian ten-cruzeiros silver coin, 1975. (323633). 
Mrs. G. A. Brelin: 1 woman's coat 1927, by Hattie Carnegie. 
Charles B., Col. John E., Paul N. and William H. Bridge: see Ann F. Comm. 

Arthur Broaddus: see Mildred E. Cooke. 
Brodhead-Garrett Co. (through Thomas K. Rogers) : 2 sculptor's hammers 

Brookhaven National Laboratory: atomic beam apparatus (318942). 
Brookstone Company (through Susan Glover) : 1 brass mallet and 1 

carpenter's mallet (1977.0546). 
Estate of J. Louis Browning (through Virgil V. Shoop) : 1 tall clock, c. 1850 

Franklin R. Bruns, Jr.: 1,316 mint and used postage stamps and commercial 

covers of the world (1977.0231). 
Captain Charles E. Brush: 1 Keuffel and Esser duplex slide rule with extra 

index (1977.0370). 
Claudia K. Brush: 1 curtain stretcher (1977.0133). 
Mrs. Richard B. Buchanan: 1 pressed glass cruet with gilded decoration 

Mrs. Lynn Buck: 8 unfinished silver objects, 2 pressboard templates, and 2 

pencil on paper designs all made by Dwight Dillon (1977.0123). 
Honorable Warren E. Burger: printer's proof of the Court's opinion and sep- 
arate opinions in the "Buckley" case (321725). 
Helen S. Burlingham: 1 souvenir spoon (322703). 
Burlington Northern (through A. M. Rung): 1 locomotive gage lamp 

R. Le Gette Burris: 1 piece of satirical money, 2 campaign medalets, 

1 memorial medalet (1977.0254); 52 US commemorative medals and US 

store cards (1977.0418). 
Postal Administration of Burundi, Philatelic Agency: 57 mint postage stamps 

of Burundi (323590). 
Frank A. Butterfield: 1 19th-century brace (1977.0059). 
California Conservationists for Jimmy Carter (through Robert Caughlan) : 

1 campaign T-shirt and 2 campaign buttons, supporting Jimmy Carter 

for President (323637). 
Camden County Historical Society (through Mrs. Margaret Weatherly) : 

396 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

1 Confederate flag captured from the picket boat Le Compte during the 

Civil War (321653). 
Government of Canada. Operational Services (through G. M. Sinclair): 

10 postal cards of Canada with first day cancellations, issue of 1974 

Leopoldo Cancio: 2 bronze medals commemorating the coronation of 

King Juan Carlos I (1977.0442). 
Clifford A. Carpenter: audio tape of the history of Quaker Hill narrated by 

Lowell Thomas (1977.0229). 
Mrs. Miriam H. Carson in memory of David Carson IV and Miriam 

Elizabeth Carson Weymouth: 1 pair of lingerie clips, 1830-1849 (319963). 
David, Leigh and Woodbury Carter: 24 weapons (322669). 
Dennis L. Carter: 1 summer National Park Service ranger hat with hat band 

Frederick Casoni: 1 T-shirt worn in Plains, Georgia, November 2, 1976, 

1 newspaper See How They Ran from Republican Convention and 

1 press pass identification (Carter-Mondale Campaign) (1977.0053). 
Robert M. Caver: one piccolo clarinet (323574). 

CBS News Information Services (through Marcia Stein) : 2 Democratic 
National Convention news coverage broadsides and 4 photographs of 
CBS newsmen (1977.0042). 

Rudy and Gary Cervantes: 1 necktie, "Ford in 76" (323537). 

Dr. David Challinor: 1 mathematical exercise book (322685). 

Charles Products, Inc. (through Mr. and Mrs. Charles Feingersh) : 

2 bookkeeping machines (304212). 

Constance M. Charnley (through Mrs. Patricia W. Brown) : lantern which hung 
in a New York residence to celebrate the truce at the end of the Civil War 

Daniel K. E. Ching: 3 circular horseshoes (1977.0644). 

F. A. Christensen: earthenware saucer dish manufactured by Pope-Gosser, 
Ohio (1977.0007). 

Circle Gallery, Ltd. (through Ralph M. Rehbock) : 1 collotype of Norman 
Rockwell's painting The Problem We All Live With (323504). 

Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli: pair of dies for Aureus with portrait of Emperor 
Lucius Verus and related items (1977.0384); pair of dies for Aureus with 
portrait of Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius (A.D. 249-251), and 
related items (1977.0385); pair of dies for Aureus with portrait of Herennia 
Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius and related items (1977.0386); pair of dies 
for Sestertius with portrait of Emperor Vitellius and related items 

Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli: pair of dies for Aureus with portrait of Geta and 
Caracalla and related items (1977.0382); pair of dies patterned after 
medallion portraying Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Commodus and related 
items (1977.0383); pair of dies for Aureus of the Roman Emperor Commodus 
and related material (1977.0430); pair of dies for Aureus portraying Carinus 
and related items (1977.0431); pair of dies for Aureus portraying the 
Usurper Laelianus and related material (1977.0432). 

Charles L. Clapp: 1 Massachusetts delegation badge to the Republican 
National Convention and 1 ribbon "Ford/Richardson" (1977.0591). 

Clark Brothers Bolt Co., Inc. (through Wesley B. Scott) : shipping label, 
1876 Centennial (316495). 

Nanette Clark and Marianne O'Toole: 1 Liberty Bell freedom watch 

Robert S. Clark: 164 U.S. Navy Aviation Cadet, Midshipmen Aviator and 
Enlisted uniforms and uniform items, 1934-61 (1977.0245). 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 397 

Rosamond Clark: a baby comb 1880-1882, girl's hair ornament 1895-1900, 

and a ribbon 1890-1895 (320761). 
Mrs. Jessie B. Cleveland: 1 doll house resembling the White House, 1893-1897 

Jeffrey M. Clyman: 1 US Navy regulation inflatable life jacket, WWII 

Barbara J. Coffee: 2 posters used in the 1974 D.C. primary election for 

Walter Washington and Anton Wood (1977.0594). 
Mrs. Bertrand W. Cohn: 1 woman's coat, 1 woman's designer dress, and the 

box for the dress (322625). 
Mrs. Rosalee Cohn: 1 Sevres cup and saucer c. 1754, 1 Copenhagen plate from 

Flora Danica service, and 1 Worcester saucer c. 1765-1775 (1977.0016). 
Coin Clubs of Guam: 4 commemorative medals, presentation set no. 5, issued 

by the Coin Clubs of Guam, 1972 (1977.0443). 
P. H. Colgan: 1 1973 policy on schooner Fly, and 2 photos of Old Albany 

Insurance Co. office (1977.0625). 
Elda Ilene Collins: 1 pink glass cane and 2 clear glass canes (1977.0590). 
Herbert R. Collins: 50 items including newspapers, magazines, bumper 

stickers and other political memorabilia (1977.0085); 2 posters entitled 

"Truckers Ask Why Does Nixon Play in Oil Shortages?" and "Truckers 

Ask Why Capped Domestic Oil Wells?" (1977.0494). 
Republic of Colombia, Asesora Tecnica Filatelica, Jefe de Relaciones Publicas, 

Administracion Postal Nacional (through Beatriz Pantoja de Gil): 2 souvenir 

sheets, 17 postage stamps, and 46 first day covers from Colombia (322766). 
The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (through Carlisle H. Humelsine) : 

523 textiles and textile-related objects (321804). 
Ann F. Comm, Mrs. H. Wilson Ames, Charles B. Bridge, Col. John E. Bridge, 

Paul N. Bridge, William H. Bridge, Charles R. Comm, and J. Tyler Redd 

(through Ann F. Comm) : 1 elephant tusk scrimshawed with African scenes 

by an American sailor and presented to Paymaster Horatio Bridge, USN in 

the 1850s (321616). 
Commercial Union Assurance Cos. (through Henry S. Stone and Carl R. 

Mitchell): 1 Oriental rug and 1 coat rack (1977.0634). 
Computer Medical Science Corp (through Christopher Andries) : 4 models of 

electronic stethescopes (322621). 
Donald B. Coney: peanut bag, phonograph, piece of cloth, wooden disc, and 

miscellaneous political buttons (1977.0487). 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Conklin, Jr.: Watson's van Heurck Model Microscope 

with accessories and wooden case (319051). 
Government of Cook Islands, Ministry of Posts, Philatelic Bureau: 41 mint 

postage stamps, 17 mint souvenir sheets, and 20 first day covers all from 

the Cook Islands (32358^). 
Richard W. Cook: 2 pamphlets entitled Members of the Interparliamentary 

Party on its Tour of the United States as Guests of the Nation and Tour of 

the Interparliamentary Union (1904) /General Programme of the Tour 

Mildred E. Cooke and Arthur Broaddus: 1 pair of glass candlesticks in 

crucifix form (1977.0360). 
Bernice Abbott Cope: 2 chemises, 2 brassieres, 2 handkerchiefs, 1 pair of 

stockings, 1 pair of shoes, 1 pair of garters, 1 wedding dress, 1 slip, 

1 nightgown, 1 robe, 1 sash, 1 hair ornament, and 1 hat (318018). 
Mrs. Frances C. Corcoran: 1 china head doll owned by Esther Cleveland 

Jacques H. Cornet: 2 pairs of woman's sandals, 1 pair of man's shoes, and a 

woman's headpiece (322728). 
Robert L. Cox: razor, made by Alex Fraser & Co. (316496). 

398 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Mrs. Esther L. Crampton: 1 trigonometric calculating instrument designed by 

Frank A. and Theodore H. M. Crampton, and other items associated with 

Frank A. Crampton's designs (317954). 
Francis Richard Crawford: 2 reproduction bowie knives with sheaths (320007). 
CTP Industries, Inc. (through Arnold L. Silberman) : 4 shopping bags with 

political campaign messages (1977.0332). 
Carole Ann Cullum: 146 political buttons concerning anti-Vietnam War 

protests, impeachment of Nixon, various radical causes, Shirley Chisholm 

campaign buttons, economic protests, women's rights, gay activism, and 

black rights (1977.0674). 
Field Curry: 37" section of crude oil pipeline (1977.0693). 
Government of Cyprus (through His Excellency Ambassador Nicos G. 

Dimitriou) : 9 mint souvenir sheets and 232 mint postage stamps of Cyprus 

(323553); six first day covers of Cyprus honoring America's Bicentennial 

Mrs. Ruth M. Dale: 3 Jenny Lind related items, an ambrotype, a facsimile 

ticket from a concert, and a program of her music sung by Frieda Hempel 

in 1925 (322642). 
Dana Productions (through Albert Saparoff) : 1 film, Presidential Campaigns 

and the Influence of Music (1977.0014). 
The Danbury Mint (through Robert P. Capria and Ward J. Strausser) : 1 gold 

Presidential Inaugural medal and 1 10 kt. edition of the 1977 gold 

Presidential Inaugural medal, with certificate and display case (1977.0406). 
George A. David: 1 early 20th-century German veterans banner from 

Richterich (317961). 
Esther Buck Davis: girl's dress, 1870-1871 (316430). 
Reba Deal: 1 t-shirt with slogan "U. S. Female" and 1 bumper sticker with 

slogan "Think Professional/Hire Women" (1977.0663). 
Mrs. Linda Hicks Deftos and H. Munson Hicks, Jr.: 3 ambrotypes and 

10 daguerreotypes (322617). 
Mrs. Elizabeth Degenhart: commemorative plate, 2 copies of "The Degenhart 

Glass Story", and newspaper clippings of the Degenhart Glass art day 

Marvin C. Demler: 22 watercolor paintings showing various official American 

flags (1795-1912) with bearers in service uniforms or contemporary civilian 

dress, painted by Edward C. Kuhn (321805). 
Kingdom of Denmark, Ministry of Public Works: 10 mint souvenir sheets of 

Denmark, 70 mint postage stamps of Faroe Island, and 265 mint postage 

stamps of Denmark (322752). 
Roy James and Lula M. Dennison: 9 illustrated envelopes of the United States 

for the period 1953 through 1968 (323554). 
Irwin Dermer: 6 color photo-lithographs with 6 original transparencies 

Ethel M. Dewey: 1 certification of duty, 1 notification of pension claim, and 

1 envelope cover (1977.0482). 
Barbara Dickstein: 1 woman's dress, designer, 1970 (323607). 
Robert C. Diefenbach: 1 booklet, A Guide to Your Television Appearance 

William Dixon Company (through William Vance) : 1 silversmith's mallet and 

4 silversmith's hammers (1977.0547). 
Professor W. L. Dominy: Marchant ACT10M Calculator (1977.0605). 
David Donaldson: free blown vase signed on side "David Donaldson 1973 

MFA Show" (1977.0017). 
R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co. (through Frank Hoell, Jr.) : 7 reproduction 

Revolutionary War Engravings, battles of Lexington and Concord, 1775 


Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 399 

Mrs. Gladys C. Dougherty: card file box (318953); woven ribbon calendar 

for 1944 (1977.0104); 1 German porcelain pitcher decorated with 

polychrome flowers (1977.0479); 1 pressed glass vase ornamented with 

floral motifs (1977.0154). 
Bruce Douglas: Keuffel and Esser Log Log Duplex Vector Slide Rule (321673). 
Doulton and Company, Inc. (through Robert J. Saving): 3 bone china 

military fiures representing Revolutionary War soldiers (1977.0159). 
Government of Dubai, General Post Office, Philatelic Section: 32 mint 

postage stamps of Dubai (322753). 
Mrs. Evelyn R. Dumaine: 2 Centennial ticket passes (322702). 
Virginia McK. and Commander A. W. Dunne Jr.: 5 photo albums depicting 

the Naval career of Commander A. W. Dunn, Jr. USN. (321640). 
Robert R. Dwelly: 2 sets of 2-volume books on marine insurance and 9 books 

on marine insurance and shipping (1977.0611). 
E.R.A. Central (through Carolyn Noonan Parmer and Sonia McCallum) : 

16 items relating to the ratification of the equal rights amendment in 

Illinois (1977.0316). 
John I. H. Eales: 3 belt plates (322651). 
Lester W. Ebbets (through Carol Gronquist): 1 Underwood revolving hand 

duplicator (1977.0581). 
W. F. Eberth: 1 Remington Rand calculator with instruction manual (319872). 
Mrs. Ellis E. Eckland: 1 canteen worker's uniform belonging to Miss Emily 

Yardley (1977.0137). 
Mrs. Flossie N. Edler: glass container that held the pen used by President 

Wilson to sign to bill establishing the National Park Service (322778). 
Mr. Duncan L. Edwards: Silver tea pot by Barent Ten Eyck, Albany, 

New York, c. 1732. (1977.0770). 
Eisai Company, Ltd. (through Mr. Yuji Naito) : 6 patent medicine posters 

Parke F. Engle: 1 pair of WWI service shoes (323562). 
Estwing Tools (through Norman Estwing and Bob Youngren) : 1 plastic 

mallet, 1 electrician's hammer, 1 shingler's hammer, and 1 carpenter's 

framing hammer (1977.0548). 
Ethyl Corporation (through A. E. Huffman) : 1 Brush runabout auto, 1912, 

and 1 extra engine for same (323572). 
Paul Evans: 3 porcelain vases (321809). 
Ex-Cell-O Corporation, Viso Corporation (through Farno L. Green) : 

1 radioisotope camera for diagnostic x rays (1977.0464). 
Richard H. Eyde: 6 mint postage stamps of the German Democratic 

Republic (322760). 
Mrs. Dorothy C. Faulkner: earthenware (faience) box with screw cover, 

Spain, Alcora, ca. 1775 (323569). 
Henry Faul: 17 items of glass having uranium content (320798). 
Craig R. Feinberg: 1 first aid kit (313297). 
Mrs. Dorothy Dysart Fellers: 1 Italian Beretta semiautomatic pistol, 

1 U.S. submachine gun and 1 Filipino native-made breechloading, 

smoothbore gun (1977.0371). 
John T. Fesperman: chamber organ by Eben. Goodrich, Boston (1977.0187). 
Mrs. Edwin A. Finn: 1 woman's hat, 1949 (316504). 
Fireman's Fund American Insurance Cos. (through Edward O. Scharetg) : 

1 chart of the Irish coast (1977.0609). 
C. W. Fishbaugh: 3 National Recovery Act objects including a window 

display card, the Iowa seal, and a tag (1977.0034). 
Irene J. Fisher: woman's suit, 1947, and woman's hat, 1939 (318991). 
Nancy S. & William J. Flather III: Chinese export porcelain plate (1977.0044). 
Norm Flayderman: 3 boxes of late 19th-century saddle nails (323600). 

400 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Drs. Anne B. and John R. Fletcher in memory of Mrs. Anne Bosshard: 

117 bookbinding tools (1977.0565). 
The Honorable Hiram L. Fong: 1 Hawaiian muumuu and 1 aloha shirt 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Ford: dress and accessories of Elizabeth B. Ford. 

Accessories include muslin pattern for the dress, a bra, a pair of white 

cotton gloves, and a string of cultured pearls. (321732). 
Forrest Mountaineering Ltd. (through John Cooley and William E. Forrest) : 

1 monutaineer's hammer (1977.0549). 
John O. and Gretchen Fox: 4 pieces of ingrain carpeting, with large-scale 

stylized floral patterns in a variety of room sizes (1977.0127). 
Albert E. Frank: 1 pair man's shoes, 1940, and 1 man's overcoat, 1947 

Mrs. Dona J. Frank: 2 sunflower fans and 1 badge used at the Republican 

National Convention in Kansas (1977.0051). 
Rudolph D. Franklin: 1 wood carving, 1 Astrology sidereal calculator, 

1 Astronomy sidereal plotter, chart and drawing forms, protractor, reading 

mask, partial written instructions, and calculator markers for plotting and 

reading (318929). 
Mrs. Mary Louise Freeburger: glazed ceramic dish with kewpie decals 

Freese Mortgage Company Inc. (through Milton R. McMormick) : 

1 Underwood Sundstrand bookkeeping machine with stand (304121). 
Mrs. Katherine Fries: 1 porcelain plate made by the Onondaga Pottery 

Company in Syracuse, New York (323598). 
Charles H. Fritts: 1 "Free D.C." name tag and 1 bumper sticker (1977.0204). 
John A. Frye Shoe Company, Inc. (through R. D. Weeks) : 1 pair of 

woman's boots, 1975 (318926). 
L. Thomas Frye: 1 absentee ballot, 1 metal "marker," 1 instruction sheet, 

and 1 pamphlet of bilingual ballot instructions for absentee voting in the 

state of California (1977.0036). 
J. J. Fuller Manufacturing Company (through J. J. Fuller) : 1 high striker 

mallet (1977.0550). 
Florence Yarnall Fullerton: 1 child's Boston rocking chair (323496). 
Alan Galer: 1 phonograph record of Margaret Woodrow Wilson singing The 

Star Spangled Banner (1977.0376). 
Mrs. Eilleen G. Galer: woman's dress, shoes and hat, man's shirt, 2 shirt 

collars and collar stud (310014). 
Cyrus Galletto: 1 WWII European theater of operations jacket (1977.0313). 
Stephen L. Garber: wafer iron with eagle design (20815). 
Arthur W. Gardner: 2 woman's fans, 1840-1860 and 1890-1910 (320766). 
Gardner-Denver Company (through D. G. Homan and L. L. Leigh): 1 Gardner 

governor (1977.0354). 
Garfinckel's (through William C. Detwiller) : porcelain figure of a horse, 

"Spirit of Freedom," 1976, by Burgues. (322606). 
Goldie Damewood Garman: 1 crocheted picture, white cotton, "The Spirit 

of St. Louis", made in 1928 by donor, filet work (323524). 
Carl W. Gatter: 2 curtain tiebacks (318972). 
Charles L. Gauthier: 1972 Republican National Convention license plate 

Mrs. Harriett P. Gay: English earthenware part service, "shell pattern," 

38 pieces (1977.0404). 
Mrs. Hector D. Gellerson (through John P. Gellerson) : 1 US M-2 carbine 

conversion kit (320048). 
General Sportcraft Company (through Lawrence J. Gazlay and Harvey Kane) : 

1 croquet mallet (1977.0551). 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 401 

Mrs. Marlys C. Gibbons: toy train set, includes locomotive, tender, baggage 

car, flat bed car, caboose, turntable, bridge, 2 bridge ramps, track turnouts, 

2 curved track sections, and a straight track section (322701). 
Mrs. Cora Ginsburg: 1 white linen damask napkin (1977.0476). 
Paul Linwood and Evelyn May Gittings: 1 portfolio of photographs and 

essays and 1 cassette tape (323617). 
Myron Glaser: model of the Scripps-Howard lighthouse (321679). 
Joseph A. Godlesky: 1 spokeshave, 2 routers, and 24 planes (322670). 
Craddock R. Goins: 8 used postage stamps of Hungary (1977.0108). 
Norris W. Goldsmith: 1 carpenter's level with plumb (1977.0126). 
E. J. "Gunny" Gonzales: 43 xeroxed, typed and handwritten materials 

regarding the voting rights and laws in Alabama (1977.0344). 
Barbara B. Goodman: 4 books of matches (323636). 
Green Duck Corporation (through Elliott Sklar) : 9 Carter/Ford campaign 

objects including 4 buttons, 2 key chains, 2 lapel pins, and 1 pin 

Dr. Mary Eloise Green: collection of 1,284 canning jars and food preservation 

devices (322793). 
Stanley J. Green: eight-keyed German flute by Ernest Challier (1977.0152). 
H. Edward and Ruth Greene: 1 early 20th-century barber pole (322655). 
Howard F. Greene: 1 glass globe with foot (1977.0335). 
Mrs. Mary B. Greer: 2 homemade posters used at the 1976 G.O.P. Convention 

in Kansas City, Missouri (323635). 
Genevieve Gremillion: air letter sheet of Great Britain with Christmas design 

Peter S. Grinnell: man's wrap, overcoat, 1931 (316455). 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert N. Groh: 1 expo watch camera, 1 Adisco stereo viewer, 

1 clergy shur-fire flash gun, 3 empty bottles flash powder, 1 empty bottle 

flash caps, and 1 14" auxiliary flash pan (322643). 
Anna Grum: 1 man's vest, 2 brooches, 2 pendants, 1 necklace, and 1 ring 

Erma G. Guerin: 1 doll, "Dinah" (323639). 
Mrs. Dorothy Van Ness Gufler: 1 porcelain cup and saucer, German, 

Meissen c. 1735 (1977.0158). 
M. Eugenie Guilmette: 161 personal effects of Thomas C. Dudley, U.S.N. 

Dona Guimaraes: coverlet, red and white, 1876 Centennial (317831). 
Government of the Republic of Guinea, Agence Philatelique de la Republique 

de Guinee: 51 mint postage stamps of Guinea (322763). 
C. R. Gutermuth in memory of Bessie Horm Gutermuth: woman's wrap, 

mantle, 1875-1899 (322627). 
Hudson Hagglund: 7 trunnion sleeve pins from the continental gunboat 

Philadelphia 1776 (321664). 
William E. Hague: 87 pieces of presidential glass (322772). 
Catherine O. and Charles E. Hall: 1 oil tank and pump (1977.0645). 
Nathaniel A. and Bonnie Geneva Hallcom: 5 pairs of man's stockings, 2 

man's coats, 1 man's suit, 1 pair of man's shoes, 1 pair of woman's shoes, 

1 pair of earrings, and 3 sets of jewelry (318917). 
Katherine M. Halle: 2 pieces of fabric, 1930 (323594). 
Halston Originals (through Jerry Uchin and Murray Kagle) : 2 woman's 

dresses, 1972, 1 woman's blouse, and 1 sweater, 1972-1974 (308161). 
Henry Hamelly: 10 1974 US first day covers, 23 1975 US first day covers, and 

6 1976 US first day covers (322744). 
Dr. Gloria M. Hammack: Appalachian dulcimer (256310). 
Hammel, Riglander and Co., Inc. (through Seymour Dule and E. J. Renz) : 

1 silversmith's pear shaped mallet (1977.0552). 

402 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Mrs. Josephine Rowell Hanna: 1 suit, 1 tie, 2 hats, 2 pairs of stockings, 

1 pair of shoes, 1 pair of gloves, 1 bag, 2 dresses, 1 pair of panties, 

1 brassiere, 1 slip, and 1 nightgown (317914). 
Mrs. Eleanor Allan Hanson, Elizabeth H. Allan, Mary Stewart Allan, and 

Richard H. Allan, Jr. in memory of James Allan: 1 tall clock made by 

E. Howard & Company, c. 1855-1859 (1977.0507). 
George Harkness, III: 2 pieces of "Democratic Wild Cat Money" (1977.0203). 
Charles C. Harris: 3 radio receivers, 1 loud speaker, and 1 power supply 

The Harris Corporation (through Brendan P. O'Donnell and Richard J. 

Cormon) : the first Harris El Press, 1896 (1977.0298). 
James A. Hart: 3 reproduction belt plates, 3 pairs of collar insignia, and 

1 Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot box (314641). 
The Hartford Insurance Group (through Russell L. Burnham) : 1 print 

Burning of the 'Austria' (1977.0624). 
Julia P. Harvey: pin, dated 1876 (318013). 
Alexander Haskins: Teagle loudspeaker adapter (1977.0523). 
John Hazard, M.D.: 1 western Maryland railroad station bench (1977.0643). 
Edward L. Hedlund: 4 photographs of Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey, 

1946 (319040). 
Mrs. Orva Walker Heissenbuttel: 3 pressed glass cup plates, 1975 (323499). 
Mrs. Hazel M. Henn: 6 items belonging to Cynthia Westover Alden including 

1 book Bushy, coral jewelry in a lacquered box, a memorial card, a letter 
from John Alden, and xeroxes of article on Mrs. Alden (1977.0118). 

Stephen M. Henry: 2 reproduction Civil War type belt plates (1977.0031). 
Agnes M. Herbst: 1 woman's cape, 1 woman's muff, and 1 pair of woman's 

cuffs all from the period 1860-1890 (316501). 
William E. Heritage: 2 Carter campaign buttons (1977.0280). 
Bayard Brooks Herrick: man's overcoat, 1938 (317884). 

Herman Herst, Jr.: 1 postman's official badge of the 19th century (322745). 
H. Munson Hicks, Jr.: see Mrs. Linda Hicks Deftos. 
Mrs. Jean M. Hill: see Mrs. Harriet F. Margolies. 
Herbert Hinsenkamp: dairy house pump (1977.0236). 
Edward P. Hock: 1 cacheted cover "Pony Express Rider" dated January 29, 

1975, issued in honor of the annual celebration (323558). 
Mrs. Doris G. Hoffman (through Sigmund Rothschild): 1 surveying aneroid 

barometer (1977.0058). 
Donald Hoke: 1 packet of 6 hat pins (323494); 1 Star-Rite vibrator 

Mr. and Mrs. Julius U. Hoke (through Donald R. Hoke): 1 flushing-rim 

hopper, J. A. Vogel (1977.0537). 
Hans Hollein: 1 log inspector's hammer (1977.0562). 
The Hollerith Family: Keyboard punches, a counter, patents and other 

documentation pertaining to Herman Hollerith's inventions, and related 

materials preserved by his son, Herman Hollerith, Jr. (1977.0114); 

2 electrotypes and 1 mechanical pencil associated with Herman Hollerith 
and preserved by his son, Herman Hollerith, Jr. (1977.0503). 

George B. Holloway: 1 US National 13 star flag, later 1800s (320058). 

Jon Holtzman: collection of 169 "ancient and medieval coins," struck off dies 

made by Carl Wilhelm Becker, a.d. 1772-1830 (1977.0413). 
Paul Holtzman: collection of 452 Roman bronze and billon coins struck at 

Alexandria, Egypt (320708). 
The Home Insurance Company (through John H. Washburn and Richard L. 

Doyle) : 2 framed prints, Exchange Place and Steamboat Wharf, and 1 book, 

Marine Insurance in Philadelphia (1977.0623). 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 403 

Sharon Lee and Herbert J. Honecker, Jr.: white woven counterpane made of 

cotton (322677). 
H. Earl and Miriam U. Hoover: worldwide collection of philatelic items 

consisting of 180,867 specimens (1977.0692). 
Hopkinton "Happy Bicentennial America" Committee (through Nathan G. 

Kaye) : 1 autographed reproduction of certificate presented to President 

Gerald R. Ford by the donor (323512). 
Barbara E. Horsky: 1 box containing thread, "WM Barbour & Sons, Lisburn, 

Ireland" (320694). 
Mrs. Marie R. Hosea: 1 woman's veil, 1 man's pocketbook, and 1 man's 

scarf (316513). 
Mrs. Pauline Calendine Howard: 1 pair of woman's shoes, c. 1940 (318985). 
Dr. Richard H. Howland: 1 invitation to the inauguration of Walter 

Washington (1977.0484); letter about the 1876 Centennial (317829). 
Gilbert D. Hurd: 6 high frequency electrodes including surface, rectal, 

vaginal, nasal, throat, and urethral, 1 surface comb electrode, 1 insulated 

handle, 1 heavy insulated cord and 1 portable high frequency violet ray 

generator (308931). 
Robert Aborn Hut: collection of 22 Rookwood Pottery markers (1977.0153). 
Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School (through Thomas Svob) : 1 Hall 

braille writer (308162). 
Sarah S. Ingelfinger: 1 Al Smith campaign pencil (1977.0090). 
Institute for Studies in Equality (through Dr. Hazel Greenberg and Anita M. 

Miller) : 23 objects including fact sheets, booklets, bulletins, and books 

regarding the equal rights amendment (1977.0601). 
Insurance Company of North America (through Francis A. Lewis) : 3 books 

including Practical Navigator 1833, Annesley's Marine Insurance 1808, and 

Morse's American Gazetteer 1797 and 1 print of the Great Eastern 1860, 

1 insurance policy on the Peggy or Diana 1793, and 1 Captain's document 

on the Province Galley 1711 (1977.0622). 
The International Silver Company (through Donald J. Harper) : 4 pewter 

plates, "Winter," "Spring" "Summer," "Autumn" (322784). 
The International Sunshine Society (through Mrs. Hazel M. Henn) : 1 bronze 

bust of Cynthia Alden and 1 issue of the Sunshine Bulletin, April, 1971 

State of Israel, Ministry of Posts: 32 first day covers of the State of Israel 

issued during 1974-1975 and 1976. (322596). 
Harold Jackson: 1 private telegraph code, 1 Handbook of Foreign Exchange 

and a collection of European marine regulations and conditions (1977.0620). 
Mrs. Mabel M. Jackson: 1 pair of woman's wedding shoes, 1937 (318927). 
William L. Jackson: 12 calculators, c. 1945-1964 (319049). 
Mrs. Flora Gill Jacobs: pile carpet made by Smith and patented in 1912 
Carl H. Jaeschke: 1 Scott's Imperial Stamp Album, 1 Post Office registered 


letter form, and 1 Department of Agriculture meat inspection stamp 

George D. Jagels: sash worn to the Republican National Convention by the 

donor as delegate from California (323584). 
Jane Tool and Machine Company (through Louis P. Kolenski) : 5 parts from 

the Corliss engine (1977.0506). 
Alice A. Janzen and Norman Rankin: 43 piece wood carved sheep ranch and 

tent cover (318988). 
The Bank of Japan: 2 specimens of 1000-yen banknote of Japan, 1976 

Mrs. Alice V. Jeffcoat: 1 woman's purse, 1950-1959 and 1 pair of woman's 

gloves, 1950-1959 (323603). 

404 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Charles E. Johnson: 2 commemorative plates of Mrs. Cleveland and Mrs. 

McKinley (1977.0488). 
The Estate of Crockett Johnson (through Ruth Johnson Leisk) : 1 painting 

Construction of a Heptagon by Crockett Johnson (322732). 
Nancy Marie Johnson: woman's dress, 1935 (321796). 
Mrs. Elizabeth K. Jones: McKinley bandanna (322727). 
Mrs. Ellen R. Jones: 1 miniature model of a lithographic press (319964). 
Mr. and Mrs. Harvey Lewis Jones (through H. McCoy Jones) : 122 miniature 

lamps (night lights), 1 carpet bag, and 1 stand for vapor lamp (320866). 
Robert Jordan: Universal Bread Maker No. 8 by Landers, Frary & Clark 

Edith B. Katz: 31 etched copper plates by Kerr Eby (1977.0566). 
Edgar Kaufmann, Jr.: 1 armchair, patented by Thomas E. Warren 1849, and 

made by American Chair Co., Troy, N. Y., and 1 cabinet made by members 

of the Art Workers Guild, Providence, R. I. (318015). 
Mrs. Pauline Vicksman Kay and Arnold Vickman: 1 gold invitation sent by 

the Ohio Society of California to President and Mrs. William McKinley in 

1899 (1977.0379). 
H. Irving Kazer: 1 child's coat, and Jewish prayer shawl (Talis) bag (315484). 
Mr. and Mrs. Pete J. Keffalas and Sons: 1 Peerless pencil whittler (318952). 
Arthur C. Keller: 1 phonograph tone arm and orthophonic sound box 

Harrison Keller: 2 earthenware figure groups made by the Sebring Pottery 

Company, 1 of an Indian and squaw, the other of a pair of bears 

Peter M. Keltch: Reagan poster (323543). 

Mrs. Arlene N. Kettle: 1 Wales adding machine with stand (1977.0380). 
Khan Rahim Bux Khan: 46 used postage stamps of Pakistan (323588). 
Abdul Malek Khattak: 1 first day cover honoring the protection of peacocks 

in Pakistan (323552). 
Dr. C. J. Kidd: 1 therapeutic rocking table, 1 portable x-ray machine, 

1 Bucky table, 1 therapeutic heating lamp, and 2 electro therapetuic 

quartz lamps (1977.0264). 
Norman L. Kilpatrick: 1 quilt, pieced work and applique, "Patriotic," 

Connecticut, 18th century (168993). 
James Kincaid: 1 T-shirt with legend "Jimmy Won '76" given to donor by 

Mrs. Lillian Carter on his visit to Plains, Georgia (1977.0593). 
Blanche E. King: 9 silver items including a 6-piece tea set, 1 tea pot, 1 cream 

pitcher, and 1 sugar bowl (316497). 
Melvin L. King: 19th-century rosewood fife (1977.0599). 
Sandra E. King: 1 pair of woman's shoes, 1880-1895 (323493). 
Kirby Lithographic Company, Inc. (through W. E. Grant): 1 lithographic 

hand press, 1 lithographic stone, and 1 brayer (1977.0278). 
Frank Klapthor: 2 chair seats and 1 kaleidoscope on stand (318954); 

1 walnut photographic display frame for 20 cartes-de-visite size 

photographs (322721); 1 decorative watch case with watch (1977.0239); 

1 piccolo and 1 flute (1977.0598). 
Mrs. Constance C. Klarer: 1 compact, "Bundles for Britain" (1977.0040). 
Robert R. Klein: ceramic tile decorated with portrait of Theodore Roosevelt 

Robert L. Klinger: 1 bar of soap and 1 gas mask in metal cannister, German 

WWI (322636). 
Donald E. Kloster: 1 German starter pistol (323567). 
Eugene I. Knez: 1 first day cover of Bhutan issued February 5, 1973. 


Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 405 

Marion R. Kochler: 13 American drug promotional devices— anatomical 

models including kidney, hand bones, foot bones, hand, foot, hip, 2 knees, 

shoulder, vertebrae, coccyx, head and plates showing kidney and heart 

changes, and 5 patent medicines made in West Germany 1976 including 

Bayer Aspirin and 4 toothpastes — Ultra Weiss, Pepsodent, Colgate, and 

Ganz-Nah (1977.0667). 
Roland A. and Saga L. Kollbeck: 11 pieces of WWII period clothing 

accessories, and 1 Thanksgiving menu (318920). 
Kris Kononen: 1 straw hat belonging to and worn by Representative Bella 

Abzug and 16 printed materials concerning Ms. Abzug's legislative 

achievements, her career, and her candidacy for the U. S. Senate seat from 

New York (1977.0208). 
Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell Kopec: 1 multilith lithographic offset printer, and 

1 lithographic stone (1977.0580). 
Koppers Company Inc. Metal Products Division (through Donald Devries and 

Charles P. Ferner) : 1 rolling sphere planimeter by Coradi and pamphlets 

describing related Coradi instruments (1977.0112). 
Boris Kossoy: 22 black and white photographs (322604). 
Marty Kraft: 1 bunting and 2 "Welcome Republican" signs designed by Mr. 

Kraft for the Republican Host Committee (323511). 
Miss Louise and Dr. Louis A. M. Krause: 1 Portland cutter c. 1900, and 

1 four-passenger sleigh c. 1900 (1977.0646). 
The Reverend and Mrs. Carl F. Kroenlein: 1 man's two-piece suit, 1938 

Leonard A. Kroll: 1 pump drill, 1 triangular steel scale, 1 micrometer, and 

1 self-contained soldering iron (1977.0361). 
Mr. and Mrs. Dominick Labino: opalescent silver glass bottle signed "Labino 

1968" and a "copper" glass vase signed "Labino 1967" (321794). 
Land Transportation Fund (through Don H. Berkebile) : 1 handkerchief, 

3 photographs, and 1 mortgage bond certificate, all relating to railroads 

(1977.0249), I handbill Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe RR (1977.0257). 
Lapidary Jewelers, Inc. (through Neal Geoffrey) : 1 pocket watch in hunting 

case (1977.0238). 
Mrs. Joseph P. Larkin: US Naval uniforms and related uniform accessories 

(40 items) (316385). 
Frances W. Larsen: 1 Carter-Mondale button (1977.0055). 
Mildred B. Larsen: four page, handwritten letter from John McMillian to his 

brother, Jesse McMillian, February 17, 1861 (321726). 
Leonard L. Lasko: 18 1976 political campaign buttons (1977.0527). 
Lilly Fallah Lawrence: see Stanley E. Weaver. 
Diana Laws: 1 "Feminist Graffiti" t-shirt (1977.0664). 

LTC Benjamin T. Layton: 68 French coins, piedforts, and essais (1977.0402). 
League of Women Voters Education Fund (through Ruth C. Clusen) : 51 objects 

from the 1976 Presidential debates and forums (1977.0477). 
League of Women Voters of Grand Rapids (through Susan K. Timmons) : 

1 letter from Mrs. Ford regarding membership in the League of Women 

Voters (1977.0075). 
Learning Games Associates (through Daisy H. Wren) : 45 items including 

mathematical and logical games and kits with associated documentation 

Lecourtenay Company (through President Cantlupe) : Sheppard roller gin, 

early 20th century (321803). 
Mrs. Marion M. Leigh: set of 8 Chinese local communistic emergency postage 

stamps used as money circa 1945-1948 (1977.0446). 
Lenox, Inc. (through Robert J. Sullivan) : 1 plate, American, 1976, from the 

"Woodland Wildlife" series (321793); 1 porcelain plate decorated with a 

406 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

male and female cardinal 1976 (1977.0061); reproduction of 1887 Beleek 

porcelain vase designed by Walter Scott Lenox 1976 (1977.0062); 1 Lenox 

porcelain plate from "Woodland Wildlife" series decorated with beavers 

Jack L. and Eleanor R. Leon: 3 pieces of English yellow-glazed earthenware 

including cup, saucer and pitcher, and 1 English porcelain plate painted by 

William Billingsley (1977.0374); 123 pieces of English yellow-glazed 

earthenware (319927). 
Professor Samuel Lepkovsky (through Ruth B. Bendor) : crystalline pyridoxine, 

crystals of vitamin b6 (322615). 
Mrs. Kathleen S. Levine: 1 woman's dress, 1882-1888 (1977.0321). 
Janet Lewis: telegraph register, relay, key and relay, and binding post 

Mrs. Margaret S. Lewis: piece of copperplate printed cotton (1977.0105). 
Mort R. Lewis: 6 Nixon-Agnew supermarket handouts (1977.0011). 
Mrs. Ruby C. Lewis: Spanish American War style US uniform including 

1 shirt, 1 service hat, 1 pair of leggins, 1 pair of breeches (317848). 
Jay Leyda: 1 scrap book containing political cartoons from Harper's Weekly, 

c. 1870, by Thomas Nast and others (1977.0373). 
Mrs. Gunnar Lilja: two apple head dolls (George and Martha Washington), 

two doll apple heads and one doll apple hand (1977.0135). 
Mrs. Earl W. Lipscomb: lock of hair of Daniel Webster taken from his head 

when one year old (1977.0457). 
Dr. Harvey Littleton: glass sculpture "Double Form" designed and produced 

by donor (1977.0349). 
Lixie (through Bob Kalberer) : 3 machinist's hammers (1977.0553). 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping (through C. M. Glover) : 1 copy of Lloyd's 

Register of Shipping, 1870 (1977.0607). 
Audrey S. and O. Frank Loekle: 1 Hammond typewriter and 16 accessories 

Mrs. Alice Longworth: 1 dress with matching jacket, ca. 1905 (1977.0164). 
Laverne M. Love: 1 package of napkins with the likeness of Susan B. Anthony 

in the center (1977.0015). 
Ruth I. Lowell: two pairs woman's shoes, three woman's hats (313400). 
Morris H. Ludington: a collection of 207 New York state cancellations on 

US postage stamps (322748). 
Ludlow Typograph Company (through John M. Calhoun) : 1 Ludlow typograph 

machine, 1 set of 13 bar type matrices, 4 matrix sticks, 1 12-point mold, 

1 bottom trim knife, 1 pantograph engraving machine and 3 depth gauges 

E. Alma Lynch: 1 pair of woman's shoes, 1938 (316389). 
Ulysses G. Lyon: 1 bumper sticker made like the US flag with legend: 

"Save Gas 50 MPH./U.S. Environmental Protection Agency" (1977.0526). 
Scott G. MacKenzie: 1 cardboard box with picture of the White House on each 

side with legend "America Welcomes J. C. Peanut to His New Home" 

Nancy Sevier Madden: 18 designer dresses, 7 designer suits, 2 designer coats, 

1 designer blouse, 1 designer skirt, and 2 hats (316474). 
Mahdeen Cover Service (through R. M. Needham) : U.S. covers of Masonic 

nature: 2 of 1973, 11 of 1974, 13 of 1975, and 6 of 1976 (322751). 
Herman Mahler: 1 watch demagnetizer ca. 1896 (321801). 
Joseph H. Makler: 1 side chair, 1946 (1977.0132); 2 lamps by Isamu Noguchi 

Pat Malcolm: 1 small ceramic pendant for necklace with male and female 

symbols (1977.0297). 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 407 

Harry L. Mangerich: 1 sheet of 25 20AF airmail postage stamps of Afganistan 

March, Milligan & Company: 6 lithographic cards showing views of the 

Centennial International Exhibition at Philadelphia and 1 lithographic menu 

from Ph. J. Lauber's Centennial Restaurant (321802). 
Noah Marchal: 2 French shotgun shell casings (323545). 
Mrs. Harriet F. Margolies and Mrs. Jean M. Hill: 3 items including a 

chromolithograph entitled "Rest on the Roadside," an album containing 

scenic post cards, and "Mentor Course" a card series of daily readings and 

illustrations on art and architecture (1977.0405). 
Marine Office/Appleton & Cox Corp. (through John A. Potts and James T. 

Kelley) : 3 books including "Parson's Marine Insurance", "Gourlie's General 

Average", and "Lowndes' General Average" (1977.0621). 
Mrs. Ralph E. Marker: a pair of woman's carriage boots, 1875-1910 (316413). 
Mrs. Jane Martens: 1 pair of woman's shoes, 1951 (318925). 
Maryland Historical Society (through P. William Filby) : 138 pieces of Hendler 

ice cream equipment (1977.0689). 
The University of Maryland (through Dr. Mark Doudna) : 18 pieces of 

audiometric apparatus and related items including 3 audiometers, 

1 kymograph support drum, 1 bristophon, 1 pilling-witting masker, 

1 electromagnetic tuning fork, 1 L. J. Marcy fluid projector holder, 1 simplex 

spirometer, 1 weight electrolarynx, 1 pipe organ, 1 tonoscope (306749). 
Dr. James J. Matejka, Jr. : 29 brass cancelling devices from the Ottoman 

Empire period of Turkey (322743). 
Gordon H. Mattison: 1 philatelic-numismatic combination cover 

commemorating the 200th anniversary of the US (322754). 
Muriel L. and Herbert C. Mayer: 1 late 19th-century triangle (1977.0670). 
Mrs. Edith P. Mayo: phonograph record entitled, "We Shall Overcome" 

(1977.0005); 3 women's movement posters (1^77.0496); phonograph record, 

"Elaine Brown" (1977.0511). 
Luke W. McCann, F.S.C. : RAF service coat, 1 RAF jacket, 1 flying Royal 

Canadian Air Force log book, and 1 short sleeve shirt, from WWII (319045). 
Ross McCollum: 1 violin made in the shop of Nicola Amati 1670, and 1 French 

violin bow circa 1780-90 (1977.0067). 
George J. McDonald: framed oil painting on canvas of whaling ship with 

whale (1977.0336); 2 books concerning the activities of Senator Joseph 

McCarthy, 1 pamphlet containing transcripts of radio broadcasts about 

Senator McCarthy by Fulton Lewis, Jr. and 1 personal letter signed by 

Senator McCarthy's widow (1977.0304). 
H. Woodward McDowell : 8 objects belonging to William Osborne McDowell 

including a silk American "Peace" flag, silk pennant "Peace Among 

Nations", "Peace" ribbon, a printed card, a handwritten card, a handwritten 

letter from W. O. McDowell to Mrs. Bidle and 2 photographs (1977.0288). 
Mrs. Lula J. McDowell: 1 hand fan with photographs and information about 

the black lawmakers in Congress (circa 1976) (1977.0009). 
Kathleen A. McGee: WWII uniforms worn by Clark Gable including 8 pairs 

of trousers, 4 neckties, 2 coats, and 1 cap (321728). 
Mrs. Helen McGoldrick: 1 woman's bust improver, 2 baby bottles with box, 

1 baby bottle brush and nipple (1977.0087); 3 items pertaining to the 

Centennial and 1 magazine, untitled, written on the bottom the words: 

"Eight Years of La Guardia / Eight Years of Good Government" (323618). 
J. Stanley Mcintosh: 1 Victor animatophone projector and speaker (1977.0142). 
Janet McKenna: 1 Taft cigar (323544). 
J. Russell McShane: 1 Bicentennial replica of the 1893 Columbian Liberty Bell 


408 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Medallic Art Company and East Coast Coin Company (through Greg Jones 

and William T. Louth) : "The Official Medal Collection of the Thirteen 

Original States," serial no. 1, in gold. Struck and issued by the Medallic Art 

Company (1977.0438). 
Dr. Esther Chilstrom Meixner: 1 bound volume of the complete run of issues 

of the newspaper "New Century For Woman" published at the Woman's 

Pavilion of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, 1876 (1977.0109). 
Dr. Jose I. Mesa: mint postage stamp of Mexico (1977.0258). 
Metromedia, Inc. (through Preston R. Padden) : 1 videotape of voter 

registration message in Spanish broadcasted during 1972 to encourage 

voter registration in the Washington Latino community (1977.0206). 
Alice M. Miles: clothes line reel (316483). 

Miller's (through Howard Hillman) : 1 polo mallet (1977.0587). 
Mrs. Frank C. Miller in memory of Mrs. Eugenia M. Sampson: Pewabic 

Pottery vase, early 20th century (322777). 
Herman Miller, Inc. (through Hugh DePree) : stage furnishings (13 objects) 

from the 1976 Presidential debates (1977.0060). 
J. Jefferson Miller, II: 1 hat box, ca. 1897 < 313866); Wedgwood Jasper ware 

plate commemorating flight of Apollo II, 1970 (321792). 
Joseph L. Miller: inked, carved cane with log cabin and grass, coon and cider 

barrel (321724). 
Kenneth Z. Miller: 1 man's tie, 1949 (317882). 
Ruth Miller: 1 basket (323497). 

Miller's (through Howard Hillman): polo mallet (1977.0587). 
William Miner: printing press, metal, miniature, includes a chase which is 

fitted with a wood block to adapt the press for printing with Starr type 

Missouri Equal Rights Amendment Coalition (through Barbara Harrison) : 

2 pamphlets, 1 bumper sticker and 1 card relating to the ratification of the 

equal rights amendment in Missouri (1977.0025). 
C. Bradford Mitchell: 1 glass deadlight from a whaleship and 1 cast iron and 

glass inkwell (1977.0633). 
Dr. Edward Mitchell: 1 US Naval officer's dress sword with 1 regulation belt 

and hanger (321666). 
Raymond McK. Mitchell: 1 black beaver hat (1977.0635). 
A. W. Molton in memory of Mrs. Carrie Molton: quilted counterpane, white 

cotton (1977.0106). 
Government of Monaco, Office des Emissions de Timbres-Posts (through 

H. Chiavassa) : 6 mint souvenir sheets and 212 mint postage stamps of 

Monaco (322736). 
Mrs. Arthur Monat: 1 woman's two piece dress, 1934 and 1 pair of woman's 

gloves, 1934 (320042). 
Donald L. Moody: 1 US flag, 1776-1876 commemorative design (321618). 
John J. Morris: 1 16mm motion picture film entitled "The History of the 

Gyroscope" (321619). 
Mrs. William C. Morrow: 1 woman's purse, ca. 1912 (1977.0307). 
Mrs. Grace S. Mountain: 3 pieces of Army Nurse Corps original beige summer 

uniform, WWII including 1 hat, 1 jacket and 1 skirt (318007). 
V. Mueller (through Robert J. Simmons and D. L. Whyte) : 7 surgical mallets 

and 4 surgical hammers (1977.0686). 
Dr. Walter Mueller: 1 "Zaehlrohr" counter, ca. 1928 (1977.0136). 
Rene Muller: specialized collection of 12,989 postage stamps of the Saar 

William Munch, Inc. (through M. A. Casellas, Jr.) : 1 1879 and 1 1885 

appointment document, Board of Underwriters of New York (1977.0614). 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 409 

Mrs. Lucy G. Murphy: 2 US Marine Corps uniform items including 1 olive 
drab overcoat and 1 winter cap worn by the donor's husband from 1922-24 

Craig W. Murray: 1 red, white and blue flag motif parasol (322779). 

Mrs. John H. Murray : 1 embroidered sampler, made by Elisabeth Holland of 
Boston, dated 1737 (323477); 15 used postage stamps including 9 from 
Great Britain, 1 from The Netherlands and 5 from Denmark (1977.0151); 
16 halftone reproductions of lithographs published by Currier and Ives 
(321795); 2 19th-century tobacco jars (321810); 11 fashion plates, 2 woman's 
suits, 2 pairs woman's shoes, 2 woman's hats, 1 woman's blouse, and 1 
man's robe (322730); 1 "Times Herald" newspaper dated Nov. 6, 1940, 
1 1936 newspaper portrait of F.D.R., and 1 "New York News" envelope 
with eagle motif (1977.0054); 1 damask napkin, 1 wrapping paddle, and 1 
birch bark basket (1977.0253); 2 Pennsylvania fracturs 1781 and 1818, 
"Illumination," 2 cyphering books, and 1 pen and ink drawing (1977.0333). 

Mrs. George W. S. Musgrave: 1 carte-de-visite of George Wilmer Samson 
Musgrave by C. S. Mosher, Baltimore, 1873 (320826). 

Berry E. Mushlin: Desk novelty of a blue eagle with spread wings above 
which is an arch with red letters "N R A" (323538). 

Patricia McGreevy Musleh (through Patricia C. Scofield) : 2 dental 

articulators, 1 Trubyte tooth shade guide, 1 20th-century shade guide, 
1 dental mouth mirror, 1 amalgam spatula and 1 dental cotton holder 

Mutual Marine Office (through John N. Blackman) : 1 boat signal lantern 

John E. Nagle: 1 ribbon, 1977 inauguration of James E. Carter (1977.0427). 

Michael C. Nahl: 1,613 US airmail covers (1977.0171). 

J. Craig Nannos: 1 camp color, 1 guidon, and 1 standard of the Philadelphia 
State Fencibles (320849). 

Mrs. Celia Nathan: girl's dress, 1932 costume for 1732 (322699). 

Laurence M. Nathan: 1 pair of men's shoes, 1972 (318938). 

Sylvia Nechis: 1 woman's evening dress (320827). 

Mortimer L. Neinken: 61 financial documents illustrating the history of 
banking in the United States (1977.0401); 1 Clement Biddle letter dated 
from Philadelphia April 11, 1810, regarding the Bank of the US 
(1977.0394); 1 silver medal portraying Lord Cecil Baltimore and his wife, 
Lady Anne Arundel ca. 1632 (1977.0410). 

Government of The Netherlands, Netherlands postal and telecommunications 
services (through H. de Jonge) : 17 mint postage stamps of Netherlands 

Mrs. Edwin A. Neugass in memory of Edwin A. Neugass (through Edwin A. 
Neugass, III): 2 French revolvers and 1 English revolver (319043). 

Government of New Zealand, Post Office Philatelic Bureau (through A. J. 
Murray) mint stamps in the 1974 stamp pack, 2 mint souvenir sheets and 
61 mint postage stamps all from New Zealand (322746). 

The New Zealand Insurance Co., Ltd. (through D. R. St. Jacques): 
1 navigator's desk (1977.0617). 

Edward C. Newbegin: 1 sheepskin diploma the from US Naval Academy 
dated June 3, 1955 (321617). 

Beatrice Newhall: 1 woman's grooming accessory, curling stick (323605). 

A. D. and Dorothy K. Nicholson: silk handkerchief, 1893 (322773). 

Government of Niue (through L. Douglas) : 26 mint postage stamps of Nieu 

Wilhelmina E. and Thomas Norrell: 4 lithographs of locomotives 
"Philadelphia", "Arkansas", "Mercury", and "Amazon" (1977.0305). 

Garrison Norton: 1 man's hat, 1850-74 (313307). 

410 / Smithsonian Year 1977 

Morris Norton: 1 mouthbow made by donor (1977.0490). 

Robert M. Organ: first day cover of Switzerland, issued 1972 (1977.0276). 

C. S. Osborne and Company (through Foster 5. Osborne) : 1 rubber mallet, 

1 auto trimmer's hammer and 1 carpet layers hammer (1977.0554). 
Dr. Cornelius and Sui-Ling Soo Osgood: collection of 195 American 

Stoneware specimens (319884). 
Estate of Ella Ostrowsky (through Abraham Ostrow) : 57 items by Abbo 

Ostrowsky including 41 etched copper plates, 13 etchings, 2 etched zinc 

plates and 1 drawing (1977.0567). 
Marianne OToole: see Nanette Clark. 

Lawrence M. Otter: 3 Jimmy Carter campaign buttons (323514). 
Mabel Owen: 1 "Shoulder to shoulder" tote bag (1977.0293). 
Pan American World Airways, Inc. (through Nuzhat Idrissi and Thomas 

Wendel) : 1 agent set, 1 terminal interchange, and 18 pieces of 

documentation, all related to the Panamac (IBM 9080) Airlines 

Reservations System (321704). 
Pankin International Ltd. (through Jerome Pankin) : 1 pair of woman's shoes 

The Pannier Corporation (through A. D. Schilling) : 1 steel inspector's 

hammer (1977.0555). 
The Pasquaney Trust (through John K. Gemmill) : 31 personal items of 

Captain John Wall Wilson, noted Arctic explorer, 1837-1900, 1 meat slicer, 

patent Arcadia, Newark, N. Y., 1885-91 (323446); 1 book, "The Report on 

the Proceedings of the United States Expedition to Lady Franklin Bay, 

Grinnell Land", by Adolphus W. Greely (1977.0480). 
Samuel W. Patterson (through Charles W. Symanski) : 1 pocket watch with 

A. W. W. Co. movement (1977.0505). 
Robert E. Peary, Jr.: 7 items including gold and silver medals and an oak 

tablet presented to the donor's father Admiral Robert E. Peary USN, in 

1909 for his discovery of the North Tole (322635). 
Dr. Sidney A. Peerless: 3 medals commemorating historical events relating 

to American history (1977.0390). 
Jean A. Pendleberry: 1 book "One Special Summer" written, illustrated and 

signed by Jacqueline and Lee Bouvier (323490). 
J. C. Penney Company, Inc. (through Charles A. Meister) : woman's dress, 

1972 (322598). 
Government of Penrhyn, Penrhyn Post Office: 1 souvenir sheet and 6 mint 

postage stamps of Penrhyn Islands (322747). 
Peoples Bicentennial Commission (through Noreen Banks) : 1 sweatshirt, 

4 banners, 4 books, and 4 posters produced by the donor and circulated for 

the Bicentennial (1977.0497). 
Philip L. Perkins: 1 German Luger semi-automatic pistol (317935). 
Perkins School for the Blind (through Kenneth A. Stuckey) : 1 Hall Braille 

writer (319895). 
Joseph Perotta (through Mrs. Anita Dwyer) : 1 wood carving depicting the US 

in the Bicentennial year, made by the donor (320049). 
Charles L. Perry: 22 US Marine Corps & Seabee shoulder sleeve insignia, 

WWII (315375). 
Walter G. Perry: 1 book, "Law of Insurance" by Phillips, 1840 (1977.0619). 
Maurice A. Peter: 1 pair white leggings, WWII (1977.0241). 
Mendel L. Peterson: 220 specimens including 30 US Post Office waybills 

(1840), 165 US and foreign covers, 22 US Revenues on portraits, 

1 Bermuda stamp used as revenue, and 48 patriotic labels with 

correspondence and Congressional reports (1977.0199); 1 aqua-lung 

(322633); 1 marine navigation instrument (azimuth mirror) with wooden 

case (1977.0170). 

Appendix 9. Donors to Smithsonian Institution I 411 

Mrs. Richard N. Peterson: 2 jackets and 2 hats from Sousa band uniforms 

Estate of Bernard Peyton (through Emil Lemay) : used and unused postage 

stamps of the US and various foreign nations (322739). 
Picker Corp. of US (through Keith D. Nelms) : 1 1940 Picker Corporation 

x-ray machine (323568). 
Captain Roger Pineau: 21 commercial covers with meter stamps from various 

countries and 1 postal meter impression of Lebanon (322768). 
Dr. E. Leonard Piven: 18 engravings, 36 chromolithographs and 1 lithograph 

Plastics Institute of America (through J. Harry Dubois) : a collection of 89 

early Bakelite artifacts (1977.0368). 
Mrs. Rita McNamara Pleet: 2 dresses, 2 hats, 1 blouse, and 1 suit (318984). 
Frank Podsiad: barrel making patent specifications (1977.0065). 
Philip H. Pollock, Jr.: 1 Lincoln political campaign lantern (1977.0094). 
Dr. J. Lawrence Pool: 2 myeloscopes (1977.0248). 
Mrs. Alice James Pope: engraved certificate issued by the Crosby Opera 

House Art Association, which entitles the bearer to one fine steel engraving 

upon its surrender (1977.0077); 1 brass mortar and pestle and 1 wooden 

mortar (1977.0225); group of 84 American currencies and related materials 

(1977.0417); 1 beaded reticule and 1 beadwork cap (1977.0517). 
Alejandro Pou: 8 recent coins from Uruguay (1977.0389). 
Mr. and Mrs. George Prague: 1 Ivory Stamp Club "Adventurer" stamp 

album and 15 assorted Ivory Stamp Club stamp packets (322742). 
Max R. Prilik: 1 Fleming valve c. 1915 (1977.0570). 
Providence Washington Insurance Co. (through Mr. C. S. Kempt) : 1 antique 

stapler (1977.0610). 
Martin F. Ptacek: 1 paper folding machine, A.B. Dick (335464). 
Dr. Karver L. Puestow: 1 original Puestow esophageal dialator, mounted 

Anthony P. and Robert J. Pusateri: 1 car, 1 helmet, 1 shirt, and 1 notebook, 

associated with the Soapbox Derby (318011). 
Rainbow Division Veterans, 222nd Infantry Chapter (through Mr. James V. 

McNicol) : 1 distinctive insignia of 222nd Infantry and 1 illustration of the 

coat of arms of 222nd Infanty (321773). 
Mrs. R. A. Rainer: 1 woman's coat, ca. 1936 (317927). 
Kenneth J. R. Ranger: 1 black mourning ribbon with Gen. Grant in gold 

Norman Rankin: see Alice A. Janzen. 
Dr. Ned S. Rasor: first fully operational intracardiac pacemaker ever 

implanted (322717). 
Henry & Marion L. Rau: 22 pieces of Wedgwood Jasperware (1977.0209). 
J. Tayler Redd: see Ann F. Comm. 

Mrs. Marie Berne Reilly: stockings, woman's 1944 (316396). 
George B. Reimer: 1 Philco radio/phonograph (1977.0522). 
Mrs. Myrtle Berg Reiswig: 1 woman's swimsuit, 1931 (323604). 
Ralph Remley: broadside, "To the Independent Freemen of Boston", written 

by William A. Madocks, Boston, June 19, 1818 (322620). 
Republican National Committee (through Josephine L. Good) : 1 scarf tunic 

Marlene Reynolds: 1 WWI gas mask, 1 overseas cap and 1 folding metal cup 

Loiz W. Rhead-Huyck: 1 porcelain vase and 1 porcelain placque (320054). 
Honorable J. J. Rhodes, M. C: 1 vest worn at the 1976 G.O.P. convention in 

Kansas City, Missouri (323583). 
Robert B. Rice: 1 diesel engine fuel pump, 2 Bosch oil pumps, 2 Bosch nozzle 

412 / Smithsonian